Defence in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. They are referred to as defencemen, D, D-men or blueliners, they were once called cover-point. A good defenceman is both strong in defensive and offensive play and for defenceman pairing need to be good at defending and attacking. In regular play, two defencemen complement a goaltender on the ice. Exceptions include overtime during the regular season and when a team is shorthanded, in which two defencemen are joined by only two forwards and a goaltender. Organized play of ice hockey originates from the first indoor game in Montreal in 1875. In subsequent years, the players per side were reduced to seven per side. Positions were standardized, two correspond to the two defencemen of current six-man rules; these were designated as cover point and point, although they lined up behind the center and the rover, unlike today. Decades defencemen were standardized into playing left and right sides of the ice.

According to one of the earliest books on ice hockey, Farrell's Hockey: Canada's Royal Winter Game, Mike Grant of the Montreal Victorias, describes the point as "essentially defensive. He should not stray too far from his place, because oftentimes he is a second goal-minder... although he should remain close to his goal-keeper, he should never obstruct that man's view of the puck. He should, as a rule, avoid rushing up the ice, but if he has a good opening for such a play he should give the puck to one of the forwards on the first opportunity and hasten back to his position, occupied, in the interim, by the cover-point." Hugh Baird captain and cover-point of the Montreal Hockey Club, describes the cover-point as "a combination of a defence man and a forward, is allowed, in virtue of this fact, more latitude with respect to leaving his position, than any man on the team, except the rover. In his capacity of a defence player, he should linger around his goals as long as the puck is near... When the play is at the other end of the rink, the cover-point should advance to about the middle, so that when the puck is lifted down, he may return it without loss of time, in order to keep the game centered around his opponents' goals, to save his forwards the trouble of skating up to him so that they may again'get in to play.'

It is by playing far up under these circumstances that a clever cover-point can chine to the advantage of his team. If he has a good opening he should shoot well for the goals, but if he has not, he should, as I have said, return the puck instantaneously." Each year the NHL, the premier ice hockey league in the world, presents the James Norris Memorial Trophy to the best defenceman in the league. Bobby Orr of the Boston Bruins – an eight-time Norris Trophy recipient – is considered to be the greatest defenceman in NHL and ice hockey history. In addition to his Norris Trophy honours, he is the only defenceman in NHL history to capture the Art Ross Trophy as the league's leading scorer. In 1998, Orr was selected as the best defenceman of all-time in The Hockey News' Top 100 NHL Players of all-time. Conversely, according to the IIHF Centennial All-Star Team, the greatest defencemen to play in IIHF-sanctioned international competition are Vyacheslav Fetisov and Börje Salming. Defence players are described by the amount they participate in the offence.

The extreme of non-participation in offence is a Stay-at-home defender, who takes few risks and does not score much, instead focusing on defending against the opposing team. A good example is Rod Langway, who won the Norris Trophy while scoring only three goals that season, as the award winners preceding him were offensive defencemen such as Bobby Orr, Denis Potvin, Larry Robinson; the extreme of participation is an offensive defenceman, who gets aggressively involved in the team's offence. To accomplish this, the offensive defence player pitches in to keep the play from going offside and moves towards the halfboards and high-slot area for scoring opportunities; this makes it difficult for the opposing team to protect their net from being scored upon if the team can maintain control of the puck. However, this can lead to more odd man rushes and breakaway opportunities for the opposing team if the defender does not succeed. Bobby Orr's end-to-end rushing allowed him to defend as well as attack.

By contrast, Paul Coffey enjoyed high offensive production but his defensive play was considered mediocre for most of his career. When in the defensive zone, the defence player is responsible for keeping the opposing forwards' opportunities to a minimum when they are on a rush, forcing them to the corners and blocking both passing and shooting lanes; when the opposing offence is putting pressure on the defence's team, the defence skater plays closer to the net, attempting again to block shooting lanes but ensure that the goalie is not screened. It is critical for the defenceman to keep opposing forwards from being able to move in front of the net. If a shot on net is made, an unguarded forward can redir

Jason Jones (musician)

Jason "Gong" Jones is an American musician and songwriter. A tattoo artist, he was the front man and vocalist of rock band Drowning Pool from 2003 to 2005, providing vocals for the band's 2004 album Desensitized after Dave Williams's death, he is lead vocalist with the band AM Conspiracy. He is involved in a side project called Motorhick. In 2003, Jason Jones was recruited by Texas-based metal band Drowning Pool after the loss of their original frontman Dave Williams, who died of a heart condition while on the Ozzfest tour in August 2002. Jones took the position as the band's frontman from 2003 to 2005. In that time period, he helped the band record their second full-length album Desensitized, which brought hit songs such as "Step Up", the minor hits "Love and War" and "Killin' Me". Jones recorded "Rise Up" from the WWE ThemeAddict: The Music, Vol. 6 album in 2004. In 2005, Jones left the band due to personal reasons. Dino Cazares had his eye on Jones to form a new band after his own folded but the project never took place.

After leaving Drowning Pool, Jones formed the alternative metal group AM Conspiracy. The band's full-length album AM Conspiracy was released on January 12, 2010. Jason Jones collaborated with Ben Moody and Jason C. Miller for a song "The End Has Come" which appeared on the soundtrack of The Punisher 2004 film, he was one of the singers that auditioned for Sepultura as the replacement for Max Cavalera, who left the band in 1996, but lost the position to Derrick Green. Desensitized Out of the Shallow End EP AM Conspiracy "Pedal to the Metal" - Single


Prosoniq Products Software was a German software developer of audio and music tools known for their sonicWORX, OrangeVocoder, TimeFactory and Hartmann Neuron synthesizer products. It licensed proprietary technologies in the audio/music DSP sector to software manufacturers including Emagic, Digidesign, TwelveTone Systems, Merging, DAVID, AutoDesk/Discreet and others. Headquartered in Karlsruhe, Prosoniq pioneered the use of artificial neural networks for commercial audio processing. Prosoniq was founded in 1990 by Stephan Sprenger, it began as a held company involved in artificial neural network software development for medical applications. Stephan Bernsee, being a music enthusiast and an avid keyboard player became interested in the application of artificial neural network processing to sound manipulation, he created an automatic audio morphing software for the ATARI 1040ST, ported to the Silicon Graphics computers and to the Apple Macintosh, for which it was sold under the name "sonicWORX" in the years 1994 - 2004.

Distributed by Steinberg and bundled with Sony and Creative Labs hardware, sonicWORX reached a distribution of over 500,000 copies becoming the most successful product of the company. However, with the PC becoming more popular in the 1990s and sonicWORX being an Apple Macintosh-only software optimized for Mac OS 9 it was discontinued in 2004. In 1993 the company was acquired by the growing UCMG Under Cover Music Group founded by Joachim Keil who drew benefits from custom tailored software solutions for their music production facilities and in turn provided funding for the future research and development of Prosoniq. In 1995 the UCMG network had outgrown its company structure and was split into individual subsidiaries - Prosoniq became a separate company again; this was when a former colleague of Stephan Bernsee joined the company. Both filled the position as CEO and CTO from 1995 - 2004. In 2003 the UCMG who at that time held 54% shares in Prosoniq filed for insolvency, nearly killing Prosoniq in the process.

In 2004 Stephan Bernsee retired from the daily business at Prosoniq to concentrate on the development of new technologies at the DSP Dimension, leaving Bernhard Bouché in position as the CEO. In 2008 Prosoniq released its OrangeVocoder and audio morphing algorithm as a Cocoa Audio Unit plug-in, as well as a Mac OS X version of its TimeFactory time stretching and pitch shifting software, all developed by their former CTO Stephan Bernsee. At Musik Messe 2009 Prosoniq announced that it would discontinue all Windows software development starting June 2009. Since Prosoniq's CEO alluded that this decision was due to piracy on the Windows platform this created a lot of controversy in the blogosphere. A revised version of the press release that came out a few days tried to make it more clear that though piracy was a major problem on both platforms, Prosoniq had always been a Mac software company. At Musik Messe 2009 Prosoniq announced a successor of its sonicWORX audio editing software designed to extract, process or suppress individual sounds and instruments in a song.

This software got widespread coverage in the media when they demonstrated its capabilities by extracting Peter Gabriel's voice from his famous song "Don't Give Up". According to its developer sonicWORX Pro is based on their PANDORA technology developed in 1996 which allowed automatic suppression of voice in a mono or stereo mix. Limited by the processing power of desktop computers of that era and due to contracts that gave the exclusive right of use to an unknown party the product was never developed into a featured end user product until 2009; as of May 2010 Prosoniq sells a scaled down "sonicWORX Isolate" version that contains the key features demonstrated in the YouTube video at a reduced price. The Pro version with its additional modules has been announced for end of 2010. Within the first days of the FIFA World Cup 2010 Prosoniq came out with a free "VuvuX" AudioUnit plug in to remove the Vuvuzela noise from the audio commentary without affecting speech and background atmosphere. According to their web site the plug in is not using a notch filter and is based on their sonicWORX de-mixing technology which utilizes statistical signal properties.

In September 2013 Prosoniq announced that it has sold its entire line of products, intellectual property, patent rights and research data to the Hannover-based Zynaptiq startup company, who will continue to offer and maintain their products in the future. Prosoniq entered liquidation, a process by which a company is brought to an end, the assets and properties of the company are to be redistributed. Stephan Bernsee, founder of Prosoniq came back as CEO to oversee the process. Liquidation ended in January 2016 with the dissolution of the corporation. MCFE analysis, a neural network-based adaptive time-frequency transform replacing the use of the Discrete Fourier Transform in their products automatic audio morphing algorithms polyphonic formant correction for pitch shifting applications PANDORA voice reduction software/vocal separator sonicWORX audio editing software TimeFactory polyphonic time stretching and pitch shifting algorithm "MPEX" Orange Vocoder VST/RTAS vocoder plug-in Hartmann Neuron synthesizer Hartmann NeuronVS synthesizer Magenta resynthesizer Rayverb inverse ray tracing room simulation Ambisone 3D audio effect Prosoniq morph audio morphing Dynasone Multiband Dynamics Compressor Pyramix Time Stretching Cakewalk Sonar Time Stretching Steinberg Nuendo Time Stretching In 2001, "Hartmann-Music", a joint-venture spin-off with designer Axel Hartmann was found