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De-industrialization is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region of heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It is the opposite of industrialization. There are different interpretations of. Many associate de-industrialization of the United States with the mass closing of automaker plants in the now so-called "Rust Belt" between 1980 and 1990; the US Federal Reserve raised interest and exchange rates 1979 to 1984, which automatically caused import prices to fall. Japan was expanding productivity at that time, this killed the US machine tool sector. A second wave of de-industrialization occurred in the US between 2001 and 2009, culminating in the automaker bailout, from which the US did not recover. Research has pointed to investment in patents rather than in new capital equipment as a contributing factor; the opioid epidemic took off during this time period of 21st de-industrialization. At a more fundamental level and Lever offer four possible definitions of deindustrialization: A straightforward long-term decline in the output of manufactured goods or in employment in the manufacturing sector.

A shift from manufacturing to the service sectors, so that manufacturing has a lower share of total employment. Such a shift may occur if manufacturing employment is growing in absolute terms That manufactured goods comprise a declining share of external trade, so that there is a progressive failure to achieve a sufficient surplus of exports over imports to maintain an economy in external balance A continuing state of balance of trade deficit that accumulates to the extent that a country or region is unable to pay for necessary imports to sustain further production of goods, thus initiating a further downward spiral of economic decline. Theories that predict or explain de-industrialization have a long intellectual lineage. Rowthorn argues; this theory argues that technological innovation enables more efficient means of production, resulting in increased physical productivity, i.e. a greater output of use value per unit of capital invested. In parallel, technological innovations replace people with machinery, the organic composition of capital increases.

Assuming only labor can produce new additional value, this greater physical output embodies a smaller value and surplus value. The average rate of industrial profit therefore declines in the longer term. Rowthorn and Wells distinguish between de-industrialization explanations that see it as a positive process of, for example, maturity of the economy, those that associate de-industrialization with negative factors like bad economic performance, they suggest de-industrialization may be a cause of poor economic performance. Pitelis and Antonakis suggest that, to the extent that manufacturing is characterized by higher productivity, this leads, all other things being equal, to a reduction in relative cost of manufacturing products, thus a reduction in the relative share of manufacturing. Moreover, to the extent that manufacturing firms downsize through, e.g. outsourcing, contracting out, etc. this reduces manufacturing share without negatively influencing the economy. Indeed, it has positive effects, provided such actions increase firm productivity and performance.

George Reisman identified inflation as a contributor to de-industrialization. In his analysis, the process of fiat money inflation distorts the economic calculations necessary to operate capital-intensive manufacturing enterprises, makes the investments necessary for sustaining the operations of such enterprises unprofitable. Institutional arrangements have contributed to de-industrialization such as economic restructuring. With breakthroughs in transportation and information technology, a globalized economy that encouraged foreign direct investment, capital mobility and labor migration, new economic theory's emphasis on specialized factor endowments, manufacturing moved to lower-cost sites and in its place service sector and financial agglomerations concentrated in urban areas; the term de-industrialization crisis has been used to describe the decline of labor-intensive industry in a number of countries and the flight of jobs away from cities. One example is labor-intensive manufacturing. After free-trade agreements were instituted with less developed nations in the 1980s and 1990s, labor-intensive manufacturers relocated production facilities to third world countries with much lower wages and lower standards.

In addition, technological inventions that required less manual labor, such as industrial robots, eliminated many manufacturing jobs. Center for Labor and Community Research Degrowth De-industrialization by country Jobless recovery Re-industrialization Post-industrial society Urban decay Industrial revolution Great Divergence Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution The End of Work Rust Belt Dutch disease Afonso, A. "When the Export of Social Problems is no Longer Possible: Immigration Policies and Unemployment in Switzerland". Social Policy and Administration. 39: 653–668. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.2005.00462.x. Baumol, W J. "Macroeconomics of Unbalanced Growth: The Anatomy of Urban Crisis". The American Economic Review. 57. Boulhol, H'What is the impact of international trade on deindustrialization in OECD countries?' Flash No.2004-206 Paris, CDC IXIS Capital Markets Bluestone, B.. The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community Abandonment and the

Zdeněk Nedvěd

Zdeněk Nedvěd is a Czech former professional ice hockey player who played 31 games in the National Hockey League. He played for the Toronto Maple Leafs. Nedved never became a regular in the league, he was a fine puck handler with a good wrist shot but he was unable to fight through the close checking of the NHL with regularity. Nedved was a teenage star with Poldi Kladno, his family sent him to North America to develop his game more completely. Nedved became a fine scorer with the OHL's Sudbury Wolves and was chosen 123rd overall by the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1993, he scored 97 goals his last two years of junior and represented the Czech Republic at the World Junior Championships in 1994 and 1995. During the 1994 tourney played in his homeland, Nedved was among the top scorers while wreaking havoc in the offensive zone with David Výborný. Nedved played one game for Toronto late in 1994-95 prepared for the upcoming training camp, he made the 1995-96 edition of the Leafs and scored a goal early in the season opener against the Pittsburgh Penguins.

Nedved's play tailed off over the next month and he was sent down to the St. John's Maple Leafs of the American Hockey League, his season was ruined by a serious shoulder injury suffered in a mishap during practice. The next year Nedved was unable to perform consistently. Nedved played for St. John's the IHL's Long Beach Ice Dogs before leaving North America in 1998, he moved back to his homeland where he played for HC Sparta Praha in 1998-1999. He moved to Finland's SM-liiga and spent 4 seasons with Lukko Rauma, he spent two seasons in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga in Germany with the Kassel Huskies and the Hannover Scorpions before returning to Finland with Kärpät ahead of the 2004–05 seasons. His stay in Finland was short however, after only four games, Nedved moved to Norway to play the remainder of the season for the Stavanger Oilers. Nedved spent two seasons with Anyang Halla in Asia, he moved back to the Czech Extraliga at the age of 32 to play for HC Kladno in 2007. In 2010, he was playing in Slovakia for HKm Zvolen.

Nedvěd is the son of long-time HC Kladno hockey player Zdeněk Nedvěd, who won four Czechoslovak First Ice Hockey League titles with the club in the 1970s. His brother, Roman Nedvěd played for Kladno between 1986 and 1991. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database

Ida of Herzfeld

Saint Ida of Herzfeld was the widow of a Saxon duke who devoted her life to the poor following the death of her husband in 811. Her feast day is September 4. While there is disagreement as to her precise parentage, it is agreed that she was related to the Carolingians; the daughter of a count, Ida received her education at the court of Charlemagne, who gave her in marriage to a favourite lord of his court, named Egbert, bestowed on her a great fortune in estates to recompense her father's services. It was an happy marriage, her Life is sometimes quoted in support of the proposition that sexual congress within the institution of marriage reflects spiritual unities as well: At the moment when the two are united in one flesh, there is present in them a single and similar operation of the Holy Spirit: when they are linked together in each other's arms in an external unity, to say, a physical unity, this indivisible action of the Holy Spirit inflames them with a powerful interior love directed towards celestial realities.

Together they built the church of Herzfeld, sometimes recorded as Hirutveldun. She was the mother of Warin, the abbot of Corvey from 826 to 856, Count Cobbo the Elder, Addila or Mathilde, the abbess of Herzfeld, she was left a widow at a young age. The available biographies of Saint Ida report that her husband died in 811, he was buried on the south side of the Herzfeld church. She built a portico over his grave, where she lived a life devoted to prayer and works of charity. Among her reported acts of kindness were filling a stone coffin with food each day giving it to the poor. Ida died 4 September 825 and was buried at the church in Herzfeld, which became the first pilgrimage site in Westphalia. In 2011 the pilgrim Church of St. Ida in Herzfeld was designated a minor basilica. In Herzfeld, the folk festival of "Ida Week" is held every year in September in memory of the saint. During the week, the bones of the saints are carried through the village in a solemn procession; the Vita sanctae Idae Hertzfeldensis written in 980, by the monk Uffing of the Abbey of Werden, focuses on her exemplary life, including suffering endured in divine trust.

She was canonized on 26 November 980. Saint Ida is the patron saint of the poor and the weak, she is depicted either as carrying a church or with a dove hovering over her head. During the 32-year war between the Saxons and the Franks, Ida extended her protection to the Saxons in their; the deer with which Ida is portrayed represents the Saxons, who are besieged by the Franks. Today the deer is in the coat of arms of Herzfeld

Takayoshi Amma

Takayoshi Amma is a former Japanese football player and manager. Amma was born in Hamamatsu on May 23, 1969. After graduating from Komazawa University, he joined Honda in 1992, he was selected MVP awards in 1999 Japan Football League. He retired in 2001. After retirement, in 2002, Amma became a manager for Honda. In first season, the club won the champions in Japan Football League. In 2003 and 2004, the club won the 2nd place. In 2005, he moved to J2 League club Ventforet Kofu and served as assistant coach under manager Takeshi Oki. In 2008, Amma became a manager as Oki successor, he managed Ventforet until 2009. In 2010, he moved to J2 club Kataller Toyama and became an assistant coach under manager Hiroshi Sowa. In September 2010, Sowa was sacked for poor performance and Amma became a new manager; however the club results were bad every season and was relegated to J3 League in 2014 season. He resigned end of 2014 season. In 2015, he became an assistant coach, he managed FC Tokyo U-23 in 2016. In September 2017, top team manager Yoshiyuki Shinoda was sacked and Amma became a new manager.

In 2018, he returned to an assistant coach for top team and manager for FC Tokyo U-23. Takayoshi Amma at J. League

Liv Tyler

Liv Rundgren Tyler is an American actress, producer and former model. She is best known for her portrayal of Arwen Undómiel in the Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Tyler began a career in modeling at age 14, she decided to focus on acting, made her film debut in Silent Fall. She went on to achieve critical recognition with starring roles in Heavy, Empire Records, That Thing You Do!, Stealing Beauty. She appeared in films such as Inventing the Abbotts, Cookie's Fortune, Onegin, Dr. T & the Women, One Night at McCool's. Following the success of Lord of the Rings, Tyler has appeared in a variety of roles, including the films Jersey Girl, Lonesome Jim, Reign Over Me, The Strangers, The Incredible Hulk, Space Station 76, Ad Astra. Outside of film, she had starring roles as Meg Abbott on the HBO supernatural drama series The Leftovers, the BBC period drama series Gunpowder, the ITV/Hulu period drama series Harlots. Tyler is a singer, having sung with composer Howard Shore, she appeared as guest vocalist on The Lemonheads' album Varshons, singing a cover of the Leonard Cohen song "Hey, That's No Way to Say Goodbye".

She appeared on the 2017 bonus disk of Evan Dando's album Baby I'm Bored, providing featured vocals for the song "Shots is Fired". In 2011, Tyler released her debut single, "Need You Tonight". Tyler has served as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador for the United States since 2003, as a spokesperson for Givenchy's line of perfume and cosmetics, she is the daughter of Steven Tyler and Bebe Buell, although she has a close relationship with her adoptive father Todd Rundgren. Tyler was born Liv Rundgren on July 1977, at Mount Sinai Hospital in East Harlem, New York, she is the only daughter of Bebe Buell, a model and former Playboy Playmate, Steven Tyler, the lead singer of Aerosmith. Her mother named her after Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, after seeing Ullmann on the cover of the March 5, 1977 issue of TV Guide, her ancestry includes Italian, German and English. Tyler has three half-siblings: Mia Tyler, Chelsea Anna Tallarico, Taj Monroe Tallarico, her maternal grandmother, Dorothea Johnson, founded the Protocol School of Washington.

From 1972 to 1979, Buell lived with rock musician Todd Rundgren. In 1976, Buell became pregnant from a brief relationship with Steven Tyler, she gave birth on July 1, 1977, naming the daughter Liv Rundgren and claiming that Todd Rundgren was the biological father. By Rundgren and Buell had ended their romantic relationship, but Rundgren signed the birth certificate and acted as a father figure to Liv, including paying for her education. At age 10 or 11, Liv suspected he was her father; when she asked her mother, the secret was revealed. The truth about Tyler's paternity did not become public until 1991, when she changed her surname from Rundgren to Tyler, but kept Rundgren as a middle name. Buell's stated reason for claiming that Rundgren was Liv's father was that Steven Tyler was too addicted to drugs at the time of Liv's birth. Since learning the truth about her paternity and Steven have developed a close relationship, they have worked together professionally, once when she appeared in Aerosmith's music video for "Crazy" in 1993, again when Aerosmith performed songs in the film Armageddon, in which Tyler starred.

Tyler maintains a close relationship with Rundgren. "I'm so grateful to him, I have so much love for him. You know, and he's protective and strong."Tyler attended the Congressional Schools of Virginia, Breakwater School, Waynflete School in Portland, before returning to New York City with her mother at age 12. She went to York Preparatory in New York City for junior high and high school after her mother researched the school to accommodate Tyler's ADHD, she attended the Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences in Santa Monica, California. She left to continue her acting career; when asked about her youth, Tyler said: "For me, I didn't get much of a childhood in my teen years because I've been working since I was 14. But that kept me out of trouble; when everybody was doing acid and partying like crazy, I was at work on a movie in Tuscany... having my own fun, of course, but it was a different kind of thing. I have no regrets. I love the way my life has gone." Tyler received her first modeling job at 14 with the assistance of Paulina Porizkova, who took pictures of her that ended up in Interview magazine.

She starred in television commercials. She became bored with her modeling career less than a year after it started and decided to go into acting, although she never took acting lessons. Tyler first became known to television audiences when she starred alongside Alicia Silverstone in the music video for Aerosmith's 1993 song "Crazy". Tyler made her feature film debut in Silent Fall in 1994, where she played the elder sister of a boy with autism. In 1995, she starred in the comedy-drama Empire Records. Tyler has described Empire Records as "one of the best experiences" she has had. Soon after, she landed a supporting role in James Mangold's 1996 drama Heavy as Callie, a naive young waitress; the film received favorable reviews.

Pretty Girls Everywhere

"Pretty Girls Everywhere" is a song written by Eugene Church and Thomas Williams, first a hit for the American singer Eugene Church with his group The Fellows in 1958 and was recorded and released by the American pop group The Walker Brothers as their début single in 1965. Church's recording for Class records was his most popular reaching #6 R&B and #36 Pop in the US. While touring Britain with the Muddy Waters Blues Band in 1964 piano player Otis Spann recorded a version of the song; the song was released in 1967 on the Decca Records compilation ‘’Raw Blues’’. The band for that session included Spann on piano, Eric Clapton on guitar, Muddy Waters on guitar, Ransom Knowling, on bass and Willie "Big Eyes" Smith on drums; the recording occurred on May 4th, at the Decca Studios in London, the producer was Mike Vernon and the engineers were Roy Baker and Gus Dudgeon. The Walker Brothers' version is notable as it captures the group just before Scott Walker became the lead singer. In his place John Walker is more dominant in a brassy Beat music arrangement.

The single is backed with Scott Walker's first composing credit "Doin' the Jerk". The group can be seen miming "Doin' the Jerk" on the 1965 beach party movie Beach Ball. In spite of the movie publicity the single did not chart in any territory