Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in glaze containing tin oxide, white and opaque. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery, but little used in East Asia; the pottery body is made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides cobalt oxide, copper oxide, iron oxide, manganese dioxide and antimony oxide; the makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings. The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad. From there it spread to Egypt and Spain before reaching Italy in the Renaissance, Holland in the 16th century and England and other European countries shortly after; the development of white, or near white, firing bodies in Europe from the late 18th century, such as creamware by Josiah Wedgwood, cheap European porcelain and Chinese export porcelain, reduced the demand for tin-glaze Delftware and majolica.
The rise in the cost of tin oxide during the First World War led to its partial substitution by zirconium compounds in the glaze. Tin-glazed pottery of different periods and styles is known by different names; the pottery from Muslim Spain is known as Hispano-Moresque ware. The decorated tin-glaze of Renaissance Italy is called maiolica, sometimes pronounced and spelt majolica by English speakers and authors; when the technique was taken up in the Netherlands, it became known as delftware as much of it was made in the town of Delft. Dutch potters brought it to England in around 1600, wares produced there are known as English delftware or galleyware. In France it was known as faience; the word maiolica is thought to have come from the medieval Italian word for Majorca, an island on the route for ships that brought Hispano-Moresque wares to Italy from Valencia in the 15th and 16th centuries, or from the Spanish obra de Mallequa, the term for lustered ware made in Valencia under the influence of Moorish craftsmen from Malaga.
During the Renaissance, the term maiolica was adopted for Italian-made luster pottery copying Spanish examples, during the 16th century, its meaning shifted to include all tin-glazed earthenware. Because of their identical names, there has been some confusion between tin-glazed majolica/maiolica and the lead-glazed majolica made in England and America in the 19th century, but they are different in origin, technique and history. In the late 18th century, old Italian tin-glazed maiolica became popular among the British, who referred to it by the anglicized pronunciation majolica; the Minton pottery applied the term majolica ware to their product. At the Great Exhibition of 1851, Minton launched the colorful lead-glazed earthenware which they called Palissy ware, soon to become known as majolica. So now we have two distinct products with the same name. "In the 1870s, the curators of the South Kensington Museum returned to the original Italian'maiolica' with an'i' to describe all Italian tin-glazed earthenware, doubtless to stress the Italian pronunciation and to avoid confusion with contemporary majolica."
For the article about 19th century lead-glazed earthenware, see Victorian majolicaW. B. Honey wrote of maiolica that, "By a convenient extension and limitation the name may be applied to all tin-glazed ware, of whatever nationality, made in the Italian tradition … the name faïence being reserved for the wares of the 17th Century onwards, either in original styles or, more in the Dutch-Chinese tradition." The term maiolica is sometimes applied to modern tin-glazed ware made by studio potters. The Moors introduced tin-glazed pottery to Spain after the conquest of 711. Hispano-Moresque ware is distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of its decoration, though as the dish illustrated shows, it was made for the Christian market. Hispano-Moresque shapes of the 15th century included the albarello, luster dishes with coats of arms, made for wealthy Italians and Spaniards, some on high feet, a deep-sided dish and the eared bowl. With the Spanish conquest of Mexico, tin-glazed pottery came to be produced in the Valley of Mexico as early as 1540, at first in imitation of the ceramics imported from Seville.
Although the Moors were expelled from Spain in the early 17th century, the Hispano-Moresque style survived in the province of Valencia. Wares have a coarse reddish-buff body, dark blue decoration and luster; the 15th-century wares that initiated maiolica as an art form were the product of a long technical evolution, in which medieval lead-glazed wares were improved by the addition of tin oxides under the initial influence of Islamic wares imported through Sicily. Such archaic wares are sometimes dubbed proto-maiolica. During the 14th century, the limited palette of colors was expanded from the traditional manganese purple and copper green to embrace cobalt blue, antimony yellow and iron-oxide orange. Sgraffito wares were produced, in which the white tin-oxide slip was decoratively scratched to produce a design from the revealed body of the ware. Refined production of tin-glazed earthenware made for more than local needs was
Imari ware is a Western term for a brightly-coloured style of Arita ware Japanese export porcelain made in the area of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kyūshū. They were exported to Europe in large quantities between the second half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. Imari ware is decorated in underglaze blue, with red, black for outlines, sometimes other colours, added in overglaze. In the most characteristic floral designs most of the surface is coloured, with "a tendency to overdecoration that leads to fussiness"; the style was so successful that European producers began to copy it. Sometimes the different overglaze styles of Kakiemon and Kutani ware are grouped under Imari ware; the name derives from the port of Imari, Saga from which they were shipped to Nagasaki, where the Dutch East India Company and the Chinese had trading outposts. In the West the multi-coloured or "enamelled" wares became known as "Imari ware", a different group kakiemon, while blue and white wares were called "Arita ware".
Today, the use of "Imari" as a descriptor has declined, they are called Arita wares. Imari ware was copied in both China and Europe, has been continuously produced to the present day. "Early Imari" is a traditional and somewhat confusing term used for different wares that were made around Arita before about 1650. The porcelains are small and sparsely painted in underglaze blue for the domestic market, but there are some large green celadon dishes made for the southeast Asian market, in a porcellaneous stoneware. "Imari" was the trans-shipment port for Arita wares, from where they went to the foreign trading outposts at Nagasaki. It was the kilns at Arita. Arita's kilns were set up in the 17th century, after kaolin was discovered in 1616. A popular legend attributes the discovery to an immigrant Korean potter, Yi Sam-pyeong, although most historians consider this doubtful. After the discovery, some kilns began to produce revised Korean-style blue and white porcelains, known as Early Imari, or "Shoki-Imari".
In the mid-17th century there were many Chinese refugees in northern Kyushu due to the turmoil in China, it is said that one of them brought the overglaze enamel coloring technique to Arita. Thus Shoki-Imari developed into Ko-Kutani and Kakiemon, which are sometimes taken as a wider group of Imari wares. Ko-Kutani was produced around 1650 for domestic market. Kutani ware is characterized by vivid green, purple and red colors in bold designs of landscapes and nature. Blue and white porcelain pieces continued to be produced and they are called Ai-Kutani. Ko-Kutani Imari for the export market adopted Chinese design structure such as kraak style, whereas Ai-Kutani for the domestic market were unique in design and are accordingly valued much among collectors. Ko-Kutani style evolved into Kakiemon-style Imari, produced for about 50 years around 1700. Kakiemon was characterized by crisp lines, bright blue and green designs of stylized floral and bird scenes. Imari achieved its technical and aesthetic peak in the Kakiemon style, it dominated the European market.
Blue and white Kakiemon is called Ai-Kakiemon. The Kakiemon style transformed into Kinrande in the 18th century, using underglaze blue and overglaze red and gold enamels, additional colors. Imari began to be exported to Europe when the Chinese kilns at Jingdezhen were damaged in the political chaos and the new Qing dynasty government halted trade in 1656–1684. Exports to Europe were made through the Dutch East India Company, in Europe the designation "Imari porcelain" connotes Arita wares of Kinrande Imari. Export of Imari to Europe stopped in mid-18th century when China resumed export to Europe, since Imari was not able to compete against Chinese products due to high labor costs. By that time, both Imari and Kakiemon styles were so popular among Europeans that the Chinese export porcelain copied both, a type known as Chinese Imari. At the same time, European kilns, such as Meissen and English potteries such as Johnson Bros. and Crown Derby imitated the Imari and Kakiemon styles. Export of Imari surged again in late 19th century.
Thus in the western world today, two kinds of true Japanese Imari can be found: that exported in the mid-Edo period, that exported in the Meiji era. From the viewpoint of collectors, these two types are different, though Kinrande appearances are similar. Though there are many types of Imari ware, the type so called in the West is called kinrande in Japanese, was produced for export in large quantities from the mid-17th century until the export trade tailed off around 1740. Kinrande has underglaze cobalt blue and overglaze red and gold, sometimes other colors; the color combination was not seen in China at that time. Traditional Ming dynasty color porcelain used dominantly red and green due to scarcity of gold in China, whereas gold was abundant in Japan in those days; the subject matter of Arita is diverse, ranging from foliage and flowers to people and abstractions. Some designs such as Kraak porcelain were adopted from China, but most designs were uniquely Japanese owing to the rich Japanese tradition of paintings and costume design.
The porcelain has a gritty texture on the base. Though sophis
Chinese export porcelain
Chinese export porcelain includes a wide range of Chinese porcelain, made for export to Europe and to North America between the 16th and the 20th century. Whether wares made for non-Western markets are covered by the term depends on context. Chinese ceramics made for export go back to the Tang dynasty if not earlier, though they may not be regarded as porcelain, it is not used as a descriptive term for the much earlier wares that were produced to reflect Islamic taste and exported to the Middle East and Central Asia, though these were very important driving the development of Chinese blue and white porcelain in the Yuan and Ming dynasties. Longquan celadon, not porcelain on Western definitions, is one of the wares to produce large dishes that reflected Islamic dining habits, rather than the deeper bowls used by the Chinese. In general wares made for export in the early periods, were "mainly strong and rather roughly-finished articles", compared to those for the elite domestic market, to allow for the stresses of transport, less sophisticated customers.
Other types of Chinese wares made for export to other markets may or may not be covered. The other types include Swatow ware, made for South-East Asian and Japanese markets, Tianqi porcelain, made for the Japanese market in the 17th century. Chinese celadons were exported to most of Eurasia, but not Europe, between the Tang and the early Ming dynasties, it took some time for feedback from export markets to influence the shapes and decoration of the Chinese product in earlier periods, with distant markets such as Europe. Markets were sent what the Chinese market, or older exports markets, liked. With the increasing reach of European trading companies the Dutch VOC, this became possible, even specific armorial designs could be ordered from Europe. European visitors to Istanbul in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are recorded as having purchased Chinese porcelain there; some other pieces came via the Portuguese settlement of Malacca. The Chamber of Art and Curiosities at Ambras Castle contains the collection of Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, assembled during the mid-15th century.
These early collections of blue-and-white ware, were regarded as rare curios and art objects, were mounted in precious metals. Wares include Kraak porcelain, Swatow ware, Transitional porcelain, armorial porcelain, Canton porcelain, Chinese Imari, which were all or made for export, as well as other types that were sold to the domestic market; this group included Yixing stonewares, Blanc de Chine and white porcelain, famille verte, noire and rose. Chinese export porcelain was decorative, but without the symbolic significance of wares produced for the Chinese home market. Except for the rare Huashi soft paste wares, traditionally Chinese porcelain was made using kaolin and petuntse. While rim chips and hairline cracks are common, pieces tend not to stain. Chinese wares were thinner than those of the Japanese and did not have stilt marks. In the 16th century, Portuguese traders began importing late Ming dynasty blue and white porcelains to Europe, resulting in the growth of the Kraak porcelain trade.
In 1602 and 1604, two Portuguese carracks, the San Yago and Santa Catarina, were captured by the Dutch and their cargos, which included thousands of items of porcelain, were sold off at an auction, igniting a European interest for porcelain. Buyers included the Kings of France. After this, a number of European nations established companies trading with the countries of East Asia, the most significant for the porcelain being the Dutch East India Company or VOC. Between 1602 and 1682 the company carried between 30 and 35 million pieces of Chinese and Japanese export porcelain; the English East India Company imported around 30 million pieces, the French East India Company 12 million, the Portuguese East India Company 10 million and the Swedish East India Company some 20 million pieces between 1766 and 1786. The trade continued until the mid-17th century when the Ming dynasty fell in 1644, civil war disrupted porcelain production. European traders turned to Japanese export porcelain instead, though much of, still traded through Chinese ports.
However, the Chinese had reasserted their dominance by the 1740s. As valuable and prized possessions, pieces of Chinese export porcelain appeared in many 17th century Dutch paintings; the illustration shows a painting by Jan Jansz. Treck that includes two Kraak-style bowls late Ming, the one in the foreground being of a type the Dutch called klapmuts; the blue pigment used by the artist has faded badly. Under the Kangxi Emperor's reign the Chinese porcelain industry, now largely concentrated at Jingdezhen was reorganised and the export trade soon flourished again. Chinese export porcelain from the late 17th century included white and Famille verte wares. Wares included garnitures of vases, teawares and other useful wares along with figurines and birds. Blanc de Chine porcelains and Yixing stonewares arriving in Europe and gave inspiration to many European potters; the massive increase in imports allowed purchasers to amas
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size. Ships are distinguished from boats based on their larger size and cargo or passenger capacity, their ability to carry boats. Small boats are found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes being known as oreboats. Boats vary in proportion and construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation and sport. Fishing boats vary in style to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboats have safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower and motor. Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times; the earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris, constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Netherlands. Other old dugout boats have been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.
Evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India; this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels; the historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce and military purposes. Boats can be categorized into three main types: human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboats, propelled by means of sails. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines; the hull is the main, in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both buoyancy; the keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in whole.
While a ship has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads; the forward end of a boat is called the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port; until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials wood, although reed and animal skins were used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment".
This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode; these materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, the Bessemer process cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass became pop
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad, one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. Haarlem had a population of 159,556 in 2017, it is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam, many residents commute to the country's capital for work. Haarlem was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270; the modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede. Apart from the city, the municipality of Haarlem includes the western part of the village of Spaarndam. Newer sections of Spaarndam lie within the neighbouring municipality of Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude; the city is located on the river Spaarne, giving it its nickname'Spaarnestad'. It is situated about 20 km west near the coastal dunes. Haarlem has been the historical centre of the tulip bulb-growing district for centuries and bears its other nickname'Bloemenstad' for this reason.
Haarlem has a rich history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal, which connects Leiden to Alkmaar. The people on this narrow strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, the waters of the IJ and the Haarlem Lake from the east. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships and travellers moving on this busy North-South route. However, as shipping became important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age; the town of Halfweg became a suburb, Haarlem became a quiet bedroom community, for this reason Haarlem still has many of its central medieval buildings intact. Nowadays many of them are on the Dutch Heritage register known as Rijksmonuments; the list of Rijksmonuments in Haarlem gives an overview of these per neighbourhood, with the majority in the old city centre. The oldest mentioning of Haarlem dates from the 10th century.
The name comes from "Haarlo-heim". This name is composed of three elements: lo and heim. There is not much dispute about the meaning of heim. Haar, has several meanings, one of them corresponding with the location of Haarlem on a sand dune:'elevated place'; the name Haarlem or Haarloheim would therefore mean'home on a forested dune'. There was a stream called "De Beek", dug from the peat grounds west of the river Spaarne as a drainage canal. Over the centuries the Beek was turned into an underground canal, as the city grew larger and the space was needed for construction. Over time it began to silt up and in the 19th century it was filled in; the location of the village was a good one: by the river Spaarne, by a major road going south to north. By the 12th century it was a fortified town, Haarlem became the residence of the Counts of Holland. In 1219 the knights of Haarlem were laurelled by Count Willem I, because they had conquered the Egyptian port of Damietta in the fifth crusade. Haarlem received the right to cross in its coat of arms.
On 23 November 1245 Count Willem II granted Haarlem city rights. This implied a number of privileges, among which the right for the sheriff and magistrates to administer justice, instead of the Count; this allowed for a quicker and more efficient judiciary system, more suited to the needs of the growing city. After a siege from the surrounding area of Kennemerland in 1270 a defensive wall was built around the city. Most this was an earthen wall, with wooden gates; the city started out between Spaarne, Ridderstraat and Naussaustraat. In the 14th century the city expanded, the Burgwalbuurt and the area around the Oudegracht became part of the city; the old defenses proved not to be sufficiently strong for the expanded city, at the end of the 14th century a 16½-metre high wall was built, complete with a 15-metre wide canal circling the city. In 1304 the Flemish threatened the city. All the city's buildings were made of wood, fire was a great risk. In 1328 nearly the whole city burnt down; the Sint-Bavokerk was damaged, rebuilding it would take more than 150 years.
Again on 12 June 1347 there was a fire in the city. A third large fire, in 1351, destroyed many buildings including the Count's castle and the city hall; the Count did not need a castle in Haarlem because his castle in Den Haag had taken over all functions. The Count donated the ground to the city and a new city hall was built there; the shape of the old city was square—this was inspired by the shape of ancient Jerusalem. After every fire the city was rebuilt an indication of the wealth of the city in those years; the Black Death came to the city in 1381. According to an estimate by a priest from Leiden the disease killed 5,000 people, about half the population at that time. In the 14th century Haarlem was a major city, it was the second largest city in historical Holland after Dordrecht and before Delft, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. In 1429 the city gained the right to collect tolls, including ships passing the city on the Spaarne river. At the end of the Middle Ages Haarlem was a flourishing city with a large textile industry and beer breweries.
Around 1428 the city was put under siege by the army of Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut
Maiolica called Majolica, is Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance period. It is decorated in colours on a white background, sometimes depicting historical and mythical scenes, these works known as istoriato wares. By the late 15th century, several places small cities in northern and central Italy, were producing sophisticated pieces for a luxury market in Italy and beyond; the name is thought to come from the medieval Italian word for Majorca, an island on the route for ships bringing Hispano-Moresque wares from Valencia to Italy. Moorish potters from Majorca are reputed to have worked in Sicily and it has been suggested that their wares reached the Italian mainland from Caltagirone. An alternative explanation of the name is that it comes from the Spanish term obra de Malaga, denoting “ wares from Malaga”. or obra de mélequa, the Spanish name for lustre. In the 15th century, the term maiolica referred to lusterware, including both Italian-made and Spanish imports, tin-glaze wares were known as bianchi.
By 1875 the term was in use describing ceramics made in Italy, lustred or not, of tin-glazed earthenware. With the Spanish conquest of Mexico, tin-glazed maiolica wares came to be produced in the Valley of Mexico as early as 1540, at first in imitation of tin-glazed pottery imported from Seville. Mexican maiolica is known famously as'Talavera'. "By a convenient extension and limitation the name may be applied to all tin-glazed ware, of whatever nationality, made in the Italian tradition... the name faïence being reserved for the wares of the 17th Century onwards, either in original styles or, more in the Dutch-Chinese tradition." The term "maiolica" is sometimes applied to modern tin-glazed ware made by studio potters. The word, majolica, is used for Victorian majolica, a hard-wearing type of pottery where coloured lead glazes are applied direct to the'biscuit'. Tin glazing creates a brilliant opaque surface for painting; the colours are applied as metallic oxides or as fritted underglazes to the unfired glaze, which absorbs pigment like fresco, making errors impossible to fix, but preserving the brilliant colors.
Sometimes the surface is covered with a second glaze that lends greater shine and brilliance to the wares. In the case of lustred wares, a further firing at a lower temperature is required. Kilns required wood as well as suitable clay. Glaze was made from wine lees, lead compounds and tin compounds. Analysis of samples of Italian maiolica pottery from the Middle Ages has indicated that tin was not always a component of the glaze, whose chemical composition varied; the fifteenth-century wares that initiated maiolica as an art form were the product of an evolution in which medieval lead-glazed earthenwares were improved by the addition of tin oxides under the influence of Islamic wares imported through Sicily. Such archaic wares are sometimes called "proto-maiolica". During the fourteenth century, the limited palette of colours for earthenware decorated with coloured lead glazes was expanded from the traditional manganese purple and copper green to include cobalt blue, antimony yellow and iron-oxide orange.
Sgraffito wares were produced, in which the white tin-oxide glaze was scratched through to produce a design from the revealed body of the ware. Scrap sgraffito ware excavated from kilns in Bacchereto and Florence show that such wares were produced more than at Perugia and Città di Castello, the places to which they have been traditionally attributed. Refined production of tin-glazed earthenwares made for more than local needs was concentrated in central Italy from the thirteenth century in the contada of Florence; the medium was adopted by the Della Robbia family of Florentine sculptors. The city itself declined in importance as a centre of maiolica production in the second half of the fifteenth century because of local deforestation, manufacture was scattered among small communes, after the mid-fifteenth century, at Faenza. Potters from Montelupo set up the potteries at Cafaggiolo. In 1490, twenty-three master-potters of Montelupo agreed to sell the year's production to Francesco Antinori of Florence.
In the fifteenth century, Florentine wares spurred the production of maiolica at Siena. Italian maiolica reached an astonishing degree of perfection in this period. In Romagna, which gave its name to faience, produced fine maiolica from the early fifteenth century. Bologna produced lead-glazed wares for export. Orvieto and Deruta both produced maioliche in the fifteenth century. In the sixteenth century, maiolica production was established at Castel Durante, Urbino and Pesaro; the early sixteenth century saw the development of istoriato wares on which historical and mythical scenes were painted in great detail. The State Museum of Medieval and Modern Art] in Arezzo claims to have the largest collection of istoriato wares in Italy. Istoriato wares are well represented in the British Museum, London; some maiolica was produced as far north as Padua and Turin and as far south as Palermo and Caltagirone in Sicily and Laterza in Apulia. In the seventeenth century Savona began to be a prominent place of manufacture.
The variety of styles that arose in the sixteenth century all but defies classification. Goldthwaite notes that Paride Berardi's morphology of Pesaro maioliche comprises four sty