Delft

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Delft
City and municipality
Aerial view of Delft with, from left to right, three churches, a university tower building and a windmill
Aerial view of Delft with, from left to right, three churches, a university tower building and a windmill
Flag of Delft
Flag
Coat of arms of Delft
Coat of arms
Highlighted position of Delft in a municipal map of South Holland
Location in South Holland
Coordinates: 52°0′42.25″N 4°21′33.15″E / 52.0117361°N 4.3592083°E / 52.0117361; 4.3592083Coordinates: 52°0′42.25″N 4°21′33.15″E / 52.0117361°N 4.3592083°E / 52.0117361; 4.3592083
Country Netherlands
Province South Holland
Government[1]
 • Body Municipal council
 • Mayor Marja van Bijsterveldt (CDA)
Area[2]
 • Total 24.06 km2 (9.29 sq mi)
 • Land 22.82 km2 (8.81 sq mi)
 • Water 1.24 km2 (0.48 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 0 m (0 ft)
Population (August 2017)[4]
 • Total 101,400
 • Density 4,443/km2 (11,510/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Delftenaar
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postcode 2600–2629
Area code 015
Website www.delft.nl

Delft ([dɛlft] (About this sound listen)) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands known for its historic town centre with canals, Delft Blue pottery, the Delft University of Technology, jurist Hugo Grotius, painter Johannes Vermeer and scientist Antony van Leeuwenhoek, and its association with the royal House of Orange-Nassau. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam and south of The Hague.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The city of Delft came into being beside a canal, the 'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft, it presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court.

From a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed into a city, that in the 13th century (1246) received its charter. (For some more information about the early development, see Gracht).

The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), nicknamed William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger), took up residence in 1572. At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years' War. By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled.

After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange.

When William was shot dead in 1584 by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk (New Church), starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.

Delft Explosion[edit]

The Delft Explosion, also known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, destroying much of the city, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded.

About 30 tonnes (29.5 long tons; 33.1 short tons) of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district. Cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague.

Today, the explosion is remembered primarily for killing Rembrandt's most promising pupil, Carel Fabritius, and destroying almost all his works; a pivotal event in Donna Tartt's Pulitzer Prize-winning 2013 novel The Goldfinch.

Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation.

Sights[edit]

Central square of Delft
Aerial view by the Dutch airforce before World War Two

The city centre retains a large number of monumental buildings, while in many streets there are canals of which the banks are connected by typical bridges,[5] altogether making this city a notable tourist destination.[6]

Historical buildings and other sights of interest include:

Delft City Hall
Eastern Gate (Oostpoort)
"Gemeenlandshuis"
Oude Kerk
Koornbeurs

Culture[edit]

Delft blue is most famous but there are other kinds of Delftware, like this plate faience in rose

Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products[6] which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century. The city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company, it can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles (or Royal Delft) and De Delftse Pauw.

The Bacinol building

The painter Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675) was born in Delft. Vermeer used Delft streets and home interiors as the subject or background in his paintings.[6] Several other famous painters lived and worked in Delft at that time, such as Pieter de Hoogh, Carel Fabritius, Nicolaes Maes, Gerard Houckgeest and Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet. They were all members of the Delft School, the Delft School is known for its images of domestic life, views of households, church interiors, courtyards, squares and the streets of Delft. The painters also produced pictures showing historic events, flowers, portraits for patrons and the court as well as decorative pieces of art.

Delft supports creative arts companies, from 2001 the Bacinol, a building that had been disused since 1951, began to house small companies in the creative arts sector. However, demolition of the building started in December 2009, making way for the construction of the new railway tunnel in Delft, the occupants of the building, as well as the name 'Bacinol', moved to another building in the city. The name Bacinol relates to Dutch penicillin research during WWII.

Education[edit]

TU Delft buildings

Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) is one of four universities of technology in the Netherlands.[8] It was founded as an academy for civil engineering in 1842 by King William II. Today just under 20,000 students are enrolled.[9]

The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, providing postgraduate education for people from developing countries, draws on the strong tradition in water management and hydraulic engineering of the Delft university.

Economy[edit]

The Plantagegeer, one of Delft's several smaller city parks
City center

In the local economic field essential elements are:

Nature and recreation[edit]

East of Delft lies a relatively vast nature and recreation area called the "Delftse Hout" ("Delft Wood")[10] is situated. Through the forest lie bike, horse-riding and footpaths, it also includes a vast lake (suitable for swimming and windsurfing), narrow beaches, a restaurant, community gardens, plus camping ground and other recreational and sports facilities. (There is also a facility for renting bikes from the station.)

Inside the city, apart from a central park, there are also several smaller town parks, like "Nieuwe Plantage", "Agnetapark", "Kalverbos" and others. Furthermore, there is the Botanical Garden of the TU and an arboretum in Delftse Hout.

Famous people from Delft[edit]

Delft was the birthplace of:

Before 1900

Michaëlla Krajicek

After 1900

Otherwise related

Miscellaneous[edit]

One of the 8 different Nuna cars
  • Nuna is a series of manned solar-powered vehicles, built by students at the Delft University of Technology, that won the World solar challenge in Australia seven times in the last nine competitions (in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2013, 2015 and 2017).[11]
  • The so-called "Superbus" project aims to develop high-speed coaches capable of speeds of up to 250 kilometres per hour (155 mph) together with the supporting infrastructure including special highway lanes constructed separately next to the nation's highways; this project was led by Dutch astronaut professor Wubbo Ockels of the Delft University of Technology.
  • Members of both Delft Student Rowing Clubs Proteus-Eretes and Laga have won many international trophies, including Olympic medals, in the past.[12]
  • The Human Power Team Delft & Amsterdam, a team consisting mainly of students from the Delft University of Technology, has won The World Human Powered Speed Challenge (WHPSC) four times. This is an international contest for recumbents in the US state of Nevada, the aim of which is to break speed records [13], they set the world record of 133.78 kliometres an hour (83.13 mph) in 2013.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Delft is twinned with:[14]

Transport[edit]

Topographic map of Delft city (in Dutch), Sept. 2014. Click to enlarge.

Trains stopping at these stations connect Delft with, among others, the nearby cities of Rotterdam and The Hague, up to every five minutes, for most of the day.

There are several bus routes from Delft to similar destinations. Trams frequently travel between Delft and The Hague via special double tracks crossing the city. One of those two lines (19) is still under construction inside Delft and is meant to connect The Hague with a science park, which is being developed on the southern (Rotterdam) side of Delft and is a joint project by the Delft and Rotterdam municipalities.[17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Maak kennis met.." [Meet...]. Burgermeester Verkerk (in Dutch). Gemeente Delft. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Postcodetool for 2611GX". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  4. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  5. ^ Bridges in Delft
  6. ^ a b c d Martin Dunford (2010). The Rough Guide to The Netherlands. Penguin. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84836-882-8. Retrieved 24 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Delft, Zuid-Holland" (in Dutch). Molendatabase. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  8. ^ https://www.4tu.nl/en/
  9. ^ http://www.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Files/tudelft/over/Feiten_en_cijfers/jaarverslagen/facts___figures_2015_digi.pdf
  10. ^ "Category:Delftse Hout". Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  11. ^ www.worldsolarchallenge.org
  12. ^ List of trophies won by Proteus-Eretes members
  13. ^ website of the WHPSC
  14. ^ (source: Delft municipality guide 2005)
  15. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009 Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-28. Retrieved 2009-10-28.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  16. ^ "Category:Spoorzone-project". Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  17. ^ "Nieuwe tram -en buslijnen" [New tram and bus lines]. Traffic and Transit (in Dutch). Haaglanden Urban Regio. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082. 

Further reading[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Delft
  • Vermeer: A View of Delft, Anthony Bailey, Henry Holt & Company, 2001, ISBN 0-8050-6718-3

External links[edit]