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Deinterlacing is the process of converting interlaced video into a non-interlaced or progressive form. Interlaced video signals are found in analog television, digital television when in the 1080i format, some DVD titles, a smaller number of Blu-ray discs. An interlaced video frame consists of two fields taken in sequence: the first containing all the odd lines of the image, the second all the lines. Analog television employed this technique because it allowed for less transmission bandwidth while keeping a high frame rate for smoother and more life-like motion. A non-interlaced signal that uses the same bandwidth only updates the display half as and was found to create a perceived flicker or stutter. CRT-based displays were able to display interlaced video due to their complete analogue nature, blending in the alternating lines seamlessly. However, since the early 2000s, displays such as televisions and computer monitors have become entirely digital - in that the display is composed of discrete pixels - and on such displays the interlacing becomes noticeable and can appear as a distracting visual defect.

The deinterlacing process should try to minimize these. Deinterlacing is thus a necessary process and comes built-in to most modern DVD players, Blu-ray players, LCD/LED televisions, digital projectors, TV set-top boxes, professional broadcast equipment, computer video players and editors - although each with varying levels of quality. Deinterlacing employs complex processing algorithms. Both video and photographic film capture a series of frames in rapid succession. In analog television, each frame is divided into two consecutive fields, one containing all lines, another with the odd lines; the fields are captured in succession at a rate twice that of the nominal frame rate. For instance, PAL and SECAM systems have a rate of 25 frames/sec or 50 fields/sec, while the NTSC system delivers 29.97 frames/sec or 59.94 fields/sec. This process of dividing frames into half-resolution fields at double the frame rate is known as interlacing. Since the interlaced signal contains the two fields of a video frame shot at two different times, it enhances motion perception to the viewer and reduces flicker by taking advantage of the persistence of vision effect.

This results in an effective doubling of time resolution as compared with non-interlaced footage. However, interlaced signal requires a display, natively capable of showing the individual fields in a sequential order, only traditional CRT-based TV sets are capable of displaying interlaced signal, due to the electronic scanning and lack of apparent fixed resolution. Most modern displays, such as LCD, DLP and plasma displays, are not able to work in interlaced mode, because they are fixed-resolution displays and only support progressive scanning. In order to display interlaced signal on such displays, the two interlaced fields must be converted to one progressive frame with a process known as de-interlacing. However, when the two fields taken at different points in time are re-combined to a full frame displayed at once, visual defects called interlace artifacts or combing occur with moving objects in the image. A good deinterlacing algorithm should try to avoid interlacing artifacts as much as possible and not sacrifice image quality in the process, hard to achieve consistently.

There are several techniques available that extrapolate the missing picture information, however they rather fall into the category of intelligent frame creation and require complex algorithms and substantial processing power. Deinterlacing techniques require complex processing and thus can introduce a delay into the video feed. While not noticeable, this can result in the display of older video games lagging behind controller input. Many TVs thus have a "game mode" in which minimal processing is done in order to maximize speed at the expense of image quality. Deinterlacing is only responsible for such lag; some interlaced video may have been created from progressive footage, the deinterlacing process should consider this as well. Typical movie material is shot on 24 frames/s film. Converting film to interlaced video uses a process called telecine whereby each frame is converted to multiple fields. In some cases, each film frame can be presented by two progressive segmented frames, in this format it does not require a complex deinterlacing algorithm because each field contains a part of the same progressive frame.

However, to match 50 field interlaced PAL/SECAM or 59.94/60 field interlaced NTSC signal, frame rate conversion is necessary using various "pulldown" techniques. Most advanced TV sets can restore the original 24 frame/s signal using an inverse telecine process. Another option is to speed up 24-frame film by 4% for PAL/SECAM conversion. DVDs can either encode movies using one of these methods, or store original 24 frame/s progressive video and use MPEG-2 decoder tags to instruct the video player on how to convert them to the interlaced format. Most movies on Blu-ray discs have preserved the original non interlaced 24 frame/s motion film rate and allow output in the progressive 1080p24 format directly to display devices, with no conversion necessary; some 1080i HDV camcorders offer PsF mode with cinema-like frame rates of 24 or 25 frame/s. TV produ

Delphinium pavonaceum

Delphinium pavonaceum is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common name peacock larkspur. It is endemic to Oregon in the United States; this larkspur has blue upper petals. It is a hybrid between Delphinium menziesii and D. trolliifolium. It grows up to 90 centimeters tall from a network of tubers; the inflorescence is pyramidal, with the lower pedicels much longer than the upper. Flowering occurs in April through June. Flowers are pollinated by bumblebees; this plant grows in well-drained areas. Associated plants include Deschampsia cespitosa, Poa pratensis, Rosa spp.. Spiraea douglasii, Rubus spp. Rhus diversiloba, Fraxinus latifolia. Threats to the species include loss of habitat to urban development and agriculture, as well as herbicides and hybridization


Losser is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. It is at the eastern end of the A1 motorway; the oldest known reference to Losser dates from the tenth century. The village consisted of two separate parts. Both were completely destroyed when on 21 September 1665, troops from Münster set fire to them. One of the town's oldest buildings is the Martinustoren, dating from around 1500 and the only remaining part of a church demolished in 1903. A few kilometers west of De Lutte, close to the border with Oldenzaal, lies the Tankenberg, a hill the top of, the highest point in the province; the municipality's most important body of water is the river Dinkel. Vidnoye, Russia Pi de Bruijn a Dutch architect Kim Kötter a Dutch director and beauty pageant titleholder Media related to Losser at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Guy Dawber

Sir Edward Guy Dawber, RA was an English architect working in the late Arts and Crafts style, whose work is associated with the Cotswolds. Edward Guy Dawber was born in Britain in 1861, at King's Lynn, the son of John Stockdale Dawber and his wife Lois Ellen, he trained in the practice of Sir Ernest George and Harold Peto, supervising their work on Batsford Park, near Moreton-in-Marsh, in the Cotswolds. In 1896 he married Mary Eccles in Lancashire. In 1897 Dawber designed St John the Baptist's Chapel, Matlock Bath in Matlock Dale, when he lived locally, it was the only church designed by him. Dawber designed the Old Post Office at 25 High Street, Worcestershire, built in Cotswold stone by Espley & Co of Evesham in 1899 and opened on Friday 1st December 1899, he designed Bibsworth House, Broadway. Working in the Cotswold vernacular tradition, Dawber became a respected and scholarly architect and converting houses such as Nether Swell Manor and Eyford Park, both near Stow-on-the-Wold. In 1905 Batsford published Dawber's Old Cottages, Farm-houses and other Stone Buildings in the Cotswold District.

He specialised in laying out and designing gardens. From 1925 to 1927 Dawber was President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1928 he was awarded the RIBA Royal Gold Medal. In 1926 he played a prominent part in establishing the Council for the Preservation of Rural England, became its first President. In that year he worked on the design of the Reptile House at London Zoo, Regent's Park, opened in 1927. About 1928 he designed many buildings of Hampshire, he was knighted in 1936. He died in London on 24 April 1938. Dawber painted in watercolour. Nether Swell Manor, Gloucestershire. St John the Baptist's Chapel, Matlock Bath, Derbyshire. Grade II* Listed,War memorials Moreton-in-Marsh and Batsford War Memorial, Gloucestershire. Grade II Listed Northiam War Memorial, East Sussex. Grade II Listed A chapter on him in: Reilly, Charles Herbert: Representative British architects of the present day. London: Batsford, 1931. Obituary notices published in: AA Journal vol 53, May 1938, p 522.

List of fellows of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering

There are 900 living fellows of the Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering. The post-nominal is FTSE; the following lists deceased Fellows. For a full current list, visit Numbers of active/living Fellows in the on-line database National Academies Forum Australian Academy of Science – Fellows of the Australian Academy of Science Australian Academy of the Humanities – Fellows of the Australian Academy of the Humanities Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia – Fellows of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering – Fellows of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering Australian Academy of Health and Medical Sciences - Fellows of the Australian Academy of Health and Medical Sciences ATSE Workshop: Increasing the innovation dividend from emerging technologies and speakers biographies, 23 August 2011, Customs House, Brisbane ATSE Workshop: Strengthening Links Between Industry and Public Sector Research Organisations, 17–18 May 2011, Sydney Deceased ATSE Fellows 2009-2017,


Gentianales is an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid clade of eudicots. It comprises more than 16,000 species in about 1,138 genera in 5 families. More than 80% of the species in this order belong to the family Rubiaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Gentiales were in the superorder Gentianiflorae; the following families are included according to the APG III system: Family Apocynaceae Family Gelsemiaceae Family Gentianaceae Family Loganiaceae Family Rubiaceae The following phylogenetic tree is based on molecular phylogenetic studies of DNA sequences. It takes its name from the family Gentianaceae, which in turn is based on the name of the type genus, Gentiana; the genus name is a tribute to an Illyrian king. Well-known members of Gentianales are coffee, Gardenia, gentian and periwinkle