Carson is a city in Los Angeles County, located 13 miles south of downtown Los Angeles and 14 miles away from the Los Angeles International Airport. Incorporated on February 20, 1968, Carson is the newest municipality in the South Bay region of Metropolitan Los Angeles; as of the 2010 census, it had a population of 91,714. 1921 marked the first drilling for oil at Dominguez Hill, on the northwest side of the Dominguez Rancho, site of the famous battle during the Mexican–American War called the Battle of Dominguez Rancho in 1846. The mineral rights to this property were owned by Carson Estate Company, the Hellman Family, the Dominguez Estate Company, the Burnham Exploration Company of Frederick Russell Burnham. On September 7, 1923, Burnham Exploration partnering with Union Oil brought in the first producer on the site: Callender No. 1-A well at a depth of 4,068 feet and 1,193 barrels per day. Before long a number of refineries were up and running, with over 350 oil derricks, tank farms, sprawling industrial complexes becoming a familiar part of the scenery.
The principal leases were with Shell Oil Company and Union Oil of California and the first two wells were located west of Central Avenue and north of Victoria Street. Oil led to an increase in jobs in a subsequent post-war population surge. An average of 300 barrels per day was produced from each of these wells through 1960. In 2011, Shell was ordered by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board to clean up the Carousel neighborhood after benzene and methane gas contamination was discovered, as well as soil and groundwater contamination. According to the United States Census Bureau, Carson has an area of 19.0 square miles. 18.7 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Carson is bordered by West Rancho Dominguez on the north, Compton on the northeast, Rancho Dominguez and Long Beach on the east, Wilmington on the south, West Carson and Harbor Gateway on the west. Carson experiences a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, similar to that of the Los Angeles Basin with noticeably cooler temperatures during the summer due to the nearby Pacific Ocean.
Rainfall is scarce during the summer in Carson but receives enough rainfall throughout the year to avoid Köppen's BSh. Carson, like many of the Southern California coastal areas, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom." This involves foggy skies in the morning which yield to sun by early afternoon. The 2010 United States Census reported that Carson had a population of 91,714; the population density was 4,835.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Carson was 21,864 White, 21,856 African American, 518 Native American, 23,522 Asian, 2,386 Pacific Islander, 17,151 from other races, 4,417 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35,417 persons; the Census reported that 90,411 people lived in households, 1,170 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 133 were institutionalized. There were 25,432 households, out of which 10,980 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 14,178 were married couples living together, 4,787 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,761 had a male householder with no wife present.
3,776 households were made up of individuals and 1,790 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.56. There were 20,726 families; the population was spread out with 21,992 people under the age of 18, 9,964 people aged 18 to 24, 23,105 people aged 25 to 44, 24,013 people aged 45 to 64, 12,640 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. There were 26,226 housing units at an average density of 1,382.6 per square mile, of which 19,529 were owner-occupied, 5,903 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 68,924 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 21,487 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 89,730 people, 24,648 households, 20,236 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,762.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 25,337 housing units at an average density of 1,344.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 25.69% White, 25.41% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 22.27% Asian, 2.99% Pacific Islander, 17.98% from other races, 5.09% from two or more races. 34.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 24,648 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.9% were non-families. 14.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.59 and the average family size was 3.92. Age
Purple Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Purple Line is a heavy rail subway line operating in Los Angeles, running between downtown and the Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown districts. It is one of six lines on the Metro Rail System, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Metro Purple Line is one of the city's two subway lines. Although they separate west of Downtown Los Angeles, the two subway lines were branded as two branches of the Red Line; the Purple Line was instituted as its own line, separate from the Red Line, in 2006. As of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Out of the eight stations served, only two of them are exclusive to the Purple Line, with the other six shared with the Red Line. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the D Line while retaining its purple coloring; the Metro Purple Line is a 6.4-mile line. At Union Station, passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line, the Metro Gold Line; the Purple Line travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District.
Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line at Civic Center Station. At Pershing Square Station, passengers can board the northbound Metro Silver Line bus at Olive Street/5th Street. At 7th St/Metro Center Station, travelers can connect to the Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line and the Metro Silver Line. From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, track is shared with the Metro Red Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge; the Purple Line continues west for one additional mile, terminates at Wilshire/Western. The Purple Line runs underground, below Wilshire Boulevard, served on the surface by Metro Local route 20 and Metro Rapid route 720. Despite the duplicate service, Metro considers the redundant bus service justified because both bus routes run from Downtown Los Angeles. Unlike the Purple Line, they run along the entire Wilshire corridor, west to Beverly Hills and Santa Monica.
Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. daily, with late night weekend service running until 2:00 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Wilshire/Western Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:41 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 11:42 p.m. Westbound First Train to Wilshire/Western: 4:56 a.m. Last Train to Wilshire/Western: 11:27 p.m. During the evenings Purple Line trains sometimes run as shuttles. Passengers must transfer to a Red Line train at Wilshire/Vermont; this will change. Trains on the Purple Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service can range between 20–30 minutes; the Purple Line is utilized as a downtown shuttle on its shared segment with the Red Line. The stub between Vermont and Western has a low ridership. According to Metro Service Coordinator Conan Cheung, the stub is operating 11% full during peak hours, lower at other times.
The current Purple Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunnelling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. However, a short one-mile branch down Wilshire from Vermont to Western was allowed to remain in the system; the service designated as the Purple Line opened in two minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993. MOS-2A, including three new stations between Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Western, opened in 1996; the Vermont branch began service in 1999.
Both branches were designated as part of the Red Line, but in 2006 trains travelling between Union Station and Wilshire/Western were rebranded the Purple Line for greater clarity. Metro is now aiming to complete the subway to the Westside; the new project is called the Purple Line Extension and the first phase broke ground on November 7, 2014. Metro released the Final Environmental Impact Report on March 19, 2012, the first phase of the project was approved by Metro's Board of Directors on April 26, 2012. Notice to proceed was issued to Tutor Perini on April 26, 2017 for phase two from Wilshire/La Cienega Station to Century City Station. Pre-construction has commenced. Metro is still attempting to obtain funding for phase 3 to Westwood/UCLA; the following table lists the stations of the Purple Line, from east to west: The Purple Line is operated out of the Division 20 Yard located at 320 South Santa Fe Avenue Los Angeles. This yard stores the fleet used on the Purple Line, it is where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet.
Subways get to this yard by continuing on after Union Statio
An elevated railway is a rapid transit railway with the tracks above street level on a viaduct or other elevated structure. The railway may be broad gauge, standard gauge, narrow gauge, light rail, monorail, or a suspension railway. Elevated railways are used in urban areas where there would otherwise be a large number of level crossings. Most of the time, the tracks of elevated railways that run on steel viaducts can be seen from street level; the earliest elevated railway was the London and Greenwich Railway on a brick viaduct of 878 arches, built between 1836 and 1838. The first 2.5 miles of the London and Blackwall Railway was on a viaduct. During the 1840s there were other schemes for elevated railways in London that did not come to fruition. From the late 1860s onward elevated railways became popular in US cities; the New York West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway operated with cable cars from 1868 to 1870, thereafter locomotive-hauled. This was followed by the Manhattan Railway in 1875, the South Side Elevated Railroad and the elevated lines of the Boston Elevated Railway.
The Chicago transit system itself is known as "L", short for "elevated". The Berlin Stadtbahn and the Vienna Stadtbahn are mainly elevated; the first electric elevated railway was the Liverpool Overhead Railway, which operated through Liverpool docks from 1893 until 1956. In London, the Docklands Light Railway is a modern elevated railway that opened in 1987 and, has expanded; the trains are automatic. Another modern elevated railway is Tokyo's driverless Yurikamome line, opened in 1995. Most monorails are elevated railways, such as the Disneyland Monorail System, the Tokyo Monorail, the Sydney Monorail, the KL Monorail, the Las Vegas Monorail, the São Paulo Monorail. Many maglev railways are elevated. During the 1890s there was some interest in suspension railways in Germany, with the Schwebebahn Dresden, the Wuppertal Schwebebahn. H-Bahn suspension railways were built in Dortmund and Düsseldorf airport, 1975; the Memphis Suspension Railway opened in 1982. The Shonan Monorail and the Chiba Urban Monorail in Japan, despite their names, are suspension railways too.
Suspension railways are monorail. People mover or automated people mover is a type of driverless grade-separated, mass-transit system; the term is used only to describe systems that serve as loops or feeder systems, but is sometimes applied to more complex automated systems. Similar to monorails, Bombardier Innovia APM technology uses only one rail to guide the vehicle along the guideway. APMs are common at airports and effective at helping passengers reach their gates. Several elevated APM systems at airports including the PHX Sky Train at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. Berlin U-Bahn Chicago "L" Copenhagen Metro Hamburg U-Bahn Lahore Metro Manila Light Rail Transit System Miami Metrorail New York City Subway Philadelphia's Market–Frankford Line Rapid Metro Gurgaon Line 3 Scarborough, a medium capacity metro rail line in Toronto, Canada BTS Skytrain, two elevated rapid transit lines in Bangkok, Thailand SkyTrain, British Columbia, Canada. Sydney Metro Northwest Line in Sydney, Australia Vienna U-Bahn Wenhu line, Taiwan Wuppertal Suspension Railway Hyderabad Metro All Lines in Hyderabad, IndiaDisused: Boston Elevated Railways - Atlantic Avenue Elevated, Charlestown Elevated, Washington Street Elevated, Causeway Street Elevated Elevated railways operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in New York City Liverpool Overhead Railway AirTrain JFK, a people mover at and around John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City, New York, United States ATL Skytrain, a people mover at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, United States Changi Airport Skytrain, an inter-terminal people mover at Changi International Airport in Singapore Detroit People Mover, an urban transit people mover in Detroit, United States H-Bahn, an inter-terminal automated people mover in Dortmund and Dusseldorf, Germany MIA Mover, a people mover at Miami International Airport, Florida, United States PHX Sky Train, a people mover at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Arizona, United States Tubular Rail, trackless elevated train.
UC San Diego Blue Line extension will be aerial light rail
A tram stop, tram station, streetcar stop, or light rail station is a place designated for a tram, streetcar, or light rail vehicle to stop so passengers can board or alight it. Tram stops share most characteristics of bus stops, but because trams operate on rails, they include railway platforms if stepless entries are provided for accessibility. However, trams may be used with bus stop type flags and with mid-street pavements as platforms, in street running mode. Most tram or streetcar stops in Melbourne and Toronto and other systems with extensive sections of street-running have no associated platforms, with stops in the middle of the roadway pavement. In most jurisdictions, traffic cannot pass a tram or streetcar whose doors are open, unless the tram is behind a safety zone or has a designated platform. On the other hand, several light rail systems have high-platform stops or stations with dedicated platforms at railway platform height. Reasons for this include systems being created from former heavy rail routes, or to provide a more rapid transit-like commuting experience.
Such trams stop at dedicated platform stops on Stadtbahn systems in Germany in underground stations in city centres. Not all tram stops are served full-time. In the 1920s, Toronto created Sunday stops in addition to regular stops along its streetcar routes. Sunday stops were only used on a Sunday and, with few exceptions, were always near a Christian church. There were a few Sunday stops near subway stations that were usable only before 9 am, the Sunday opening time of the subway system. However, the Toronto Transit Commission decided to close all Sunday stops on June 7, 2015; the TTC found. Sunday stops were unfair to non-Christian places of worship which never had the equivalent of a Sunday stop. By 2015, most Sunday stops were along former streetcar routes; the design of tram stops have seen many recent innovations. Bus stop Street running Train/railway station
Blue Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Blue Line is a 22.0-mile light rail line running north-south between Los Angeles and Long Beach, passing through Downtown Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Willowbrook, Rancho Dominguez and Long Beach in Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines in the Metro Rail system. Opened in 1990, it is the system's oldest and second busiest line with an estimated 22.38 million boardings per year as of December 2017. It is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Blue Line passes near the cities of Vernon, Huntington Park, South Gate and Carson. The famous Watts Towers can be seen from the train near 103rd Street station; the under-construction Regional Connector will directly link this line beyond. On January 26, 2019, Metro shut down the Blue Line between Downtown Long Beach and 103rd Street station, it is undergoing heavy construction, including track and wire replacement. Metro Local and Rapid shuttle buses replace Blue Line service along this portion of the route until late May 2019.
After the renovation project is complete, the line will be renamed to A Line while retaining its blue coloring. The Metro Blue Line runs 22.0 miles between Downtown Los Angeles and Downtown Long Beach making stops at 22 stations. The line's northern terminus is the underground 7th Street/Metro Center station, after rising to street level, trains run south along Flower Street, sharing tracks with the Expo Line. Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at 7th Street/Metro Center and Grand stations; the Blue and Expo Lines diverge at Flower Street and Washington Boulevard just south of downtown Los Angeles. Here the Blue Line turns east on Washington Boulevard before turning south on Long Beach Avenue where it enters the former Pacific Electric right-of-way; this historic rail corridor has four tracks, two are used by Blue Line trains and two are used by freight trains. There are some elevated sections as this private right of way cuts through more densely populated areas.
Passengers can connect with the Metro Green Line at midway through the rail corridor as it passes under Interstate 105 at Willowbrook station. Just south of Willow station, Blue Line trains exit the rail corridor and follows Long Beach Boulevard into the city of Long Beach, where trains travel through the Long Beach Transit Mall while making a loop using 1st Street, Pacific Avenue and 8th Street. Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Long Beach Northbound First Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 4:46 a.m. Last Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 12:03 a.m. Southbound First Train to Long Beach: 5:00 a.m. Last Train to Long Beach: 1:01 a.m. Of note, some trains operate at or earlier times due to the Blue Line making the turnaround in Downtown Long Beach. Trains on the Blue Line operate every six minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday.
They operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 9 a.m.. Night service consists of ten-minute headways. During peak hours, every other train serves only the stations between Willow and 7th Street/Metro Center to decrease the headway on that portion of the route. Willow was chosen because of its proximity to the Blue Line storage yard and because it is the last southbound station with a park-and-ride lot. In the evening rush hour, riders will see some trains destined to "Willow" and others to "Long Beach"; those riders destined to Long Beach must exit at Willow Station and wait for the next train which will terminate at Downtown Long Beach Station. When the Blue Line began operation in 1990, it was projected to have a daily ridership of 5,000; the line performed much better than expected with daily ridership reaching 12,000 passengers within the first months of service and reaching 32,000 by the end of the first year of service. As of October 2018, the Blue Line had an average weekday ridership of 63,008, Saturday and Sunday boardings of 30,579 and 30,314, respectively.
In 2017, the line saw a total of 22.38 million boardings. Much of the current Blue Line follows the route of streetcar service operated by Pacific Electric Railway; the current line opened on Saturday, July 14, 1990, at a cost of US$877 million.. An intended extension to Pasadena was scrapped after the 1998 county ballot was approved which banned the use of sales tax revenue for subway projects, preventing construction of a downtown light rail tunnel; the line was operated by two-car trains, but proved more popular than expected and 19 platforms were lengthened to accommodate three-car trains in 2002-2003 at a cost of US$11 million. A series of major improvements is underway for Metro's oldest light rail line; the six-year, $1.2 billion overhaul began in late 2014 with several months of projects to refurbish Blue Line stations that were completed in July 2015. The next major improvement came to the rolling stock on the line, which included $130 million to refurbish older light rail vehicles and $739 million to purchase 78 new vehicles.
The final phase of improvements come in 2019, where large sections of the line are closed for months as crews replace tracks and overhead wiring, upgrade signal systems, refurbish aerial rail bridges, a reb
APU/Citrus College station
APU/Citrus College is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located between Palm Drive and Citrus Avenue, a block north of Foothill Boulevard, in Azusa, California next to Citrus College and walking distance of Azusa Pacific University; the station is being used as Metro Gold Line's new temporary terminal station. This station was constructed as part of the Gold Line Foothill Extension project Phase 2A, it began revenue service on March 5, 2016. Due to heavy rain in March 2016, the delayed underpass construction on N. Citrus Ave. was flooded. The Citrus Avenue extension and underpass was opened in September 2016; the Gold Line will continue east to the future Montclair station as part of Phase 2B, which will take another 8–9 years. However, once the Regional Connector is completed, the Phase 2B extension and all Gold Line stations north of Union Station will become part of the Blue Line. Foothill Transit: 188, 281, 284, 488, 690The City of Glendora offers a weekday shuttle service to this station.
Los Angeles County Metro Rail Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Los Angeles Metro Rail rolling stock Gold Line Foothill Extension Construction Authority Metro Project Page, Gold Line Foothill Extension I Will Ride - Blog of Foothill Extension supporters
Los Angeles Metro Rail
The Los Angeles Metro Rail is an urban rail transportation system serving Los Angeles County, California. It consists of six lines, including two rapid transit subway lines and four light rail lines serving 93 stations, it connects with the Metro Busway bus rapid transit system and with the Metrolink commuter rail system. Metro Rail is owned and operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and started service in 1990, it has been extended since that time and several further extensions are either in the works or being considered. The system served a ridership of 344,176 on an average weekday in 2018. Los Angeles had two previous rail transit systems, the Pacific Electric Red Car and Los Angeles Railway Yellow Car lines, which operated between the late 19th century and the 1960s; the Metro Rail system utilizes many of their former rights-of-way, thus can be considered their indirect successor. In Los Angeles Metro terminology, common with most other metro systems, a line is a named service, defined by a route and set of stations served by trains on that route.
Metro Rail lines are for the most part named after colors, these colors are used to distinguish the lines on Metro's maps. Metro uses colors for its Metro Busway services. In mid-2019, Metro will rename all of its rail and BRT lines with letters, while leaving their colors unchanged on maps. Six Metro Rail lines operate in Los Angeles County: The Red and Purple lines follow a underground route, the Green Line follows a elevated route; the Blue and Gold Line routes run in a mix of environments, including at-grade street running, at-grade in an exclusive corridor and underground. The two heavy-rail lines share tracks between Union Station and Wilshire/Vermont, while two of the light-rail lines share tracks between 7th St/Metro Center and Pico. Future system expansions are expected to use shared light-rail tracks; the large majority of light rail stations are either at ground level or elevated, while a handful are underground. All heavy rail stations are underground. Future light rail lines will add more underground stations to the system.
Stations include at least two ticket vending machines, wayfinding maps, electronic message displays, bench seating. Each station features unique artwork reflecting local culture and/or the function of transit in society. Stations are unstaffed during regular hours. Call boxes are available at most stations to allow employees at the Metro Rail Operations Control Center to assist passengers with concerns. Metro Rail uses a proof-of-payment fare system, with Metro's fare inspectors randomly inspecting trains and stations to ensure passengers have a valid fare product on their Transit Access Pass electronic fare card; when passengers enter a station, they encounter TAP card validators which collect fares when a customer places their card on top. Additionally, fare gates connected to TAP card validators at all underground stations, all elevated stations and some surface stations. Once passengers pass these validators or board a train, they have entered the "fare paid zone," where fare inspectors may check their TAP card to ensure they have a valid fare.
Underground stations are large in size with a mezzanine level for fare sales and collection above a platform level where passengers board trains. Street-level stations are more simple with platforms designed with shade canopies, separated from nearby roads and sidewalks, where passengers can purchase fares and board a train. Subway stations and tunnels are designed to resist ground shaking that could occur at a specific location, but there is no general magnitude of earthquake that the entire system is expected to withstand; the Metro Rail system has not suffered any damage due to earthquakes since its opening in 1993. Some suburban stations have free or paid park and ride lots available and most have bike storage available. Metro Rail maintains two distinct systems of rail: a heavy rail system; the heavy rail and light rail systems are incompatible with each other though they both use 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge. Metro's heavy rail lines are powered by third rail, whereas its light rail lines are powered by overhead catenary.
The two separate systems have different loading gauge, platforms are designed to match the separate car widths. All Metro Rail lines run between 5am and midnight, seven days a week. Limited service on particular segments is provided before 5 am. On Friday and Saturday evenings, service operates until 2am. There is no rail service between 3:30 am, except on special occasions such as New Year's Eve. Service operates every 5–10 minutes during the peak period, every 10–15 minutes during middays and during the day on weekends, every 20 minutes during the evening until the close of service. Exact times vary from route to route; the standard Metro base fare applies for all trips. Fare collection is based on a partial proof-of-payment system. At least two fare machines are at each station. Fare inspectors, local police and deputy sheriffs police the system and cite individuals without fares. Passengers are required to purchase a TAP card to enter stations equipped with fare gates. Passengers using a TAP card can transfer between Metro routes for free within 2 hours from the first tap.
The following table shows Met