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Dejima was a Dutch trading post located in Nagasaki, Japan from 1641 to 1854. Dejima was a small fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki covering an area of 120 m × 75 m or 9,000 m2, is listed in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decuma, Dezima, Disma, or Disima. Dejima was built in 1634 to house Portuguese traders and separate them from Japanese society by digging a canal through a small peninsula; the Dutch were moved to Dejima in 1641 and during most of the Edo period the island was the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world. Dejima was abolished after the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854 and the island was integrated into Nagasaki city through land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site. In 1543, the history of direct contacts between Japan and Europe began with the arrival of storm-blown Portuguese merchants on Tanegashima. Six years the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier landed in Kagoshima.

At first Portuguese traders were based in Hirado. In 1570 daimyō Ōmura Sumitada converted to Catholicism and made a deal with the Portuguese to develop Nagasaki. In 1580 Sumitada gave the jurisdiction of Nagasaki to the Jesuits, the Portuguese obtained the de facto monopoly on the silk trade with China through Macau; the shōgun Iemitsu ordered the construction of the artificial island in 1634, to accommodate the Portuguese traders living in Nagasaki and prevent the propagation of their religion. This was one of the many edicts put forth by Iemitsu between 1633 and 1639 moderating contact between Japan and other countries. However, in response to the uprising of the predominantly Christian population in the Shimabara-Amakusa region, the Tokugawa government decided to expel the Portuguese in 1639. Since 1609, the Dutch East India Company had run a trading post on the island of Hirado; the departure of the Portuguese left the Dutch employees of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie as the sole Westerners with trade access to Japan.

For 33 years they were allowed to trade freely. At its maximum the Hirado trading post covered a large area. In 1637 and 1639 stone warehouses were constructed within the ambit of this Hirado trading post. Christian-era year dates were used on the stonework of the new warehouses and these were used in 1640 as a pretext to demolish the buildings and relocate the trading post to Nagasaki. With the expulsion of the last Portuguese in 1639, Dejima became a failed commercial post and without the annual trading with Portuguese ships from Macau, the economy of Nagasaki suffered greatly; the Dutch were forced by government officials to move from Hirado to Dejima in Nagasaki. From 1641 on, only Chinese and Dutch ships were allowed to come to Japan, Nagasaki harbor was the only harbor they were allowed to enter. On the administrative level, the island of Dejima was part of the city of Nagasaki; the 25 local Japanese families who owned the land received an annual rent from the Dutch. Dejima was a small island, 120 metres by 75 metres, linked to the mainland by a small bridge, guarded on both sides, with a gate on the Dutch side.

It contained houses for about twenty Dutchmen and accommodation for Japanese officials. The Dutch were watched by a number of Japanese officials, night watchmen, a supervisor with about fifty subordinates. Numerous merchants supplied goods and catering, about 150 interpreters served, they all had to be paid by the VOC. As the city of Nagasaki, Dejima was under the direct supervision of Edo through a governor; every ship that arrived in Dejima was inspected. Its sails were held by the Japanese, they confiscated religious weapons. The Dutch were not allowed to hold any religious services on the island. Despite the financial burden of maintaining the isolated outpost on Dejima, the trade with Japan was profitable for the Dutch yielding profits of 50% or more. Trade declined in the 18th century. After the bankruptcy of the East-India Company in 1795, the Dutch government took over the exchange with Japan. Times were hard when the Netherlands was under French Napoleonic rule. All ties with the homeland were severed at Dejima, for a while, it was the only place in the world where the Dutch flag was flown.

The chief Dutch official in Japan was called the Opperhoofd by the Dutch, or Kapitan by the Japanese. This descriptive title did not change. Throughout these years, the plan was to have one incumbent per year with some flexibility; the Dutch traded in silk and materia medica from China and India, but sugar became more important later. Deer pelts and shark skin were transported to Japan from Taiwan, as well as books, scientific instruments and many other rarities from Europe. In return, the Dutch traders bought Japanese copper, camphor, lacquer ware, rice. To this was added the personal trade of VOC employees on Dejima, an important source of income for them and their Japanese counterparts, they sold more than 10,000 foreign books on various scientific subjects to the Japanese from the end of the 18th to the early 19th century. These became the basis of knowledge and a factor in Dutch studies. In all, 606 Dutch ships arrived at Dejima during its two centuries of settlement

St. Vrain Church of the Brethren

The Church of the Brethren known as the St. Vrain Church of the Brethren and the Old Dunkard Church, is an historic Church of the Brethren meeting house located on Hygiene Road in Hygiene in the St. Vrain Valley of Boulder County, Colorado. In 1874, formal organization of the Church of the Brethren was held at the ranch home of Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Ullery led by the itinerant preacher, James R. Gish; the first influx of Brethren came to Colorado from Iowa, settling south of Hygiene in Pella, Colorado. Rev. Jacob S. Flory left Greeley, Colorado with his wife and eight children to carry on the work of the church. In 1879, land was donated for the church. In 1880, the building was erected of rough cut stone, which came from Lyons and was laid in courses of unequal thickness; the total cost of construction, including donated labor, was $2,000. The Hygiene Cemetery surrounded the church, with the original Pella Cemetery lying to the south. Church services were suspended in 1907. In 1984, the church building and the land surrounding it were added to the National Register of Historic Places.

In 2004, the Hygiene Dunkard Church was awarded Landmark status in Boulder County. In 2009, the church was deeded to the Hygiene Cemetery Association, which began the work of restoring it, it is the oldest Brethren church still standing in Colorado. Hygiene Cemetery website


The Saône is a river of eastern France. It is a right tributary of the Rhône, rising at Vioménil in the Vosges department and joining the Rhône in Lyon, just south of the Presqu'île; the name Saône derives from that of the Gallic river goddess Souconna, connected with a local Celtic tribe, the Sequanes. Monastic copyists progressively transformed Souconna to Saoconna, which gave rise to Saône; the other recorded ancient names for the river were Arar. The Saône rises at Vioménil at the foot of the cliff of the Faucilles in the Vosges at an elevation of 392 metres, flows into the Rhône at Lyon at an elevation of 158 metres, its length is 473 kilometres. Its largest tributary is the Doubs. In fact the Doubs' mean annual flow rate is stronger than that of the Petite Saône, 175 cubic metres per second compared to 160 cubic metres per second. Nonetheless the Saône has a larger watershed than the Doubs, at 11,500 square kilometres vs. 7,500 square kilometres. At 30,000 square kilometres the Saône has the largest watershed of any French river that does not flow directly into the sea, covering 1/18 of metropolitan France.

In pre-Roman times the river's name was a doubling of the Indo-European root ar. According to Caesar's Gallic Wars this doubling reflected the idea that it was difficult to identify the direction of the river due to its slow rate of flow, its current name came from a sacred spring, Sauc-Onna, located at Chalon, used by Roman legionaries to refer to the entire river. Vosges: Darney, Monthureux-sur-Saône, Châtillon-sur-Saône Haute-Saône: Jonvelle, Jussey, Port-sur-Saône, Scey-sur-Saône, Gray Côte-d'Or: Auxonne, Saint-Jean-de-Losne, Seurre Saône-et-Loire: Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, Chalon-sur-Saône, Tournus, Mâcon, Crêches-sur-Saône Rhône: Belleville-sur-Saône, Villefranche-sur-Saône, Neuville-sur-Saône, Fontaines-sur-Saône, Caluire-et-Cuire, Lyon Ain: Thoissey, Jassans-Riottier, R indicates a right tributary, L indicates a left tributary; the Saône is navigable from its confluence with the Coney at Corre in the north of the département Haute-Saône all the way to its confluence with the Rhône at La Mulatière, in Lyon.

The navigable stretch is 367 kilometres long, of which 206 kilometres has been redeveloped to European high-capacity dimensions from Saint-Symphorien-sur-Saône to Lyon. It has 5 locks; the 161 km long part upstream from Saint-Symphorien-sur-Saône to Corre named Petite Saône, is navigable for Freycinet gauge ships and has 19 locks. The Saône is linked with the Loire by the Canal du Centre, with the Yonne by the Canal de Bourgogne, with the Marne by the Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne, with the Meuse by the Canal de l'Est, whose southern branch has been renamed the Canal des Vosges, with the Rhine by the Canal du Rhône au Rhin. All the canals are Freycinet gauge. Navigable are the small Canal de Pont-de-Vaux, the Seille, navigable in a 40-kilometre stretch up to Louhans, the lower part of the Doubs. None of these three connect the Saône to any other waterway; the lesser Saône has a tendency to flood, with a strong oceanic effect. The soils are not susceptible to much infiltration, so that they saturate which contributes to surface runoff.

The flow rate grows quickly, after receiving the waters of the Lanterne, the Saône becomes a powerful river. The mean annual flow rate, or discharge, of the Saône has been measured over 50 years at the Ray-sur-Saône hydrological station, situated about 30 kilometres after the Lanterne confluence between Port-sur-Saône and Gray; the figure is 59.7 cubic metres per second for a watershed area of 3,740 square kilometres, has an annual maximum of 64.5 cubic metres per second and a minimum of 54.8 cubic metres per second. The river exhibits seasonal variations in flow rate, with winter floods from 84 to 108 cubic metres per second from December to March inclusive, summer reductions in July/August/September falling to a monthly average of 16.9 cubic metres per second in August. The runoff curve number in the upper basin of the lesser Saône is 505 millimetres annually, cf. 687 millimetres for the Lanterne, an elevated figure resulting from the high rainfall in the Vosgian part of its watershed. The specific flow rate rises to 16.0 litres per second per square kilometre of watershed.

The maximum instantaneous recorded flow rate was 930 cubic metres per second on December 19, 1982. The greater Saône is formed by the confluence of the Doubs and the lesser Saône at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs; the Doubs brings a mean annual flow rate of 175 cubic metres per second, the lesser Saône, 160 cubic metres per second. The greater Saône has only modest tributaries which have little effect on floods or other hydrological properties, it flows in a vast plain 3 kilometres wide as far as Lyon in the basin of the former Bressan lake. The slope is gradual, without hydraulic projects up to the north of Chalon aimed at guaranteeing a deep navigation channel, overflows would be more fr

Online college fair

An online college fair, or virtual college fair, is a recent phenomenon that consists of a collection of colleges and universities that communicate and provide information online during a specific timeframe. An online college fair operates according to several of the usual conventions of a “brick and mortar” college fair: there are event halls, schools have booths that prospective students and/or parents can visit to exchange information, there are speaker sessions by various admissions and education experts. However, the entire fair is contained online, therefore an online college fair can have many of the characteristics of a virtual world. One of the main benefits of an online college fair is that travel cost is eliminated for both school representatives and students; the first such online college fair was organized by the National Association for College Admission Counseling and held on October 9, 2001. 200 institutions participated. This first online college fair was considered a failure as the number of students trying to log on overloaded the system.

NACAC, which planned on conducting online college fairs on a regular basis, discontinued the program after the initial event. Additional online college fair providers have gone. hosted an online college fair in conjunction with a live fair. This event ran into technical difficulties. In November 2002, the Big Apple College Fair had an online college fair in conjunction with a live fair. In October 2007, BusinessWeek, which produces annual rankings of United States business school MBA programs, held an MBA Expo 2007 with the tagline “Find the B-School that fits you best.” A total of 8 US and international business schools attended. CollegeWeekLive entered the market in November 13, 2007 and continues as the leading provider of online college fairs today. CollegeWeekLive grew 67% in 2012. CappexConnect launched in 2013. Part of the Cappex family of websites, CappexConnect is a website dedicated to hosting online college fairs and online open houses. On March 23 & 24, 2011 CollegeWeekLive conducted the largest online college fair up until that date, with over 60,000 event attendees.

The fair allowed attendees to interact with college admissions officials and college students from 250 schools via instant messaging and video chat. The fair included 15 keynote speakers addressing several topics including financial aid, college essays. Etc. Speakers included Lynn O'Shaughnessy, college blogger at CBS MoneyWatch and Harlan Cohen, Author of The Naked Roommate. CappexConnect hosts online college fairs multiple times throughout the year, providing students the opportunity to connect with hundreds of colleges and universities and thousands of students from across the country. Students can chat directly with college and university representatives as well as fellow prospective students. Students can watch live presentations from admissions experts and financial aid specialists on topics such as choosing a college, financial aid, choosing a major. Attendees have the opportunity to enter to win a college scholarship. On September 10, 2013 and October 9, 2013, CappexConnect hosted a fall fair series that included over 15,000 student attendees visiting online booths from over 90 colleges and universities.

College Fairs Online is a new website devoted to high quality virtual college fairs. They connect many colleges with prospective students. VASA Virtual Education Expo conducts virtual education fairs which bring together universities and potential students. With more people utilizing the web for college search information as well as with the spread of broadband internet access, online college fairs are becoming a major resource for college application information. Colleges are continuously using online chat as a way to connect with prospective students. College fairs offer students that might not otherwise have easy access to college information or the ability to visit colleges. Univision Media, in collaboration with CollegeWeekLive, held a virtual college fair with several presentations in Spanish

Francesco Cini

Francesco Cini was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino. Francesco Cini was born in Osimo, Italy in 1610 and ordained a priest on 26 September 1660. On 15 November 1660, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Alexander VII as Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino. On 21 November 1660, he was consecrated bishop by Giulio Cesare Sacchetti, Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina, with Ottaviano Carafa, Titular Archbishop of Patrae, Giovanni Agostino Marliani, Bishop Emeritus of Accia and Mariana, serving as co-consecrators, he served as Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino until his death in May 1684. Catholic Church in Italy Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Macerata–Tolentino–Recanati–Cingoli–Treia". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Macerata–Tolentino–Recanati–Cingoli–Treia". Retrieved June 16, 2018

Inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes

The inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes as the 19th President of the United States took place on Sunday, March 4, 1877; the inauguration marked the commencement of the four-year term of Rutherford B. Hayes as President and William A. Wheeler as Vice President; because March 4, 1877 was a Sunday, Hayes took the oath of office in the Red Room of the White House on March 3, becoming the first president to take the oath of office in the White House. This ceremony was held in secret, because the previous year's election had been so bitterly divisive that outgoing President Grant feared an insurrection by Samuel J. Tilden's supporters and wanted to ensure that any Democratic Party attempt to hijack the public inauguration ceremony would fail. Having been sworn in in private, Hayes took the oath again publicly on March 5, 1877 on the East Portico of the United States Capitol, served until March 4, 1881. Hayes' best known quotation, "He serves his party best who serves his country best," is from his 1877 Inaugural Address.

Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes 1876 United States presidential election Inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes at the Library of Congress Our coverage of the Hayes Inauguration Text of Hayes' Inaugural Address