Colonial Revival architecture
Colonial Revival architecture was and is a nationalistic design movement in the United States and Canada. Part of a broader Colonial Revival Movement embracing Georgian and Neoclassical styles, it seeks to revive elements of architectural style, garden design, interior design of American colonial architecture; the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 reawakened Americans to their colonial past. This movement gained momentum in the 1890s and was accelerated by the early 20th century due to the invention of the automobile, which expanded the ability of ordinary Americans to visit sites connected with their heritage. Successive waves of revivals of British colonial architecture have swept the United States since 1876. In the 19th century, Colonial Revival took a formal style. Public interest in the Colonial Revival style in the early 20th century helped popularize books and atmospheric photographs of Wallace Nutting showing scenes of New England. Historical attractions such as Colonial Williamsburg helped broaden exposure in the 1930s.
In the post-World War II era, Colonial design elements were merged with the popular ranch-style house design. In the early part of the 21st century, certain regions of the United States embraced aspects of Anglo-Caribbean and British Empire styles. Colonial Revival sought to follow American colonial architecture of the period around the Revolutionary War, which drew from Georgian architecture of Great Britain. Structures are two stories with the ridge pole running parallel to the street, have a symmetrical front facade with an accented doorway, evenly spaced windows on either side of it. Features borrowed from colonial period houses of the early 19th century include elaborate front doors with decorative crown pediments and sidelights, symmetrical windows flanking the front entrance in pairs or threes, columned porches. Colonial Revival garden Dutch Colonial Revival architecture Mission Revival Style architecture New Classical architecture Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Alan Axelrod, ed.
The Colonial Revival in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985. William Butler, Another City Upon a Hill: Litchfield and the Colonial Revival Karal Ann Marling, George Washington Slept Here: Colonial Revivals and American Culture, 1876–1986, 1988. Richard Guy Wilson and Noah Sheldon, The Colonial Revival House, 2004. Richard Guy Wilson, Shaun Eyring and Kenny Marotta, Re-creating the American Past: Essays on the Colonial Revival, 2006. Photo Gallery of Colonial Revival houses Examples of Colonial Revival in Buffalo, New York 1876 Centennial Information Colonial Style Homes Exude Tradition – Patriotic
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, located 33 miles southeast of Providence, Rhode Island, 20 miles south of Fall River, Massachusetts, 73 miles south of Boston, 180 miles northeast of New York City. It is known as a New England summer resort and is famous for its historic mansions and its rich sailing history, it was the location of the first U. S. Open tournaments in both tennis and golf, as well as every challenge to the America's Cup between 1930 and 1983, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport, which houses the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, an important Navy training center. It was a major 18th-century port city and contains a high number of buildings from the Colonial era; the city is the county seat of Newport County, which has no governmental functions other than court administrative and sheriff corrections boundaries. It was known for being the location of the "Summer White Houses" during the administrations of Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy.
The population was 24,027 as of 2013. Newport was founded in 1639 on Aquidneck Island, called Rhode Island at the time, its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, Henry Bull. Many of these people had been part of the settlement at Portsmouth, along with Anne Hutchinson and her followers, they separated within a year of that settlement and Coddington and others began the settlement of Newport on the southern side of the island. Newport grew to be the largest of the four original settlements which became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which included Providence Plantations and Shawomett. Many of the first colonists in Newport became Baptists, the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed in 1640 under the leadership of John Clarke. In 1658, a group of Jews were welcomed to settle in Newport; the Newport congregation is now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel and is the second-oldest Jewish congregation in the United States.
It meets in the oldest synagogue in the United States. The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations received its royal charter in 1663, Benedict Arnold was elected as its first governor at Newport; the Old Colony House served as a seat of Rhode Island's government upon its completion in 1741 at the head of Washington Square, until the current Rhode Island State House in Providence was completed in 1904 and Providence became the state's sole capital city. Newport became the most important port in colonial Rhode Island, a public school was established in 1640; the commercial activity which raised Newport to its fame as a rich port was begun by a second wave of Portuguese Jews who settled there around the middle of the 18th century. They had been practicing Judaism in secret for 300 years in Portugal, they were attracted to Rhode Island because of the freedom of worship there, they brought with them commercial experience and connections, a spirit of enterprise. Most prominent among those were Jacob Rodrigues Rivera, who arrived in 1745 and Aaron Lopez, who came in 1752.
Rivera introduced the manufacture of sperm oil which became one of Newport's leading industries and made the town rich. Newport developed 17 manufactories of oil and candles and enjoyed a practical monopoly of this trade until the American Revolution. Aaron Lopez is credited with making Newport an important center of trade, he encouraged 40 Portuguese Jewish families to settle there, Newport had 150 vessels engaged in trade within 14 years of his activity. He was involved in the slave trade and manufactured spermaceti candles, barrels, chocolate, clothes, shoes and bottles, he became the wealthiest man in Newport but was denied citizenship on religious grounds though British law protected the rights of Jews to become citizens. He appealed to the Rhode Island legislature for redress and was refused with this ruling: "Inasmuch as the said Aaron Lopez hath declared himself by religion a Jew, this Assembly doth not admit himself nor any other of that religion to the full freedom of this Colony. So that the said Aaron Lopez nor any other of said religion is not liable to be chosen into any office in this colony nor allowed to give vote as a free man in choosing others."
Lopez persisted by applying for citizenship in Massachusetts. From the mid-17th century, the religious tolerance in Newport attracted numbers of Quakers, known as the Society of Friends; the Great Friends Meeting House in Newport is the oldest existing structure of worship in Rhode Island. In 1727, James Franklin printed the Rhode-Island Almanack in Newport. In 1732, he published the Rhode Island Gazette. In 1758, his son James founded the weekly newspaper Mercury; the famous 18th century Goddard and Townsend furniture was made in Newport. Throughout the 18th century, Newport suffered from an imbalance of trade with the largest colonial ports; as a result, Newport merchants were forced to develop alternatives to conventional exports. In the 1720s, Colonial leaders arrested many pirates, acting under pressure from the British government. Many were buried on Goat Island. Newport was a major center of the slave trade in colonial and early America, active in the "triangle trade" in which slave-produced sugar and molasses from the Caribbean were carried to Rhode Island and distilled into rum, whi
Old State House (Dover, Delaware)
Old Statehouse is a historic state capitol building located on The Green at Dover, Kent County, Delaware. It was built between 1787 and 1792, is a two-story, five bay, brick structure in a Middle Georgian style; the front facade features a fanlight over the center door and above it a Palladian window at the center of the second floor. It has a shingled side gabled roof topped with an octagonal cupola. A number of attached wings were added between 1836 and 1926. From 1792 to 1932 it was the sole seat of State government, while from 1792 until 1873 it served as Kent County Court House; the state house was remodeled in 1873 to reflect a Victorian style and restored in 1976 to its original appearance. Extensive renovations of the State House took place in 2007, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. It is located in the Dover Green Historic District, it is now part of the Delaware National Historic Park and a museum run by the Delaware Division of Historic and Cultural Affairs.
It can be toured Monday -- Saturday 9 -- Sundays 1:30 -- 4:30 free of charge. Old State House – official site Historic American Buildings Survey No. DE-199, "Delaware State House, East side of The Green, Kent County, DE", 9 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 data pages, 2 photo caption pages, supplemental material
Thomas Sully was an American portrait painter. Born in Great Britain, he lived most of his life in Pennsylvania, he painted in the style of Thomas Lawrence. His subjects included national political leaders, such as presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Quincy Adams, General Marquis de Lafayette, many leading musicians and composers. In addition to portraits of wealthy patrons, he painted landscapes and historical pieces such as Passage of the Delaware, his work was adapted for use on United States coinage. Sully was born in Horncastle, England in 1783, to the actors Matthew Sully and Sarah Chester. In March 1792, the Sullys and their nine children emigrated to Charleston, South Carolina, where Thomas’s uncle managed a theater. Sully made his first appearance in the theater as a tumbler at the age of 11 in Charleston. After a brief apprenticeship to an insurance broker, who recognized his artistic talent, at about age 12 Sully began painting, he studied with his brother-in-law Jean Belzons, a French miniaturist, until they had a falling-out in 1799.
He returned to Richmond to learn "miniature and device painting" from his elder brother Lawrence Sully. After Lawrence's death, Thomas Sully married Sarah Sully, he took on the rearing of Lawrence's children. He and Sarah had an additional nine children together. Among the children were Alfred Sully, Mary Chester Sully, Jane Cooper Sully, Blanche Sully, Rosalie Sully, Thomas Wilcocks Sully. Sully was one of the founding members of The Musical Fund Society, he painted the portraits of many of the musicians and composers who were members. Sully became a professional painter at age 18 in 1801, he studied portrait painting under Gilbert Stuart in Boston for three weeks. After some time in Virginia with his brother Lawrence, Sully moved to New York, he settled in Philadelphia in 1806. In 1809 Sully traveled to London for nine months of study under the American Benjamin West, who had established his painting career in Great Britain. Sully's 1824 portraits of John Quincy Adams, who became President within the year, the general Marquis de Lafayette, appear to have brought him widespread recognition.
His Adams portrait is held in the National Gallery of Washington. Many notable Americans of the day had their portraits painted by him. In 1837–1838 he was in London to paint Queen Victoria at the request of Philadelphia's St. George's Society, his daughter Blanche assisted him as the Queen's "stand-in", modeling the Queen's costume when she was not available. One of Sully's portraits of Thomas Jefferson is owned by the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society at the University of Virginia and hangs in that school's rotunda. Another Jefferson portrait, this one head-to-toe, hangs at West Point, as does his portrait of General Alexander Macomb. Sully's records say that he produced 2,631 paintings from 1801, most of which are in the United States, his style resembles that of Thomas Lawrence. Though best known as a portrait painter, Sully made historical pieces and landscapes. An example of the former is the 1819 Passage of the Delaware, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Sully painting, Portrait of Anna and Harriet Coleman, was sold on September 28, 2013 for $145,000 by John M. Hess Auction Service Inc. of Manheim, Pennsylvania.
Sully died in Philadelphia on November 5, 1872. He is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery there, his book Hints to Young Painters was published posthumously after his death. His paintings are displayed permanently in many of the world's leading art museums. Several of Sully's portraits hang in the chambers of the Dialectic and Philanthropic societies of the University of North Carolina. Portraits, including that of President James K. Polk, were commissioned of notable alumni from the Societies; the obverse design of the United States Seated Liberty coinage, which began with the Gobrecht dollar in 1836 and lasted until 1891, was based on his work. His son, Alfred Sully, served as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Through Alfred, Thomas Sully is the great-grandfather of Ella Deloria, the noted Yankton Sioux ethnologist and writer. Standing Rock Sioux scholar and author of Custer Died For Your Sins, an American Indian civil-rights manifesto. Sully was a great-uncle of the New Orleans-based architect.
Charles Henry Lanneau of South Carolina was his student. Murray, P. & L.. Dictionary of art and artists. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051300-0. Carrie Rebora Barratt, Queen Victoria and Thomas Sully. Exhibition catalogue. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000 The Winterthur Library Overview of the archival collection on Thomas Sully. Thomas Sully at Find a Grave "Washington's Crossing as Docudrama", Wall Street Journal, Retrieved 03/19/2001 "Thomas Sully and Queen Victoria". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Eli M. Saulsbury
Eli May Saulsbury was an American lawyer and politician from Dover, in Kent County, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party, who served in the Delaware General Assembly and as U. S. Senator from Delaware. Saulsbury was born in Mispillion Hundred, Kent County, son of William & Margaret Ann Smith Saulsbury, he was the middle brother of Governor Gove Saulsbury and U. S. Senator Willard Saulsbury Sr. Saulsbury was educated at Dickinson College, studied law, was admitted to the Delaware Bar in 1857, began his practice in Dover, where he lived. Saulsbury served one term in the State House, during the 1853/54 session. In 1870 he challenged his younger brother, incumbent U. S. Senator Willard Saulsbury Sr. for his seat in the U. S. Senate, he went on to win three full terms, but was defeated in an attempt for a fourth term by Republican candidate Anthony Higgins. He was in office from March 4, 1871 until March 3, 1889, served on the Committee on Privileges and Elections in the 46th Congress, the Committee on Engrossed Bills in the 47th Congress through the 50th Congress.
Saulsbury is buried there in the Silver Lake Cemetery. Elections are held the first week of November. Members of the Delaware General Assembly take office the first week of January; the State House has a term of two years. The General Assembly chose the U. S. Senators, who took office March 4 for a six-year term. Hoffecker, Carol E.. Democracy in Delaware. Cedar Tree Books, Wilmington. ISBN 1-892142-23-6. Munroe, John A.. History of Delaware. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0-87413-493-5. Scharf, John Thomas.. History of Delaware 1609-1888. 2 vols. L. J. Richards & Co. Philadelphia. Conrad, Henry C.. History of the State of Delaware, 3 vols. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wickersham Company. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Delaware’s Members of Congress Find a Grave The Political Graveyard Delaware Historical Society.
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections. In each country the procedures for opening, in between sessions differs slightly. A session may last for the full term of the legislature or the term may consist of a number of sessions; these may be used as a parliamentary procedural device. A session of the legislature is brought to an end by an official act of prorogation. In either event, the effect of prorogation is the clearing of all outstanding matters before the legislature; each session of a parliament would last less than one year, ceasing with a prorogation during which legislators could return to their constituencies. In more recent times, development in transportation technology has permitted these individuals to journey with greater ease and frequency from the legislative capital to their respective electoral districts for short periods, meaning that parliamentary sessions last for more than one year, though the length of sessions varies.
Legislatures plan their business within a legislative calendar, which lays out how bills will proceed before a session ceases, although related but unofficial affairs may be conducted by legislators outside a session or during a session on days in which parliament is not meeting. While a parliament is prorogued, between two legislative sessions, the legislature is still constituted – i.e. no general election takes place and all Members of Parliament thus retain their seats. In many legislatures, prorogation causes all orders of the body – bills, etc. – to be expunged. Prorogations should thus not be confused with recesses, adjournments, or holiday breaks from legislation, after which bills can resume where they left off. In the United Kingdom, the practice of terminating all bills upon prorogation has altered; this break takes place so as to prevent the upper house from sitting during an election campaign and to purge all upper chamber business before the start of the next legislative session.
It is not uncommon for a session of parliament to be put into recess during holidays and resumed a few weeks exactly where it left off. Governments today end sessions whenever it is most convenient, a new session will begin on the same day that the previous session ended. In most cases, when parliament reconvenes for a new legislative session, the head of state, or a representative thereof, will address the legislature in an opening ceremony. In both parliamentary and presidential systems, sessions are referred to by the name of the body and an ordinal number – for example, the 2nd Session of the 39th Canadian Parliament or the 1st Session of the 109th United States Congress. In Commonwealth realms, legislative sessions can last from a few weeks to over a year; each session begins with a speech from the throne, read to the members of both legislative chambers either by the reigning sovereign or a viceroy or other representative. Houses of parliament in some realms will, following this address, introduce a pro forma bill as a symbol of the right of parliament to give priority to matters other than the monarch's speech.
In the parliament of the United Kingdom, prorogation is preceded by a speech to both legislative chambers, with procedures similar to the Throne Speech. The monarch approves the oration—which recalls the prior legislative session, noting major bills passed and other functions of the government—but delivers it in person, Queen Victoria being the last to do so. Instead, the speech is presented by the Lords Commissioners and read by the Leader of the House of Lords; when King Charles I dissolved the Parliament of England in 1628, after the Petition of Right, he gave a prorogation speech that cancelled all future meetings of the legislature, at least until he again required finances. Prior to 1977, it was common for the federal Parliament to have up to three sessions, with Parliament being prorogued at the end of each session and recalled at the beginning of the next; this was not always the case, for instance. The practice of having multiple sessions in the same parliament fell into disuse, all parliaments from 1978 to 2013 had a single session.
Since 1990, it has been the practice for the parliament to be prorogued on the same day that the House is dissolved so that the Senate will not be able to sit during the election period. However, on 21 March 2016, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced that the 44th Parliament, elected in 2013, would be prorogued on 15 April and that a second session would begin on 18 April. Prorogation is now a procedural device, the effect of, to call the Parliament back on a particular date, to wipe clean all matters before each House, without triggering an election. In the Parliament of Canada and its provinces, the legislature is prorogued upon th
Samuel Francis Du Pont
Samuel Francis Du Pont was a rear admiral in the United States Navy, a member of the prominent Du Pont family. In the Mexican–American War, Du Pont captured San Diego, was made commander of the California naval blockade. Through the 1850s, he promoted engineering studies at the United States Naval Academy, to enable more mobile and aggressive operations. In the American Civil War, he played a major role in making the Union blockade effective, but was controversially blamed for the failed attack on Charleston, South Carolina in April 1863. Du Pont was born at Goodstay, his family home at Bergen Point, New Jersey, the fourth child and second son of Victor Marie du Pont and Gabrielle Joséphine de la Fite de Pelleport, his uncle was Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, the founder of E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company, which began as a gunpowder factory and today is a multinational chemical corporation. Du Pont spent his childhood at his father's home, across the Brandywine Creek from his uncle's estate and gunpowder factory, Eleutherian Mills, just north of Wilmington, Delaware.
He was enrolled at Mount Airy Academy in Germantown, Pennsylvania, at age 9. However, his father was unable to fund his education because of his failing wool mill, he was encouraged to instead enlist in the U. S. Navy, his family's close connections with President Thomas Jefferson helped secure him an appointment as a midshipman by President James Madison at the age of 12, he first set sail aboard the 74-gun ship of the line Franklin out of Delaware in December 1815. As there was no naval academy at the time, Du Pont learned mathematics and navigation at sea and became an accomplished navigator by the time he took his next assignment aboard the frigate Constitution in 1821, he served aboard the frigate Congress in the West Indies and off the coast of Brazil. Though still not yet a commissioned officer, he was promoted to sailing master during his service aboard the 74-gun North Carolina in 1825, which sailed on a mission to display American influence and power in the Mediterranean. Soon after his promotion to Lieutenant in 1826, he was ordered aboard the 12-gun schooner Porpoise, returned home for two years after his father's death in 1827, served aboard the 16-gun sloop Ontario in 1829.
Despite the short period in which he had been an officer by this time, Du Pont had begun to criticize many of his senior officers, who he believed were incompetent and had only received their commands through political influence. After returning from the Ontario in June 1833, Du Pont married Sophie Madeleine du Pont, his first cousin as the daughter of his uncle, Eleuthère Irénée du Pont; as he never kept an officer's journal, his voluminous correspondence with Sophie serves as the main documentation of his operations and observations throughout the rest of his naval career. From 1835 until 1838, he was the executive officer of the frigate Constellation and the sloop Warren, commanding both the latter and the schooner Grampus in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1838 he joined the ship Ohio in the Mediterranean until 1841; the following year he was promoted to Commander and set sail for China aboard the brig Perry, but was forced to return home and give up his command because of severe illness. He returned to service in 1845 as commander of the Congress, the flagship of Commodore Robert Stockton, reaching California by way of a cruise of the Hawaiian Islands by the time the Mexican–American War had begun.
Du Pont was given command of the sloop Cyane in 1846 and showed his skill as a naval combat commander, taking or destroying thirty enemy ships and clearing the Gulf of California in the process. Du Pont transported Major John Fremont's troops to San Diego. Du Pont continued operations along the Baja coast, including the capture of La Paz, burnt two enemy gunboats in the harbor of Guaymas under heavy fire, he led the main line of ships that took Mazatlán on November 11, 1847, on February 15, 1848, launched an amphibious assault on San José del Cabo that managed to strike three miles inland and relieve a besieged squadron, despite heavy resistance. He was given command of the California naval blockade in the last months of the war and, after taking part in further land maneuvers, was ordered home. Du Pont served most of the next decade on shore assignment, his efforts during this time are credited with helping to modernize the U. S. Navy, he studied the possibilities of steam power, emphasized engineering and mathematics in the curriculum that he established for the new United States Naval Academy.
He was appointed superintendent of the Academy, but resigned after four months because he believed it was a post more appropriate for someone closer to retirement age. He was an advocate for a more mobile and offensive Navy, rather than the harbor defense function that much of it was relegated to, worked on revising naval rules and regulations. After being appointed to the board of the United States Lighthouse Service, his recommendations for upgrading the antiquated system were adopted by Congress in a lighthouse bill. In 1853, Du Pont was made general superintendent over what is considered the first World's Fair in the United States—the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, held in New York City. Despite international praise, low attendance caused the venture to go into heavy debt, Du Pont resigned. Du Pont became an enthusiastic supporter of naval reform, writing in support of the 1855 congressional act to "Promote the Efficiency of the Navy." He oversaw the removal of 201 naval officers.
When those under fire called upon friends in Congress