The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented by the Newspaper Guild, which operates under the Communications Workers of America. As of 2007, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,700 newspapers, in addition to more than 5,000 television, the photograph library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries and it operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports.
The AP employs the inverted pyramid formula for writing that enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the storys essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time, documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851, initially known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, when the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour.
During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity, the cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East. He introduced the telegraph typewriter or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914, in 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave AP a major advantage over other media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco, eventually AP had its network across the whole United States, in 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations, it created its own radio network in 1974
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4,1896, Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, and 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million, approximately 80% of whom live along the Wasatch Front, Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, and Nevada to the west. It touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast, approximately 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or LDS, which greatly influences Utahn culture and daily life. The LDS Churchs world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City, Utah is the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, mining, in 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that Utah had the second fastest-growing population of any state.
St. George was the metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the best state to live in based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic, the name Utah is derived from the name of the Ute tribe. It means people of the mountains in the Ute language, according to other sources Utah is derived from the Apache name Yudah which means Tall. These Native American tribes are subgroups of the Ute-Aztec Native American ethnicity and were sedentary, the Ancestral Pueblo people built their homes through excavations in mountains, and the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century, in the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, and the Ute people, settled in the region.
These five groups were present when the first European explorers arrived, the southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California, the expedition traveled as far north as Utah Lake and encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature, in 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California. European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada, the city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825. The city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, in late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake.
Due to the salinity of its waters, Bridger thought he had found the Pacific Ocean
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, United States. It is Utahs oldest continuously published daily newspaper and has the largest Sunday circulation in the state, the News is owned by Deseret News Publishing Company, a subsidiary of Deseret Management Corporation, a holding company owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The newspaper is printed by the Newspaper Agency Corporation, which it co-owns with The Salt Lake Tribune under a joint operating agreement, in 2006, combined circulation of the two papers was 151,422. The Church News includes news of the LDS Church and has published since 1931, while the Mormon Times is about the people, faith. Since 1974 the Deseret News has published the Church Almanac, the editorial tone of the Deseret News is usually described as moderate to conservative, and is often assumed to reflect the values of its owner, the LDS Church. For example, the newspaper does not accept advertising that violates church standards, Phelps left Winter Quarters sometime in May, and went to Boston by way of the former Mormon settlement of Nauvoo, Illinois.
In Boston, with the help of William I, the president of the Churchs Eastern States Mission, and Church member Alexander Badlam, Phelps was able to procure a wrought iron Ramage hand-press and other required equipment. He returned to Winter Quarters on November 12,1847, with the press, due partly to its size and weight, the press and equipment would not be taken to Salt Lake City until 1849. By that time many of the Mormon pioneers had left Winter Quarters, in April 1849 the press and other church property was loaded onto ox drawn wagons, and traveled with the Howard Egan Company along the Mormon Trail. The wagon company, with the press, arrived in the Salt Lake Valley August 7,1849, the press was moved into a small adobe building that served as a coin mint for the settlers. The press was at first used to print the necessary documents used in setting up the provisional State of Deseret, the first issue of the Deseret News was published June 15,1850, and was 8 pages long. Because it was meant to be the voice of the State of Deseret, it was called the Deseret News and it was at first a weekly Saturday publication, and published in pamphlet form in hopes that readers would have the papers bound into volumes.
Subscription rate was $2.50 for six months, a jobs press, usually called the Deseret News Press, was set up so the News could print books, handbills, etc. for paying customers and other publishers. From the beginning paper shortages were a problem for the News staff, starting with the October 19,1850 issue—only four months after publication began—the paper had to be changed to a bi-weekly publication. Even so, many times in the 1850s there were periods when the News could not be published for lack of paper. The publishers asked everyone to donate old paper and cloth to the venture, in the summer of 1854 the first issues of the News were published on homemade paper that was very thick, and grayish in color. Even with paper shortages, occasionally a News extra would be published, during a turbulent time period, known as the Utah War, the News presses and equipment were moved to the central and southern parts of the state. As armed forces of the United States camped just outside the state at Fort Bridger, Cannon was assigned to take some presses and equipment to Fillmore while Henry McEwan was to take the remainder to Parowan
Grand County, Utah
Grand County is a county located in the U. S. state of Utah. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,225 and its county seat and largest city is Moab. The county was named for the Colorado River, which at the time of statehood was known as the Grand River and it is west from the Colorado state line. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,684 square miles. The Green River forms the boundary and Colorado lies on the eastern boundary. The Colorado River flows through the southeast corner, deserts and plateaus make up the scenery, with few settlements apart from the city of Moab, a Colorado River oasis. Arches National Park lies in the part of the county. Also, the northernmost extension of Canyonlands National Park lies in the southwest corner of the county, the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 4,062 housing units at a density of 1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92. 65% White,0. 25% Black or African American,3. 85% Native American,0.
22% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,1. 66% from other races, and 1. 32% from two or more races. 5. 55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,29. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was out with 26. 90% under the age of 18,8. 20% from 18 to 24,27. 90% from 25 to 44,24. 50% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,387, and the median income for a family was $39,095. Males had an income of $31,000 versus $21,769 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,356, about 10. 90% of families and 14. 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21. 20% of those under age 18 and 8. 40% of those age 65 or over. While most of Utah is deeply Republican, Grand County has become a county in recent years
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earths crust, transport it away to another location. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, the rates at which such processes act control how fast a surface is eroded. Feedbacks are possible between rates of erosion and the amount of eroded material that is carried by, for example. Processes of erosion that produce sediment or solutes from a place contrast with those of deposition, while erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. At well-known agriculture sites such as the Appalachian Mountains, intensive farming practices have caused erosion up to 100x the speed of the rate of erosion in the region. Excessive erosion causes both on-site and off-site problems, on-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers.
In some cases, the end result is desertification. Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads. Intensive agriculture, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four types of soil erosion, splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion. Splash erosion is generally seen as the first and least severe stage in the erosion process. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a crater in the soil. The distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0.6 m vertically and 1.5 m horizontally on level ground. If the soil is saturated, or if the rate is greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil.
If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles down the slope, sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil particles by overland flow. Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes, where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Flow depths in rills are typically of the order of a few centimetres or less and this means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics very different from water flowing through the deeper, wider channels of streams and rivers. Gully erosion occurs when water accumulates and rapidly flows in narrow channels during or immediately after heavy rains or melting snow
A panhole is a depressed, erosional feature found on flat or gently sloping rock. Panholes are the result of weathering and are generally seen on bedrock or very large blocks of rock. Similar terms are gnamma, opferkessel, “armchair hollows”, weathering pans, other German names include kamenitza and kamenica. In Portuguese and Galician are called pias, in Namaqualand these features are called. gau These shallow solution basins, or closed depressions, tend to form on bare limestone or silicate rock. They are found on granitic rock and they are generally characterized by flat bottoms and sometimes by overhanging sides. The initial form may be a hollow created by a patch of humus. In Sierra Nevada granitic rocks, these features have a shape such that they expand more rapidly in width than they grow in depth. The Australian aboriginal term gnamma, in particular, implies a depression capable of holding water at times, a related concept is a swirlhole, A hole in rock in a streambed eroded by eddying water, with or without sand or pebble abrasives.
Swirlholes typically form at the bottoms of waterfalls, beam Rocks, Forbes State Forest, Pennsylvania, USA Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA Glacier Point, Yosemite National Park, California, USA
Postage stamp may refer to a formatting artifact in the display of film or video, Windowbox. A postage stamp is a piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special paper, show a national designation and a denomination on the front. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover the customer wishes to send, the item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark, sometimes known as a cancellation mark, is usually applied in overlapping manner to stamp and cover. This procedure marks the stamp as used to prevent its reuse, in modern usage, postmarks generally indicate the date and point of origin of the mailing. The mailed item is delivered to the address the customer has applied to the envelope or parcel. Postage stamps have facilitated the delivery of mail since the 1840s, before then and hand-stamps, usually made from wood or cork, were often used to frank the mail and confirm the payment of postage.
The first adhesive postage stamp, commonly referred to as the Penny Black, was issued in the United Kingdom in 1840, there are varying accounts of the inventor or inventors of the stamp. The postage stamp resolved this issue in a simple and elegant manner, concurrently with the first stamps, the UK offered wrappers for mail. S. Postal service for priority or express mailing, the postage stamp afforded convenience for both the mailer and postal officials, more effectively recovered costs for the postal service, and ultimately resulted in a better, faster postal system. With the conveniences stamps offered, their use resulted in greatly increased mailings during the 19th and 20th centuries, as postage stamps with their engraved imagery began to appear on a widespread basis and collectors began to take notice. The study of stamps and their use is referred to as philately. Stamp collecting can be both a hobby and a form of study and reference, as government-issued postage stamps. The postage for the item was prepaid by the use of a hand-stamp to frank the mailed item.
Though this stamp was applied to a letter instead of a piece of paper it is considered by many historians as the worlds first postage stamp. Rowland Hill The Englishman Sir Rowland Hill began interest in postal reform in 1835, in 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, provided Hill with numerous books and documents, which Hill described as a half hundred weight of material. Hill commenced a study of these documents, leading him to the 1837 publication of a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform its Importance
2002 Winter Olympics torch relay
The 2002 Winter Olympics torch relay was a 65-day run, from December 4,2001 to February 8,2002, prior to the 2002 Winter Olympics. The 2002 torch relay was the 50th anniversary of the Winter Olympic torch relay, the Salt Lake Organizing Committee contracted with Além International Management, Inc. to plan the torch relay route, including security and marketing plans. The plan produced by SLOC and Além was announced to the public on December 4,2000 and it would have the torch cover 13,500 miles passing through 46 of the 50 states in the United States, and be carried by 12,012 Torchbearers. The torch would pass through 300 communities, stopping twice-a-day, once for a mid-day celebration,120 of the 300 communities would host the special celebrations, which would allow large groups of people to participate in the Olympic Spirit. It allowed each community to show off local talent, its people, New York City, and Salt Lake City were all selected as special Signature Cities, and they would host large relay celebrations which would be paid for and controlled by SLOC.
Later plans for special commemorations of September 11,2001, along the route in Washington, D. C. and New York City. The torch and all relay marketing would be designed to follow the 2002 Olympic theme Light the Fire Within. In February 2000 The Coca-Cola Company and Chevrolet signed an agreement with SLOC to become the official relay sponsors, in February 2001 the nomination process for Torchbearers was begun, and the selected persons were announced in September 2001. SLOC had decided on a theme of Inspire for the Torchbearers, of the 12,012 Torchbearer positions, SLOC, Coca-Cola, and Chevrolet each got to select one-third of the nominees, while a few were reserved for providers and special guests at the Opening Ceremony. Coca-Cola and Chevrolet both received more than 120,000 applications for their positions, and both used a selection process to choose torchbearers. The 2002 Olympic Torch and manufactured by Coleman, is modeled after an icicle, with a curve to represent speed. The Torch measures 33 inches long,3 inches wide at the top,0.5 inches at the bottom and it was created with three sections, each with its own meaning and representation.
The top section was glass, and the Olympic Flame burned within the glass, the glass stood for purity, winter and nature. Also inside the glass was a geometric structure which helped hold the flame. Copper is an important natural element of Utah, and represented fire, Utahs History. The center section was made of silver and finished to look old and worn, while the section was made of clean. The center section represented the mining heritage of the American West, while the bottom section represented the future. The Torchbearer gripped the torch at the junction of both the aged and polished silver, during which their hand represented a bridge from the past to the present, the two silver sections mirrored the blue/purple colors of the Fire and Ice theme
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to structures or features. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe a set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, estate. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a general one. A landmark became an object in a landscape. A landmark literally meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation. The Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port, in modern usage, a landmark includes anything that is easily recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure.
In American English it is the term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are often used for casual navigation and this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as a point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are often used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in fields of study. Landmarks are usually classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, a variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure usually built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as mountains or plateaus, examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States.
Trees might serve as landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers. Some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Queens Oak, church spires and mosques minarets are often very tall and visible from many miles around, thus often serve as built landmarks. Also town hall towers and belfries often have a landmark character, cultural heritage management National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons