SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Defecation

Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus. Humans expel feces with a frequency varying from a few times daily to a few times weekly. Waves of muscular contraction in the walls of the colon move fecal matter through the digestive tract towards the rectum. Undigested food may be expelled this way, in a process called egestion. Open defecation, the practice of defecating outside without using a toilet of any kind, is still widespread in some developing countries, for example in India; the rectum ampulla temporarily stores fecal waste. As the waste fills the rectum and expands the rectal walls, nervous system stretch receptors in the rectal walls stimulate the desire to defecate; this urge to defecate arises from the reflex contraction of rectal muscles, relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, an initial contraction of the skeletal muscle of the external anal sphincter. If the urge is not acted upon, the material in the rectum is returned to the colon by reverse peristalsis, where more water is absorbed and the faeces is stored until the next mass peristaltic movement of the transverse and descending colon.

If defecation is delayed for a prolonged period the fecal matter may harden, resulting in constipation. If defecation occurs too fast, before excess liquid is absorbed, diarrhea may occur; when the rectum is full, an increase in intra-rectal pressure forces apart the walls of the anal canal, allowing the fecal matter to enter the canal. The rectum shortens as material is forced into the anal canal and peristaltic waves push the feces out of the rectum; the internal and external anal sphincters along with the puborectalis muscle allow the feces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting feces. Defecation is assisted by taking a deep breath and trying to expel this air against a closed glottis; this contraction of expiratory chest muscles, abdominal wall muscles, pelvic diaphragm exerts pressure on the digestive tract. Ventilation at this point temporarily ceases as the lungs push the chest diaphragm down to exert the pressure. Thoracic blood pressure rises and as a reflex response the amount of blood pumped by the heart decreases.

Death has been known to occur in cases where defecation causes the blood pressure to rise enough to cause the rupture of an aneurysm or to dislodge blood clots. In releasing the Valsalva maneuver blood pressure falls. During defecation, the external sphincter muscles relax; the anal and urethral sphincter muscles are linked. Experiments by Harrison Weed at the Ohio State University Medical Center have shown they can be contracted only together, not individually, that both show relaxation during urination; this explains why defecation is accompanied by urination. Defecation may be voluntary. Young children learn voluntary control through the process of toilet training. Once trained, loss of control, called fecal incontinence, may be caused by physical injury, nerve injury, prior surgeries, diarrhea, loss of storage capacity in the rectum, intense fright, inflammatory bowel disease, psychological or neurological factors, childbirth, or death. Sometimes, due to the inability to control one's bowel movement or due to excessive fear, defecation occurs involuntarily, soiling a person's undergarments.

This may cause significant embarrassment to the person if this occurs in the presence of other people or in a public place. The positions and modalities of defecation are culture-dependent. Squat toilets are used by the vast majority of the world, including most of Africa and the Middle East; the use of sit-down toilets in the Western world is a recent development, beginning in the 19th century with the advent of indoor plumbing. Attempting forced expiration of breath against a closed airway is sometimes practiced to induce defecation while on a toilet. Cardiac arrest and other cardiovascular complications can in rare cases occur due to attempting to defecate using the valsalva maneuver. Valsalva retinopathy is another pathological syndrome associated with the Valsalva maneuver; the anus and buttocks may be cleansed after defecation with toilet paper, similar paper products, or other absorbent material. In many cultures, such as Hindu and Muslim, water is used for anal cleansing after defecation, either in addition to using toilet paper or exclusively.

When water is used for anal cleansing after defecation, toilet paper may be used for drying the area afterwards. Some doctors and people who work in the science and hygiene fields have stated that switching to using a bidet as a form of anal cleansing after defecation is both more hygienic and more environmentally friendly; some peoples have culturally significant stories. For example: In an Alune and Wemale legend from the island of Seram, Maluku Province, the mythical girl Hainuwele defecates valuable objects. One of the traditions of Catalonia relates to the caganer, a figurine depicting the act of defecation which appears in nativity scenes in Catalonia and neighbouring areas with Catalan culture; the exact origin of the caganer is lost, but the tradition has existed since at least the 18th century. Eric P. Widmaier. Vanders' Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. Chapter 15. 10th ed. McGraw Hill. ISBN 9780071116770

Lophopus crystallinus

Lophopus crystallinus known as the bellflower animal or crystal moss animal, is the first species described of the genus Lophopus, from the Lophopodidae family, is the only member of the family that can be found in the UK. The species are colonial, have a gelatinous outer wall, they are fan shaped. The species can be found in as many as 62 lakes and rivers throughout the UK, it feeds on algae. It prefers cold climate, is tolerant of eutrophication; the species life cycle is few months. They start dormanting in September, reproduce by winter, they die by March. However, in spring fed pools they could reproduce forever, their sexual reproduction is quite rare, is poorly known. They grow by budding with different kinds of zooids, it is listed as a priority species under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Hill S & Okamura BA Review of the ecology of Lophopus crystallinus, a rare species within the UK. na. Landesmuseen Neue Serie 28, 193-201

Beauty Gonzalez

Beauty Gonzalez-Crisologo is a Spanish-Filipino actress from Dumaguete City. She was tagged as the "Rebellious Beauty" when she joined the reality show Pinoy Big Brother where she became the 4th grand placer of Pinoy Big Brother: Teen Edition Plus. Beauty was the first housemate from Pinoy Big Brother Teen Edition Plus to have an appearance in a Teleserye after exiting the Big Brother house, her biggest break was being cast as Zanjoe Marudo's leading lady in the ABS-CBN Primetime Teleserye, Dream Dad. The unexpected success of their loveteam led them to be tagged as "BaLex", a combination of their characters' names Baste and Alex in the teleserye, she posed for August 2014 issue of FHM Philippines. In 2017, she headlined her first major lead role in Pusong Ligaw alongside Bianca King, she signed her first contract with ABS-CBN in August 2018. Gonzalez attended Silliman University. Gonzalez and Crisologo became engaged in March 2017, the couple married in May at a ceremony in Tagaytay