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Defence Research and Development Organisation

The Defence Research and Development Organisation is an agency of the Government of India, charged with the military's research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production of the Indian Ordnance Factories with the Defence Science Organisation, it is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Government of India. With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials and naval systems, DRDO is India's largest and most diverse research organisation; the organisation includes around 5,000 scientists belonging to the Defence Research & Development Service and about 25,000 other scientific and supporting personnel. The DRDO was established in 1958 by amalgamating the Defence Science Organisation and some of the technical development establishments.

A separate Department of Defence Research and Development was formed in 1980 which on administered DRDO and its 50 laboratories/establishments. Most of the time the Defence Research Development Organisation was treated as if it was a vendor and the Army Headquarters or the Air Headquarters were the customers; because the Army and the Air Force themselves did not have any design or construction responsibility, they tended to treat the designer or Indian industry at par with their corresponding designer in the world market. If they could get a MiG-21 from the world market, they wanted a MiG-21 from DRDO. DRDO started its first major project in surface-to-air missiles known as Project Indigo in 1960s. Indigo was discontinued in years without achieving full success. Project Indigo led to Project Devil, along with Project Valiant, to develop short-range SAM and ICBM in the 1970s. Project Devil itself led to the development of the Prithvi missile under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme in the 1980s.

IGMDP was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including the Agni missile, Prithvi ballistic missile, Akash missile, Trishul missile and Nag Missile. In 2010, defence minister A. K. Antony ordered the restructuring of the DRDO to give'a major boost to defence research in the country and to ensure effective participation of the private sector in defence technology'; the key measures to make DRDO effective in its functioning include the establishment of a Defence Technology Commission with the defence minister as its chairman. The programmes which were managed by DRDO have seen considerable success with many of the systems seeing rapid deployment as well as yielding significant technological benefits. DRDO has achieved many successes since its establishment in developing other major systems and critical technologies such as aircraft avionics, UAVs, small arms, artillery systems, EW Systems and armoured vehicles, sonar systems and control systems and missile systems.

The DRDO is responsible for the ongoing Light Combat Aircraft. The LCA is intended to provide the Indian Air Force with a modern, fly by wire, multi-role fighter, as well as develop the aviation industry in India; the LCA programme has allowed DRDO to progress in the fields of avionics, flight control systems, aircraft propulsion and composite structures, along with aircraft design and development. The DRDO provided key avionics for the Sukhoi Su-30MKI programme under the "Vetrivel" programme. Systems developed by DRDO include radar warning receivers and display computers. DRDO's radar computers, manufactured by HAL are being fitted into Malaysian Su-30s; the DRDO is part of the Indian Air Force's upgrade programmes for its MiG-27 and Sepecat Jaguar combat aircraft, along with the manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. DRDO and HAL have been responsible for the system design and integration of these upgrades, which combine indigenously developed systems along with imported ones. DRDO contributed subsystems like the Tarang radar warning receiver, Tempest jammer, core avionics computers, brake parachutes, cockpit instrumentation and displays.

HAL AMCA: Aeronautical Development Agency of DRDO is responsible for the design and development of the fifth generation aircraft. In 2015, 700 ADA employees were working on the project along with 2,000 employees of DRDO. Avatar Apart from the aforementioned upgrades, DRDO has assisted Hindustan Aeronautics with its programmes; these include the HAL Dhruv helicopter and the HAL HJT-36. Over a hundred LRU's in the HJT-36 have come directly from the LCA programme. Other duties have included assisting the Indian Air Force with indigenisation of spares and equipment; these include both mandatory as well as other items. The DRDO has developed two unmanned aerial vehicles – the Nishant tactical UAV and the Lakshya Pilotless Target Aircraft; the Lakshya PTA has been ordered by all three services for their gunnery target training requirements. Efforts are on to develop the PTA further, with an improved all digital flight control system, a better turbojet engine; the Nishant is a hydraulically launched short-ranged UAV for the tactical battle area.

It is being evaluated by the Indian Navy and the Indian Paramilitary forces as well. The DRDO is going ahead with its plans to develop a new class of UAVs; these draw upon the experience gained via the Nishant programme, will be more capable. Referred to by the HALE and MALE designati

VTV9 – Binh Dien International Women's Volleyball Cup

VTV9 – Binh Dien International Women's Volleyball Cup is an international women's volleyball tournament organised by the Vietnam Volleyball Federation, sponsored by VTV9 and Binh Dien Fertilizer Company. The cup was established in 2006. 2006 – Phạm Thị Kim Huệ 2007 – Yaowalak Mahaon 2008 – Pleumjit Thinkaow 2010 – Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Hoa 2011 – Phạm Thị Kim Huệ 2012 – Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Hoa 2013 – Đỗ Thị Minh 2014 – Nguyễn Thị Xuân 2015 – Jong Jin Sim 2016 – Yang Wenjin 2017 – Jong Jin Sim 2018 – Holly Toliver 2019 – Lindsay Stalzer

Costurero de la Reina

The Costurero de la Reina is a building constructed in the late nineteenth century in the gardens of the Palace of San Telmo, now the Maria Luisa Park in Seville, Spain. This unique building takes the form of a small hexagonal castle with turrets at the corners; the building was the guard garden retreat. It is the oldest building in Seville in the neomudéjar style; the name comes from a popular tradition that Mercedes of Orléans, the future wife of King Alfonso XII of Spain, retired to the pavilion where she passed her time sewing. The reality is more prosaic; the formal name is the "Pavilion of San Telmo". Mercedes died of typhus about fifteen years before the building was erected in 1893. Nowadays the Costurero de la Reina lodges the tourist information office on the ground floor; the opening times are 9-2 pm and 3.30 to 7.30 pm, on weekdays and 10-2pm during weekends and bank holidays. The building was restored in the spring of 2007 to repair the main structure and to arrange the interior in order to make it more functional.

The first floor was refurbished and it is used as meetings and events room of the local government. In the 19th century Antoine of Orléans, Duke of Montpensier, he settled to live in the Palacio de San Telmo of Seville; the enormous gardens of the Palace would be adapted according to the romantic tastes. In 1893 is built in the area of the gardens near the Guadalquivir river a small tower for the guard, being the architect Juan Talavera and de la Vega, it is the first Neo-Mudéjar building in Seville, being able to appreciate the Arabic style in the large windows. In 1890 the Duke of Montpensier dies and in 1893 his wife, Luisa Fernanda of Bourbon, cedes the gardens of the Palace to the city of Seville. After this, there is a small extension to the north that will continue to be the private garden of the Palacio de San Telmo, most of the gardens would become the María Luisa Park and the castle and a small extension of the surrounding garden would be enclosed; the area is populated with other neomudéjars buildings, such as the Plaza de España, on the occasion of the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929.

It is used as the Tourist Information Office of the Seville City Council. Seville Tourism Office Hours: 9 a.m. to 7.30 p.m. Weekends and holidays attend visitors to the city from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. More information on the page of In addition to its functions as Municipal Tourist Information Office on the ground floor, the first floor has been set up as tourism administrative units; the Costurero de la Reina inspired the portal of the Seville Fair of the year 2008. It is a historical fact that in 1878 the daughter of the Duke of Montpensier, Maria de las Mercedes of Orléans, married the King Alfonso XII of Spain, becoming queen consorte of Spain. However, it enters into its legends that the queen María de las Mercedes, due to her delicate health, spent long periods in the chambers of the castle basking in the sun while sewing with her ladies and that, in those moments, she received visits from Alfonso XII, who came on horseback from the Alcázar of Seville after attending to his state affairs. This, would be impossible, because the building was built in 1893 and the queen died in 1878