World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Lady Diana Cooper
Diana Olivia Winifred Maud Cooper, Viscountess Norwich was a famously glamorous social figure in London and Paris. As a young woman, she moved in a celebrated group of intellectuals known as the Coterie, most of whom were killed in the First World War, she married one of the few survivors, Duff Cooper British Ambassador to France. After his death, she wrote three volumes of memoirs which reveal much about early 20th-century upper-class life, she was the youngest daughter of the 8th Duke of Rutland and his wife, the Duchess of Rutland. As early as 1908, various pamphlets were being circulated by a former governess claiming that Cust fathered Diana Manners, David Lindsay noted in his diary that the resemblance was said to be striking. In her prime, she had the widespread reputation as the most beautiful young woman in England, appeared in countless profiles and articles in newspapers and magazines, she became active in The Coterie, an influential group of young English aristocrats and intellectuals of the 1910s whose prominence and numbers were cut short by the First World War.
Some see them as people ahead of precursors of the Jazz Age. Lady Diana was the most famous of the group, which included Raymond Asquith, Patrick Shaw-Stewart, Edward Horner, Sir Denis Anson and Duff Cooper. Following the deaths at young ages of Asquith, Shaw-Stewart, Anson—the first three in the war, it was not a popular choice in the Manners household, since the bride's parents had hoped for a marriage to the Prince of Wales. As for Cooper, he once impulsively wrote a letter to Lady Diana, before their marriage, declaring, "I hope everyone you like better than me will die soon." In 1929 she gave birth to her only child, John Julius Cooper (later the 2nd Viscount Norwich, who became a writer and broadcaster. After working as a nurse during the war and working as editor of the magazine Femina, she wrote a column in the Beaverbrook newspapers before turning to acting. In 1918 Lady Diana took uncredited roles. A few years she starred in two of the first British colour films, she turned to the stage, playing the Madonna in the 1924 revival of The Miracle.
The play achieved outstanding international success, she toured on and off for twelve years with the cast. In 1924, her husband gained election to Parliament, while Lady Diana continued as a society celebrity, she supported her husband in his political posts travelling with him to the Far East in late 1941 prior to during, the Japanese attack on British Malaya. As Prime Minister Churchill's personal representative Duff Cooper MP was unsuccessful in effecting a positive strategy, the couple were evacuated from the war zone, her reputation became more celebrated in France as the centrepoint of immediate post-Second World War French literary culture when Cooper served from 1944 to 1948 as Britain's ambassador to France. During this period, Lady Diana's popularity as a hostess remained undimmed after allegations that the embassy guest list included "pederasts and collaborators". Following Duff Cooper's retirement in 1947, the couple continued to live in France at Chantilly, until his death in 1954.
He was created Viscount Norwich in 1952, for services to the nation, but Lady Diana refused to be called Viscountess Norwich, claiming that it sounded like "porridge". Following her husband's death, she made an announcement in The Times to this effect, stating that she had "reverted to the name and title of Lady Diana Cooper". Lady Diana reduced her activities in the late 1950s but did produce three volumes of memoirs: The Rainbow Comes and Goes, The Light of Common Day, Trumpets from the Steep; the three volumes are included in a compilation called Autobiography. She died in 1986, aged 93. Philip Ziegler wrote Diana Cooper: A Biography in 1981. Several writers used her as inspiration for their novels, including Evelyn Waugh, who fictionalised her as Mrs. Stitch in the Sword of Honour trilogy and elsewhere, Nancy Mitford, who portrayed her as the narcissistic, self-dramatizing Lady Leone in Don't Tell Alfred. In F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story "The Jelly-bean", the character Nancy Lamar states that she wants to be like Lady Diana Manners.
Enid Bagnold published The Loved and Envied in 1951. The novel, based on Lady Diana and her group of friends, dealt with the effects of ageing on a beautiful woman. Oliver Anderson dedicated Random Rendezvous, published in 1955, to "Diana Cooper and Jenny Day". Diana Cooper Autobiography: The Rainbow Comes and Goes, The Light of Common Day, Trumpets From The Steep,". New York 1985, second printing 1988. In 2013, her son, John Julius Norwich, edited a volume of her letters to him as a youth entitled Darling Monster: The Letters of Lady Diana Cooper to Her Son John Julius Norwich. Published by Chatto & Windus, ISBN 978-0701187798. Rachel Cooke in The Guardian says "Cooper's letters have a special immediacy and frankness... they are conspiratorial." These are Lady Norwich's formal titles. The Lady Diana Manners The Lady Diana Cooper The Rt Hon; the Viscountess Norwi
Augustus Edwin John was a Welsh painter and etcher. For a short time around 1910, he was an important exponent of Post-Impressionism in the United Kingdom, he was the brother of the painter Gwen John. "Augustus was celebrated first for his brilliant figure drawings, for a new technique of oil sketching. His work was favourably compared in London with that of Matisse, he developed a style of portraiture, imaginative and extravagant, catching an instantaneous attitude in his subjects." Born in Tenby, John was the younger son and third of four children. His father was a Welsh solicitor. At the age of seventeen he attended the Tenby School of Art left Wales for London, studying at the Slade School of Art, University College London, he became the star pupil of drawing teacher Henry Tonks and before his graduation he was recognised as the most talented draughtsman of his generation. His sister, Gwen became an important artist in her own right. In 1897, John hit submerged rocks diving into the sea at Tenby.
In 1898, he won the Slade Prize with the Brazen Serpent. John afterward studied independently in Paris where he seems to have been influenced by Puvis de Chavannes; the need to support Ida Nettleship, whom he married in 1901, led him to accept a post teaching art at the University of Liverpool. Augustus John and his student James Dickson Innes spent two years painting in the Arenig valley around 1910 the mountain Arenig Fawr. In 2011 this period was made the subject of a BBC documentary titled The Mountain That Had to Be Painted; some time in 1910, John fell in love with the town of Martigues, in Provence, located halfway between Arles and Marseilles, first seen from a train en route to Italy. John wrote that Provence "had been for years the goal of my dreams" and Martigues was the town for which he felt the greatest affection. "With a feeling that I was going to find what I was seeking, an anchorage at last, I returned from Marseilles, changing at Pas des Lanciers, took the little railway which leads to Martigues.
On arriving my premonition proved correct: there was no need to seek further." The connection with Provence continued until 1928, by which time John felt the town had lost its simple charm, he sold his home there. He was, throughout his life interested in the Romani people, sought them out on his frequent travels around the United Kingdom and Europe. For a time, shortly after his marriage, he and his family, which included his wife Ida, mistress Dorothy McNeill, John's children by both women, travelled in a caravan, in gypsy fashion. On he became the President of the Gypsy Lore Society, a position he held from 1937 until his death in 1961. During World War I, he was attached to the Canadian forces as a war artist and made a number of memorable portraits of Canadian infantrymen; the end result was to have been a huge mural for Lord Beaverbrook and the sketches and cartoon for this suggest that it might have become his greatest large-scale work. However, like so many of his monumental conceptions, it was never completed.
As a war artist, he was allowed to keep his facial hair and therefore, he and King George V were the only Army officers in the Allied forces to have a beard, apart from pioneer sergeants and those who were allowed unshaven for medical reasons. After two months in France he was sent home in disgrace after taking part in a brawl. Lord Beaverbrook, whose intervention saved John from a court-martial, sent him back to France where he produced studies for a proposed Canadian War Memorial picture, although the only major work to result from the experience was Fraternity. In 2011, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge unveiled this mural at the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa; this unfinished painting, The Canadians Opposite Lens, is 12 feet high by 40 feet long. Although well-known early in the century for his drawings and etchings, the bulk of John's work consisted of portraits, some of the best of which were of his two wives and his children, he was known for the psychological insight of his portraits, many of which were considered "cruel" for the truth of the depiction.
Lord Leverhulme was so upset with his portrait that he cut out the head but when the remainder of the picture was returned by error to John there was an international outcry over the desecration. By the 1920s John was Britain's leading portrait painter. John painted many distinguished contemporaries, including T. E. Lawrence, Thomas Hardy, W. B. Yeats, Aleister Crowley, Lady Gregory, Tallulah Bankhead, George Bernard Shaw, the cellist Guilhermina Suggia, the Marchesa Casati and Elizabeth Bibesco, his most famous portrait is of his fellow-countryman, Dylan Thomas, whom he introduced to Caitlin Macnamara, his sometime lover who became Thomas' wife. Portraits of Dylan Thomas by John are held by the National Museum Wales and the National Portrait Gallery, it was said. One critic has claimed that "the painterly brilliance of his early work degenerated into flashiness and bombast, the second half of his long career added little to his achievement." However, from time to time his inspiration returne
Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich, known as Duff Cooper, was a British Conservative Party politician and author. In the intense political debates of the late 1930s over appeasement, he first put his trust in the League of Nations, realised that war with Germany was inevitable, he denounced the Munich agreement of 1938 as meaningless and unworkable, as he resigned from the cabinet. When Winston Churchill became prime minister in May 1940, he named Cooper as Minister of Information. From 1941, he served in numerous diplomatic roles, his most important role was representative to Charles de Gaulle's Free France and ambassador to France from 1944–48. Duff Cooper was born at Cavendish Square on 22 February 1890, he was the only son of fashionable society doctor Sir Alfred Cooper, a surgeon and specialist in the sexual problems of the upper classes, Lady Agnes Duff, daughter of James Duff, 5th Earl Fife. She had eloped with two husbands, the first of whom she deserted and the second of whom died, before marrying Cooper in 1882.
Duff Cooper had three older sisters. He had royal connections: his maternal uncle, the first Duke of Fife, was married to Louise, Princess Royal. Cooper enjoyed a typical gentleman's upbringing of London society, he attended two prep schools, including Wixenford School. He was unhappy at prep school, but was very happy at Eton College. One of his maternal great-grandmothers was Lady Elizabeth FitzClarence, an illegitimate daughter of King William IV who fathered eight children with Dorothea Jordan. At New College Oxford, his Eton friendship with John Nevile Manners won him entry into a famous circle of young aristocrats and intellectuals known as the Coterie, including Patrick Shaw-Stewart, Raymond Asquith, Sir Denis Anson, Edward Horner and the celebrated Lady Diana Manners, he cultivated a reputation for eloquence and fast living and although he had established a reputation as a poet, he earned an stronger reputation for gambling and drinking in his studied emulation of the life of the 18th and 19th century Whig statesman Charles James Fox.
Cooper’s memory and gift for writing enabled him to do well at exams. He narrowly missed a first in Modern History. Following Oxford, he entered the Foreign Service at the third attempt. During the war he worked in the contraband departments. Owing to the national importance of his work at the cipher desk, he was exempted from military service until June 1917, when he joined the Grenadier Guards, he had not sought to join the Army but was happy to be “released” as a result of the manpower shortage, as he thought joining the Army the decent thing to do. To his surprise most of his fellow officer cadets were working class and lower middle class men all of whom had served in the ranks, he spent six months at the front in the Guards, where he proved himself to be both brave and a natural leader. He suffered a minor wound in the advance to the Albert Canal in August 1918, was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for conspicuous gallantry, a rare decoration for a junior officer. All his closest friends, including Shaw-Stewart and Asquith were killed in the war, drawing him closer to Lady Diana Manners, an popular social figure hailed for her beauty and eccentricities.
His service in the First World War was highlighted by the ITV programme The Great War: The People's Story, where his correspondence with Diana Cooper was one of those selected to be dramatised. After demobilisation he returned to the Egypt Department, was Private Secretary to the Parliamentary Under-Secretary, he needed money to enter politics. On 2 June 1919 he married Lady Diana Manners, whose family were opposed to the match, she tolerated Cooper's numerous affairs. Cooper's affairs included the Franco-American Singer sewing-machine heiress Daisy Fellowes, the socialite Gloria Guinness, the French novelist Louise Leveque de Vilmorin and the writer Susan Mary Alsop; the polo player'Boy' Capel's wife Diana and the Anglo-Irish socialite and fashion model Maxime de la Falaise were two more, although Lady Diana did not mind and loved him nonetheless, explaining to their son that "They were the flowers, but I was the tree."Cooper played a significant role in the Egyptian and Turkish crises in the early 1920s.
In 1923 Lady Diana played the Madonna in the Max Reinhardt pantomime “The Miracle”. The money enabled Cooper to resign from the Foreign Office in July 1924. Within weeks Cooper was selected for the winnable seat of Oldham, where he was elected at the General Election in October 1924, with a 13,000 majority over the sitting Labour member, he made a successful maiden speech on Egypt, praised by H. A. L. Fisher who spoke next, he was seen as a coming man, along with Macmillan. Cooper was a stalwart supporter of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, a friend of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill. In January 1928 he was appointed Financial Secretary to the War Office, not a job he would have chosen; the Secretary of State Sir Laming Worthington-Evans gave him a lot of responsibility. He likely would have been promoted if the Conservatives had won the election in 1929, but they were defeated and Cooper lost his own seat
Sir Hugh Maxwell Casson was an English architect, interior designer and writer and broadcaster on 20th-century design. He was the director of architecture at the 1951 Festival of Britain on London's South Bank. Casson's was the nephew of Sir Lewis Casson. Casson studied at Eastbourne College in East Sussex St John's College, after which he spent time at the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. Before the Second World War, he divided his time between teaching at the Cambridge School of Architecture and working in the London office of his Cambridge tutor, architect Christopher Nicholson, he wrote the book New Sights of London in 1938 for London Transport, championing modern architecture within reach of London, while remaining critical of the UK's track record in innovative building. "He does not mince his words," commented the Architect and Building News on the cover. During the war, he worked in the Camouflage Service of the Air Ministry. Casson was appointed to his role as director of architecture of the Festival of Britain in 1948 at the age of 38, set out to celebrate peace and modernity through the appointment of other young architects.
For example, the Modernist design of the Royal Festival Hall was led by a 39-year-old, Leslie Martin. Casson's Festival achievements led to his being made a in 1952. After the war, alongside his Festival work, Casson went into partnership with young architect Neville Conder, their projects included corporate headquarters buildings, university campuses, the Elephant House at London Zoo, a building for the Royal College of Art, the Microbiology Building, the master planning and design of the Sidgwick Avenue arts faculty buildings for the University of Cambridge, including the Austin Robinson Building which houses the Faculty of Economics as well as the Marshall Library of Economics. This latter project lasted some 30 years. A close friend of the British royal family, Casson designed the interior of the royal yacht Britannia and is credited with having taught Charles, Prince of Wales to paint in watercolours, he was elected to the Royal Academy in 1970, was its President from 1976 to 1984. In 1978, he was elected to the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Corresponding member, that year became a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.
In the 1980s Casson became a television presenter, with his own series, Personal Pleasures with Sir Hugh Casson, about stately homes and places he enjoyed. Casson supplied watercolour illustrations for a new edition of Sir John Betjeman's verse autobiography Summoned by Bells, he was made a Knight Bachelor in the 1952 New Year Honours. In 1978, he was made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. In the 1985 New Years Honours List, Casson was appointed to the Order of the Companions of Honour; the Victoria & Albert Museum houses Casson's archives, materials can be consulted at Blythe House, 23 Blythe Road, by appointment. The Royal Academy awards "The Hugh Casson Drawing Prize" annually "for an original work on paper in any medium, where the emphasis is on drawing". Casson is commemorated by Private Eye′s Sir Hugh Casson Award, recognising the "Worst New Building of the Year" in the Nooks and Corners column. National Life Stories conducted an oral history interview with Hugh Cassson in 1991 for its Architects Lives' collection held by the British Library.
Eulogy, "Hugh Casson 1910–1999" by Peter Davey, in Architectural Review, October 1999. "Archives of Sir Hugh Casson and Margaret Macdonald Casson". Architecture. Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Official website for Sir Hugh Casson Works by Sir Hugh Casson at Thompson's Gallery
Quentin Claudian Stephen Bell was an English art historian and author. ] Bell was the son of Clive Bell and Vanessa Bell, the nephew of Virginia Woolf. He was educated at the Quaker Leighton Park School. After being educated at Leighton Park School and in Paris, Bell became a Lecturer in Art History at the Department of Fine Art, King's College, University of Durham from 1952 to 1959 became the first Professor of Fine Art at the University of Leeds from 1959 to 1967. In 1964 he was appointed Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University and, in 1965, Ferens Professor of Fine Art at the University of Hull. Bell was a Professor of Art History and Theory at the University of Sussex from 1967 to 1975, he sometimes worked as an artist - principally in ceramics - but for his career he was drawn to academia and to book-writing. Bell's biography of his famous aunt, Virginia Woolf: A Biography, 2 vols, won not only the James Tait Black Memorial Prize, but the Duff Cooper Prize and the Yorkshire Post Book of the Year Award.
He wrote several books on the Bloomsbury Group and Charleston Farmhouse. He was married to Anne Olivier Bell, they had three children: an artist and muralist. His older brother was the poet Julian Heward Bell who died in the Spanish Civil War in 1937, aged 29; the writer and artist Angelica Garnett was his half-sister. He is a nephew of Virginia Woolf. Quentin Bell is buried in the churchyard of West Firle, East Sussex; the Quentin Bell Collection at the Victoria University Library at the University of Toronto "Eminent Chrlestonians with illustrations by Quentin Bell and text by Virginia Woolf" via Discovering Literature at the British Library
Dorothea Jordan known interchangeably as Mrs Jordan, Miss Francis or Miss Bland, was an Anglo-Irish actress and the mistress and companion of the future King William IV of the United Kingdom, for 20 years while he was Duke of Clarence. Together they had ten illegitimate children. Dorothea Bland was born near Waterford, Ireland, on 22 November 1761, was baptised at St Martin in the Fields, Middlesex, on 5 December of that year, she was the third of six children born from his mistress, Grace Phillips. Her older siblings are George Bland and Hester Bland, her younger siblings are Lucy Bland, Francis Bland and Nathaniel Phillips Bland, her paternal grandparents were Nathaniel Bland, Vicar General of Ardfert and Aghada, Judge of the Prerogative Court of Dublin and his second wife Lucy. The reports about Dorothea's maternal ancestry are sketchy, although it is stated that Grace Phillips was the daughter of a Welsh clergyman but he has not been identified with certainty. Before April 1774, when she was 13, Dorothea's father, who worked as a stagehand, abandoned the family to marry an Irish actress.
However, he continued to support the family by sending them meagre sums of money. This situation forced Dorothea to work to help her siblings, her mother, an actress by profession, put her on the stage. Dora became a famous actress and was said to have the most beautiful legs seen on the stage; the historical record of Jordan's first stage appearance is not clear. Some sources claim that Jordan made her debut in 1777 in Dublin, as Phoebe in As You Like It, whilst others that suggest she premiered as Lucy in the Interlude The Virgin Unmask'd, on the 3rd November 1779; the knowledge of Jordans's time and other roles performed in Ireland is fragmentary, however documentation shows her her last appearance in Dublin came on the 16th May 1782 when she spoke the The Maid of Oaks' Prologue. At the time she was pregnant with the illegitimate son of the married theatre manager of the Smock Alley Theatre, Richard Daly. Rumours spread and they fled to England Leeds, where she was employed by Tate Wilkinson, manager of the York Company.
Her first performance in England was the tragic role of Calista in The Fair Penitent, for which she had been tutored for by the scholar Cornelious Swan. Swan wrote to Tate to express his amazement at Jordan's talents: ‘“For Wilkinson,” said he, “I have given the Jordan but three lessons, she is so adroit at receiving my instructions, that I declare she repeats the character as well as Mrs. Cibber did”’ Though no specific dates can be sourced, Dora is believed to have performed her prized role as Lady Teazle in Sheridan's The School for Scandal before she arrived in London. In 1785, she made her first London appearance at Drury Lane as Peggy in A Country Girl; the Morning post the next morning reported her performance as such:'Nature has endowed her with talents sufficient to combat and excel her competitors in the same walk. Her person and manner are adapted for representing the peculiarities of youthful innocence and frivolity, it came to be recognised that her talent lay in comedy, she was acclaimed for her "naturalness" on stage, called a'child of nature', a derogatory term for someone, of illegitimate birth.
Audiences enjoyed her performances in breeches roles such as Viola in Twelfth Night, Sir Harry Wildair in The Constant Couple and William in Rosina. " Despite her being'the most admired comic actress of her time', Jordan was a competent Shakespearean and tragic actress, playing the roles of Ophelia, Imogen in Cymbeline and Zara by Adam Hill. When she first auditioned for Wilkinson, when she was asked whether she preferred'tragedy, comedy or opera?' she answered "All"Her engagement at Drury Lane lasted until 1809, she played a large variety of parts. During the rebuilding of Drury Lane she played at the Haymarket. Here, in 1814, she made her last appearance on the London stage, the following year, at Margate, retired altogether. During her time on the stage she wrote the popular song The Bluebells of Scotland, published under her name around 1800. In 1815, the renowned theatre critic, William Hazlitt, wrote:'Mrs Jordan's excellences were all natural to her, it was not as an actress, but as herself.
Nature had formed in her most prodigal humour. Mrs Jordan, the child of nature, whose voice was a cordial to the heart, because it came from it, full, like the luscious juice of the rich grape.' She had an affair with her first manager, Richard Daly, the manager of the Theatre Royal, married, had an illegitimate child with him: Frances Daly. In England, she had a short-lived affair with an army lieutenant, Charles Doyne, who proposed marriage, but she turned him do