Milford is a borough in Pike County, United States, and the county seat. Its population was 1,021 at the 2010 census, the English called the people the Delaware, after the river they named after one of their colonial leaders. Milford was founded in 1796 after the American Revolutionary War as a United States settlement on the Delaware River by Judge John Biddis and he named the settlement after his ancestral home in Wales. Milford has a number of historical significant buildings, many constructed in the nineteenth century. Some are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, while others are included in the Milford Historic District. Of the 655 buildings in the district,400 of them have been deemed to be historically significant, the district is characterized by a variety of Late Victorian architecture, as well as Mid-19th Century Revival, and Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark, jervis Gordon Grist Mill Historic District, Hotel Fauchere and Annex, Metz Ice Plant, and Pike County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Nearby is Arisbe, the home of Charles S. Peirce, a prominent logician and scientist in the late 19th century, and another NRHP property. The Pike County Historical Society Museum in Milford includes in its collection the Lincoln Flag, the flag was bundled up and placed under the Presidents head, and still bears his blood. It was kept by stage manager Thomas Gourlay and he passed it down to his daughter Jeannie, an actress who had appeared in the play, Our American Cousin, at the theatre that night. She moved to Milford and the flag was donated to the museum after her death, in September 2007, Arthur Frommers Budget Travel named Milford second on its list of Ten Coolest Small Towns in Pennsylvania. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 0.5 square miles. This is located in the Poconos Mountains, in what was historically a heavily wooded area, at the intersection of Broad and High is a public square – just as there is at Broad and Market in Philadelphia – and most of Milfords official buildings are located there.
In between both the named and numbered streets are alleys, named after berries and fruit, in contemporary Milford, Broad Street is marked as U. S. Route 6 and U. S. Route 209. At its intersection with Harford Street, Route 6 continues north on Harford, Milford is located on an escarpment above the Delaware River. These provided power to mills, which contributed to Milfords economy in the 19th century. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,021 people,491 households, the population density was 2,042 people per square mile. There were 580 housing units at a density of 1,160 per square mile
The Minisink or Minisink Valley is a loosely defined geographic region of the Upper Delaware River valley in northwestern New Jersey, northeastern Pennsylvania and New York. The term Minisink is not used often today, Minisink means at the island from the Algonquin root word minis, meaning island. During the colonial period, the Minisink was an area of significant skirmishes, in response to attacks by larger forces of Delaware, Benjamin Franklin ordered the construction of a series of forts along the Pennsylvanian side of the Delaware River. These forts included Fort Hyndshaw, Fort Depuy, Fort Norris, earlier historians posited that Minisink meant people of the stony country or where the stones are gathered together. However, Smithsonian linguist Ives Goddard states that any of the attempts to derive either Minisink or Munsee from words meaning stone or mountain, the Minisink has never been known as a region with distinct, set boundaries. It generally has been conceived as the valley of the Delaware River going northward from the Delaware Water Gap and including the valley of the Neversink River.
According to Vosburgh, The Minisink county consists of the valley of the Neversink west of the Shawangunk Mountains, some sources imply that it was confined to the width of valley of the Delaware and its surrounding hillsides. Other sources define the region as an area extending for 20–30 miles to the east and west of the river and this latter definition would include parts or all of the Kittatinny Valley to the east of Kittatinny Mountain in New Jersey, and westward deep into northeastern Pennsylvania. East of the Shawangunk ridge, in New York are the Town of Greenville and their residents attend Minisink Valley Central School District. The Delaware River was often referred to as the Minisink River in early Dutch colonial documents, the Delaware River constitutes part of the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, and the entire boundary between New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The middle section of the Delaware Rivers course, roughly between Port Jervis, New York and the Delaware Water Gap constitutes the north and southern points of the Minisink or Minisink Valley, the river flows down a broad Appalachian valley.
The Minisink is a valley, where the Delaware flows in a bed of glacial till that buried the eroded bedrock during the last glacial period. At Port Jervis, New York, the river enters the Port Jervis trough, at this point, the Walpack Ridge deflects the Delaware into the Minisink Valley. It skirts the Kittatinny ridge, which it crosses at the Delaware Water Gap and this physiographic province occupies approximately two-thirds of the countys area—the countys western and central sections. Its contour is characterized by long, even ridges with long and this region is largely formed by sedimentary rock. Kittatinny Mountain is the dominant geological feature in the parts of the Minisink located within New Jersey and it is part of the Appalachian Mountains, and part of a ridge that continues as the Blue Ridge or Blue Mountain in Eastern Pennsylvania, and as Shawangunk Ridge in New York. It begins in New Jersey as the half of the Delaware Water Gap. Elevations range from 1,200 to 1,800 feet and attains an elevation of 1,803 feet at High Point
Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon /taɪˈfuːn/, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface and this energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as noreasters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of momentum imparted by the Earths rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter, Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas.
Cyclone refers to their nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect, in addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their energy source. For this reason, coastal regions are vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, can cause significant flooding inland, though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. They carry heat away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes. Tropical cyclones are areas of low pressure in the troposphere. On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest ever observed at sea level, the environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as warm core systems.
The near-surface wind field of a cyclone is characterized by air rotating rapidly around a center of circulation while flowing radially inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm, due to the Earths rotation, as air flows radially inward, it begins to rotate cyclonically in order to conserve angular momentum. At an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere and this radius is typically coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, and has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm, consequently, it is known as the radius of maximum winds. Once aloft, air flows away from the center, producing a shield of cirrus clouds
Minisink Archaeological Site
Minisink Archeological Site, known as Minisink Historic District, is an archeological site of 1320 acres located in both Sussex County, New Jersey and Pike County, Pennsylvania. It was part of an occupied by Munsee-speaking Lenape that extended from southern New York across northern New Jersey to northeastern Pennsylvania. The Munsee were speakers of one of the three major dialects of the Lenape Native American tribe. This interstate territory became the most important Munsee community for the majority of the 17th and 18th centuries, the area has supported human habitation for 10,000 years. The sites archeology has been studied for more than 100 years, since the discovery in 1900 of Native American burials, since the late twentieth century, researchers have concentrated on trying to understand Native American cultures rather than simply retrieve artifacts and antiquities. Today, Minisink remains one of the most extensive, best preserved, the site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1993.
Excavations at the site have helped reveal historic interactions between European and Lenape people in Munsee country, hundreds of early stone tools recovered at the site, along with remains of fish and fruit, indicated a more diverse diet than previously expected by researchers. Approximately 20% of the site was compromised during the floods, the National Park Service is collaborating with the Temple University Department of Anthropology to stabilize the banks as well as conduct archeological research and field schools at the site
Monroe County, Pennsylvania
Monroe County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 169,842, the county was formed from the northern section of Northampton County. Named in honor of James Monroe, the president of the United States. Monroe County is coterminous with the East Stroudsburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, within the Greater New York-Newark, the county is home to East Stroudsburg University. Monroe County is one of the counties in the state of Pennsylvania. Not only has the population increased by over 70% since 1990, there are many new shopping centers, and even more are being constructed and are currently being planned at this time. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 617 square miles. Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Middle Delaware National Scenic River As of the census of 2010, there were 169,842 people,49,454 households, the population density was 228 people per square mile. There were 67,581 housing units at a density of 111 per square mile. 13.
1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19. 9% were of German,16. 8% Irish,14. 5% Italian,8. 8% Pennsylvania German,5. 4% Polish,5. 1% American and 5. 1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 20. 20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was out with 26. 80% under the age of 18,8. 60% from 18 to 24,28. 80% from 25 to 44,23. 50% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males, the United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Monroe County of Pennsylvania as the East Stroudsburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census the Metro area had a population of 169,842, the area ranks 12th most populous in the state of Pennsylvania and ranks 244th most populous in the United States.
The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Monroe County as part of the larger New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2010 US Census, the population of the CSA was 23,076,664, Party registration leans toward the Democratic Party, a result of continued migration to the county by former New York City residents, many of whom are Democrats
Callahan House (Milford, Pennsylvania)
The Callahan House, known as the Jacob Helm House, is a historic home located in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area south of Milford, in Dingman Township, Pike County, Pennsylvania. It was built in two sections, with the older dated to about 1800 and the to about 1820 and it is a long,1 1/2-story, clapboard-clad frame dwelling with a steep gable roof. It features exposed chimney backs at the first floor exterior in the Dutch style, and it served as an inn, and is believed to have been a station on the Underground Railroad. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, Jacob Helm House, U. S. Route 209, Pike County, PA,9 photos,9 data pages, and 1 photo caption page, at Historic American Buildings Survey
Cold Spring Farm Springhouse
Cold Spring Farm Springhouse is a historic springhouse located in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area at Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania. It was built in the century and is a one-story. It measures approximately 12 by 24 feet and it has a wood shingle roof and small cupola. Also on the property is a dam, built about 1909. It represents a typical springhouse of the Delaware River Valley and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers, sometimes shortened to CoE is a U. S. Although generally associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, and provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps mission is to Deliver vital public and military engineering services, partnering in peace and war to strengthen our Nations security, energize the economy and their most visible missions include, designing and operating locks and dams. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washingtons first chief engineer, however, it was not until 1779 that Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers.
One of its first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill, the first Corps of Engineers was mostly composed of French subjects who had been hired by General Washington from the service of Louis XVI. that the said Corps. Shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York, until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. During the first half of the 19th century, West Point was the major and, for a while, the General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey road and canal routes. Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S and it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey, the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids.
The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852, in the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers. The Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War, many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War. Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, and Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of supply lines. The Army Corps of Engineers served as a function in making the war effort logistically feasible. This method of building trenches was known as the zigzag pattern, from the beginning, many politicians wanted the Corps of Engineers to contribute to both military construction and works of a civil nature.
During World War II the mission grew to more than 27,000 military, included were aircraft, tank assembly, and ammunition plants, camps for 5.3 million soldiers, depots and hospitals, as well as the Manhattan Project, and the Pentagon
The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted. More than 2 million people are said to do at least one day-hike on the each year. The idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921, the trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue. It is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, and managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the majority of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms. The trail conservancy claims that the Appalachian Trail is the longest hiking-only trail in the world. It passes through 14 states, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Many books, memoirs and fan organizations are dedicated to these pursuits, other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail.
The Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, and the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called An Appalachian Trail, macKayes idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7,1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C. This meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference, a retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. Andersons efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, and Avery was able to bring other states on board, upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail.
He and MacKaye clashed over the ATCs response to a commercial development along the trails path, MacKaye left the organization. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952, Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATCs trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. The completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association, in 1948, Earl Shaffer of York, brought a great deal of attention to the project by publicizing the first claimed thru-hike. The claim was criticized for the hikes omission of significant portions due to short-cuts
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the laws of each country or the regulations of the international organisations involved. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, by contrast, only 1. 17% of the worlds oceans is included in the worlds ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation, often providing habitat, Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes. Generally, protected areas are understood to be those in human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast.
Of all global terrestrial carbon stock,15. 2% is contained within protected areas, Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the worlds carbon stock, which is the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests,18. 8% of the worlds forest is covered by protected areas, of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990, the categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years, the idea of protection of special places is universal, for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
However, the protected areas movement doesnt begin until late nineteenth-century in North America, New Zealand and South Africa. While the idea of protected areas spread around the world in the twentieth century, thus, in North America, protected areas were about safeguarding dramatic and sublime scenery, in Africa, the concern was with game parks, in Europe, landscape protection was more common. The spectrum of benefits and values of protected areas is recognised not only ecologically, international programmes for the protection of representative ecosystems remain relatively progressive, with less advances in marine and freshwater biomes. There is increasing pressure to take account of human needs when setting up protected areas. Such negotiations are never easy but usually stronger and longer-lasting results for both conservation and people. In some countries, protected areas can be assigned without the infrastructure and networking needed to substitute consumable resources, one of the main concerns regarding protected areas on land and sea is their effectiveness at preventing the ongoing loss of biodiversity
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Sussex County, New Jersey
Sussex County is the northernmost county in the State of New Jersey. It is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area, as of the 2016 Census estimate, the countys population was 142,522, making it the 17th-most populous of the states 21 counties, a 4. Based on 2010 Census data, Vernon Township was the countys largest in population and area, with a population of 23,943 and covering an area of 70.59 square miles. As of 2010 The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 131st-highest per capita income of the 3,113 counties in the United States, the county was established in 1753 and named after historic County Sussex, England. Because of its topography, Sussex County has remained a relatively rural, the county is part of the Skylands Region, a term promoted by the New Jersey Commerce, Economic Growth, & Tourism Commission to encourage tourism. In the western half of the county, several state and federal parks have kept the large tracts of land undeveloped, the eastern half of the county has had more suburban development because of its proximity to more populated areas and commercial development zones.
Until the mid-20th century, most of Sussex Countys economy was based on agriculture, with the decline of these industries in the 1960s, Sussex County was transformed into a bedroom community that absorbed population shifts from New Jerseys urban areas. Recent studies estimate that 60 percent of Sussex County residents work outside of the county, the area of Sussex County and its surrounding region was occupied for approximately 8, 000-13,000 years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, the Munsee Indians inhabited the region, the Munsee were a loosely organized division of the Lenape, a Native American people called Delaware Indians after their historic territory along the Delaware River. The Lenape inhabited the coastal areas and inland along the Hudson. As early as 1690, Dutch and French Huguenot colonists from towns along the Hudson River Valley in New York began permanently settling in the Upper Delaware Valley. The route these Dutch settlers had taken was the path of an old Indian trail and became the route of the Old Mine Road and stretches of present-date U. S.
Route 209. These Dutch settlers penetrated the Minisink Valley and settled as far south as the Delaware Water Gap, throughout the 18th century, immigrants from the Rheinland Palatinate in Germany and Switzerland fled religious wars and poverty to arrive in Philadelphia and New York City. By this time, four large townships had been created in this sparsely populated Northwestern region, Walpack Township, Greenwich Township, Hardwick Township and Newtown Township. On June 8,1753, Sussex County was created from four municipalities. On November 20,1824, Warren County was created from the territory of the Sussex County. Throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, Sussex Countys economy was centered around agriculture. Early settlers established farms whose operations were focused towards subsistence agriculture