The Delmarva Peninsula, or Delmarva, is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shores of Maryland and Virginia. The peninsula is 170 miles long. In width, it ranges from 70 miles near its center, to 12 miles at the isthmus on its northern edge, to less near its southern tip of Cape Charles, it is bordered by the Chesapeake Bay on the west, the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, the Atlantic Ocean on the east. In older sources, the peninsula between Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay was referred to variously as the Delaware and Chesapeake Peninsula or the Chesapeake Peninsula; the toponym Delmarva is a clipped compound of Delaware and Virginia, which in turn was modeled after Delmar, a border town named after two of those states. While Delmar was founded and named in 1859, the earliest uses of the name Delmarva occurred several decades and appear to have been commercial. At the northern point of the peninsula there is a geographic fall line that separates the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont from the unconsolidated sediments of the Coastal Plain.
This line passes through Newark and Wilmington and Elkton, Maryland. The northern isthmus of the peninsula is transected by Delaware Canal. Several bridges cross the canal, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel join the peninsula to mainland Maryland and Virginia, respectively. Another point of access is Lewes, reachable by the Cape May–Lewes Ferry from Cape May, New Jersey. Dover, Delaware's capital city, is the peninsula's largest city by population; the main commercial areas are Wilmington, Delaware in the north and Salisbury, near its center. Including all offshore islands, the total land area south of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is 5,454 sq mi. At the 2000 census the total population was 681,030, giving an average population density of 124.86 inhabitants per square mile. Cape Charles forms the southern tip of the peninsula in Virginia; the entire Delmarva Peninsula falls within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a flat and sandy area with few or no hills. The fall line, found in the region southwest of Wilmington and just north of the northern edge of the Delmarva Peninsula, is a geographic borderland where the Piedmont region transitions into the coastal plain.
Its Atlantic Ocean coast is formed by the Virginia Barrier Islands in the south and the Fenwick Island barrier spit in the north. The culture of Delmarva is starkly different from the rest of the Mid-Atlantic region and is much like that of the Southern United States. While the northern portion of Delmarva, such as the Wilmington, Delaware metro area, is similar to the urban regions of Philadelphia, the Maryland and Virginia Delmarva counties are more conservative than their "mainland" counties. Delmarva is driven by commercial fishing. Most of the land is rural, there are only a few large population centers, it has been suggested that Delmarva residents have a variation of Southern American English, prevalent in rural areas. The border between Maryland and Delaware, which resulted from the 80-year-long Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute, consists of the east-west Transpeninsular Line and the perpendicular north-south portion of the Mason–Dixon line extending north to just beyond its tangental intersection with the Twelve-Mile Circle which forms Delaware's border with Pennsylvania.
The border between Maryland and Virginia on the peninsula follows the Pocomoke River from the Chesapeake to a series of straight surveyed lines connecting the Pocomoke to the Atlantic Ocean. All three counties in Delaware—New Castle and Sussex—are located on the peninsula. Of the 23 counties in Maryland, nine are on the Eastern Shore: Kent, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Wicomico and Worcester, as well as a portion of Cecil County. Two Virginia counties are on the peninsula: Northampton; the following is a list of some of the notable towns on the peninsula. Chestertown, Maryland, is the home of Washington College. Centreville, Maryland, is the county seat of Queen Anne's County. Easton, Maryland, is the county seat of Talbot County. St. Michael's, Maryland, is a popular tourist destination. Dover, Delaware, is the Delaware state capital and the peninsula's largest city in terms of population. Lewes, Delaware, is the site of the first European colonization in Delaware, is nicknamed "the first town in the first state", is a port city for the Cape May–Lewes Ferry.
Ocean City, Maryland, is a popular resort town. Crisfield, Maryland, is a notable source of seafood. Seaford, the "Nylon Capital of the World", is the largest city in Sussex County. Salisbury, Maryland, is the county seat of Wicomico County, the second largest city in the peninsula and the lower peninsula's only urbanized area, it is known as the "Crossroads of Delmarva". It is home to the Salisbury–Ocean City–Wicomico Regional Airport, the only airport on the peninsula with scheduled commercial flights. Delmar, part of the Salisbury Urbanized Area, lies across the Maryland-Delaware border from its twin, Delaware, on the Transpeninsular Line. Chincoteague, Virgin
In music, a tone row or note row series or set, is a non-repetitive ordering of a set of pitch-classes of the twelve notes in musical set theory of the chromatic scale, though both larger and smaller sets are sometimes found. Tone rows are most types of serial music. Tone rows were used in 20th-century contemporary music, like Dmitri Shostakovich's use of twelve-tone rows, "without dodecaphonic transformations."A tone row has been identified in the A minor prelude from book II of J. S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier and by the late eighteenth century, their use was a well-established technique, found in works such as Mozart's C major String Quartet, K. 157, String Quartet in E-flat major, K. 428, String Quintet in G minor, K. 516, the Symphony in G minor, K. 550. Beethoven used the technique but, on the whole, "Mozart seems to have employed serial technique far more than Beethoven". Franz Liszt used a twelve-tone row in the opening of his "Faust" Symphony. Hans Keller claims that Schoenberg was aware of this serial practice in the classical period and that "Schoenberg repressed his knowledge of classical serialism because it would have injured his narcissism."
Tone rows are designated by letters and subscript numbers. The numbers indicate the initial or final pitch-class number of the given row form, most with c = 0. "P" indicates a forward-directed right-side up form. "I" indicates a forward-directed upside-down form. "R" indicates retrograde, a backwards right-side up form. "RI" indicates a backwards upside-down form. Transposition is indicated by a T number, for example P8 is a T transposition of P4. A twelve-tone composition will take one or more tone rows, called the "prime form", as its basis plus their transformations; these forms may be used to construct a melody in a straightforward manner as in Schoenberg's Piano Suite Op. 25 Minuet Trio, where P-0 is used to construct the opening melody and varied through transposition, as P-6, in articulation and dynamics. It is varied again through inversion, taking form I-0. However, rows may be combined to produce melodies or harmonies in more complicated ways, such as taking successive or multiple pitches of a melody from two different row forms, as described at twelve-tone technique.
Schoenberg required the avoidance of suggestions of tonality—such as the use of consecutive imperfect consonances —when constructing tone rows, reserving such use for the time when the dissonance is emancipated. Alban Berg, sometimes incorporated tonal elements into his twelve-tone works; the main tone row of his Violin Concerto hints at this tonality: This tone row consists of alternating minor and major triads starting on the open strings of the violin, followed by a portion of an ascending whole tone scale. This whole tone scale reappears in the second movement when the chorale "Es ist genug" from J. S. Bach's cantata O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60 is quoted in the woodwinds; some tone rows have a high degree of internal organization. An example is the tone row from Anton Webern's Concerto for Nine Instruments Op. 24, shown below. In this tone row, if the first three notes are regarded as the "original" cell the next three are its retrograde inversion, the next three are retrograde, the last three are its inversion.
A row created in this manner, through variants of a trichord or tetrachord called the generator, is called a derived row. The tone rows of many of Webern's other late works are intricate; the tone row for Webern's String Quartet Op. 28 is based on the BACH motif and is composed of three tetrachords: The "set-complex" is the forty-eight forms of the set generated by stating each "aspect" or transformation on each pitch class. The all-interval twelve-tone row is a tone row arranged so that it contains one instance of each interval within the octave, 0 through 11; the "total chromatic" is the set of all twelve pitch classes. An "array" is a succession of aggregates; the term is used to refer to lattices. An aggregate may be achieved through combinatoriality, such as with hexachords. A "secondary set" is a tone row, derived from or, "results from the reversed coupling of hexachords", when a given row form is repeated. For example, the row form consisting of two hexachords: 0 1 2 3 4 5 / 6 7 8 9 t e when repeated results in the following succession of two aggregates, in the middle of, a new and complete aggregate beginning with the second hexachord: 0 1 2 3 4 5 / 6 7 8 9 t e / 0 1 2 3 4 5 / 6 7 8 9 t e secondary set: A "weighted aggregate" is an aggregate in which the twelfth pitch does not appear until at least one pitch has appeared at least twice, supplied by segments of different set forms.
It seems to have been first used in Milton Babbitt's String Quartet No. 4. An aggregate may be horizontally weighted. An "all-partition array" is created by combining a collection of hexachordally combinatorial arrays. Schoenberg specified many strict rules and desirable guidelines for the construction of tone rows such as number of notes and intervals to avoid. Tone rows that depart from these guidelines include the above tone row from Berg's Violin Concerto which contains triads and tonal emphasis, the tone row below from Luciano Berio's Nones which contains a repeated note making it a
Hillcrest Wildlife Management Area is located in Hancock County near New Cumberland, West Virginia. Located on 2,212 acres of former farmland, the flat bottoms and rolling hills provide open fields, old orchards and small forest lots. From New Cumberland, follow WV Route 8 east about 4 miles to Gas Valley Road. Turn right on Gas Valley Road, follow about 1.3 miles to Middle Run Road. Follow Middle Run Road north to the Hillcrest WMA. Hunting opportunities are varied in the Hillcrest WMA, can include deer, mourning dove, rabbit, pheasant and turkey. Camping is not permitted in the WMA. Animal conservation Fishing Hunting List of West Virginia wildlife management areas West Virginia DNR District 1 Wildlife Management Areas West Virginia Hunting Regulations West Virginia Fishing Regulations WVDNR map of Hillcrest Wildlife Management Area