Deira was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in Northern England. The kingdom was inhabited by Britons and was created in the third quarter of the fifth century when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley. Deira's territory extended from the Humber to the Tees, from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York, it merged with the kingdom of Bernicia, its northern neighbour, to form the kingdom of Northumbria. The name of the kingdom is of Brythonic origin from the Proto-Celtic *daru, meaning "oak", in which case it would mean "the people of the Derwent", a derivation found in the Latin name for Malton, Derventio, it is cognate with the modern Irish doire. According to Simeon of Durham, it extended from the Humber to the Tyne, but the land was waste north of the Tees. After the Brythonic kingdom centred on Eboracum, which may have been called Ebrauc, was taken by King Edwin, the city of Eboracum became its capital, Eoforwic was taken by the Angles. Archaeology suggests that the Deiran royal house was in place by the middle of the fifth century, but the first recorded king is Ælla in the late sixth century.
After his death, Deira was subject to king Æthelfrith of Bernicia, who united the two kingdoms into Northumbria. Æthelfrith ruled until the accession of Ælla's son Edwin, in 616 or 617, who ruled both kingdoms until 633. Osric, the nephew of Edwin, ruled Deira after Edwin, but his son Oswine was put to death by Oswiu in 651. For a few years subsequently, Deira was governed by Æthelwald son of Oswald of Bernicia. Bede wrote of Deira in his Historia Ecclesiastica. Higham, N. J.. The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-730-5 Mackenzie, E.. An Historical and Descriptive View of the County Palatine of Durham, I, Newcastle upon Tyne: Mackenzie and Dent, p. xi, retrieved 2008-07-23 Geake, Helen & Kenny, Jonathan. Early Deira: Archaeological studies of the East Riding in the fourth to ninth centuries AD. Oxford: Oxbow. ISBN 1-900188-90-2
This is a list of the first minority male lawyer and judge in Alabama. It includes the year. Included are other distinctions such as the first minority men in their state to obtain a law degree or become a political figure. R. C. O. Benjamin: First African American male lawyer in Alabama Roderick B. Thomas: First African American judge in Alabama Cain James Kennedy: First African-American male appointed as a circuit judge in Alabama William McKinley Branch: First African American male elected as a probate judge in Alabama Oscar Adams: First African-American to serve as a Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court Eddie Hardaway, Jr.: First African American male to serve as a Judge of the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit in Alabama U. W. Clemon: First African American male to serve as a United States federal judge in Alabama Myron Herbert Thompson: First African American male to serve as the Assistant Attorney General of Alabama Fred Gray, Sr.: First African American male to serve as the President of the Alabama State Bar Association Alphabetized by county name Rufus C.
Huffman, Sr.: First African American male probate judge in Bullock County, Alabama J. L. Chestnut: First African American male lawyer in Selma, Dallas County, Alabama Jimmy Nunn: First African American male probate judge in Dallas County, Alabama William McKinley Branch: First African American male elected as a probate judge in Greene County, Alabama Eddie Hardaway, Jr.: First African American male to serve as a Judge of the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit in Alabama John Hulett: First African American male to serve as a probate judge in Lowndes County, Alabama Alfonza Menefee: First African American male probate judge in Macon County, Alabama Charles Swinger Conley: First African American male judge of the Court of Common Pleas Eddie Hardaway, Jr.: First African American male to serve as a Judge of the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit in Alabama Eddie Hardaway, Jr.: First African American male to serve as a Judge of the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit in Alabama List of first minority male lawyers and judges in the United States List of first women lawyers and judges in the United States List of first women lawyers and judges in Alabama
Pashmina is a fine type of cashmere wool. The textiles made from it were first woven in Kashmir; the name comes from Persian: پشمینه / pašmina, meaning "made from wool". Pashmina came to be known as'cashmere' in the West because Europeans first encountered this fibre in Kashmir; the wool comes from a number of different breeds of the cashmere goat. Shawls called shahmina are made from this material in Kashmir and Nepal. Woven shawls in India have been worn as early as the Indus Valley Civilisation. A famous example is the statue of a priest-king found at Mohenjo-Daro, draped in a shawl decorated with trefoil patterns. Woolen shawls made in Kashmir are mentioned in Afghan texts between the 3rd century BC and the 11th century AD. However, the founder of the pashmina industry is traditionally held to be the 15th century ruler of Kashmir, Zayn-ul-Abidin, who introduced weavers from Central Asia. Other sources consider pashmina crafts were introduced by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani who, as tradition has it, arrived to Kashmir from Persia along with 700 craftsmen.
Pashmina shawls have been worn by the elites in the region for centuries. Pashmina blankets were vital additions to a wealthy women's dowry in India and Nepal, they are a sort of status symbol in these countries. Pashmina crafts were made popular in Kashmir by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Pashmina is derived from mountain breeds of goat. One distinct difference between pashmina and generic cashmere is the fibre diameter. Pashmina fibres are finer and thinner than generic cashmere fibre and therefore ideal for making lightweight apparel like fine scarves; as the fibre diameter is low, pashmina has to be hand-processed and woven into products such as shawls, wraps, stoles, etc. However, the quality of a finished shawl is not dependent on the fibre diameter of the wool but on the craftsmen's skills. Pashmina products are made in Kashmir and Nepal. Today, the word "pashmina" is used indiscriminately, many scarves made from natural or synthetic fiber are sold under the name "pashmina", creating confusion in the market.
The exorbitant price of a real pashmina shawl is due to the amount of expert craftsmanship that goes into creating each shawl and the rarity of the pashmina wool – the wool is used in a Kashmiri pashmina shawl is sourced from the changthangi breed of goat and this breed constitutes less than 0.1% of global cashmere production. Goats used for pashmina shed their winter coat every spring. One goat sheds 80–170 gram of the fibre. See cashmere wool. In the spring, the goats shed their undercoat, which regrows in winter; this undercoat is collected by combing the goat, not by shearing, as in other fine wools. A traditional producer of pashmina wool in the Ladakh region of the Himalayas are a people known as the Changpa; these are a nomadic people and inhabit the Changthang plateau of Tibet, which has a lowest altitude of 13,500 feet above sea level and a winter temperature which can drop to −40 degree Celsius. The Changpa rear sheep in these harsh climates for meat, pashmina goats for wool. Raw pashmina is exported to Kashmir.
All steps from combing and spinning, to weaving and finishing, are traditionally carried out by hand by specialized craftsmen and women. The major centre of pashmina fabric production is in the old district of the city of Srinagar; the approximate time put into producing a single traditional pashmina stole. China accounts for 70% of the world cashmere production, Mongolia 20%, the remaining 10% of production is in Afghanistan, India, Nepal, United States, the Central Asian republics and elsewhere. Only a small percentage of this production is the ultra-fine cashmere known as pashmina. Pashmina accessories are known for their warmth, they are available in a range of sizes, from "scarf" 12 in × 60 in to "wrap" or "stole" 28 in × 80 in to full sized shawl 36 in × 80 in and in rare cases, "macho" 12 ft × 12 ft. Pure pashmina is a rather gauzy, open weave, as the fibre cannot tolerate high tension; the most popular pashmina fabric is a 70% pashmina/30% silk blend, but 50/50 is common. The 70/30 is woven, has an elegant sheen and drapes nicely, but is still quite soft and light-weight.
A craze for pashmina shawls, known as shahmina in Kashmir, in the mid-1990s resulted in high demand for the raw material, so demand exceeded supply. When these shawls rose into fashion prominence during the era, they were marketed dubiously. In the consumer markets, pashmina shawls have been redefined as a shawl/wrap with cashmere and cashmere/silk, notwithstanding the actual meaning of pashmina; some shawls marketed as pashmina shawls contain wool, while other unscrupulous companies marketed artificial fabrics such as viscose and others as "pashmina" with deceptive marketing statements such as "authentic viscose pashmina". The word "pashmina" is not a labelling term recognized by law in the United States, where it is considered another term for cashmere. According to the U. S. Federal Trade Commission: Some manufacturers use the term pashmina to describe an ultra fine cashmere fiber; the FTC encourages manufacturers and selle