Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Spine of scapula
The spine of the scapula or scapular spine is a prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa. It begins at the vertical border by a smooth, triangular area over which the tendon of insertion of the lower part of the Trapezius glides, becoming more elevated, ends in the acromion, which overhangs the shoulder-joint; the spine is triangular, flattened from above downward, its apex being directed toward the vertebral border. The root of the spine of the scapula is the most medial part of the scapular spine; the root of the spine is on a level with the tip of the spinous process of the third thoracic vertebra. It presents three borders, its superior surface is concave. Its inferior surface forms part of the infraspinatous fossa, gives origin to a portion of the infraspinatus, presents near its center the orifice of a nutrient canal. Of the three borders, the anterior is attached to the dorsal surface of the bone.
The trapezius is attached to the superior lip, a rough tubercle is seen on that portion of the spine which receives the tendon of insertion of the lower part of this muscle. The deltoideus is attached to the whole length of the inferior lip; the interval between the lips is subcutaneous and covered by the tendinous fibers of these muscles. The lateral border, or base, the shortest of the three, is concave, it forms the medial boundary of the great scapular notch, which serves to connect the supra- and infraspinatous fossae. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 203 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:03:os-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Scapular Region: Scapula"
The axillary nerve or the circumflex nerve is a nerve of the human body, that originates from the brachial plexus at the level of the axilla and carries nerve fibers from C5 and C6. The axillary nerve travels through the quadrangular space with the posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein; the nerve lies at first behind the axillary artery, in front of the subscapularis, passes downward to the lower border of that muscle. It winds backward, in company with the posterior humeral circumflex artery, through a quadrangular space bounded above by the teres minor, below by the teres major, medially by the long head of the triceps brachii, laterally by the surgical neck of the humerus, divides into an anterior, a posterior, a collateral branch to the long head of the triceps brachii branch; the anterior branch winds around the surgical neck of the humerus, beneath the deltoid muscle, with the posterior humeral circumflex vessels. It continues as far as the anterior border of the deltoid to provide motor innervation.
The anterior branch gives off a few small cutaneous branches, which pierce the muscle and supply in the overlaying skin. The posterior branch supplies the posterior part of the deltoid; the posterior branch pierces the deep fascia and continues as the superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, which sweeps around the posterior border of the deltoid and supplies the skin over the lower two-thirds of the posterior part of this muscle, as well as that covering the long head of the triceps brachii. The motor branch of the long head of the triceps brachii arises, on average, a distance of 6 mm from the terminal division of the posterior cord termination; the trunk of the axillary nerve gives off an articular filament which enters the shoulder joint below the subscapularis. Traditionally, the axillary nerve is thought to only supply the deltoid and teres minor. However, several studies on cadavers pointed out that the long head of triceps brachii is innervated by a branch of the axillary nerve; the axillary nerve supplies three muscles in the arm: deltoid and teres minor.
The axillary nerve carries sensory information from the shoulder joint, as well as the skin covering the inferior region of the deltoid muscle - the "regimental badge" area. The posterior cord of the brachial plexus splits inferiorly to the glenohumeral joint giving rise to the axillary nerve which wraps around the surgical neck of the humerus, the radial nerve which wraps around the humerus anteriorly and descends along its lateral border; the axillary nerve may be injured in anterior-inferior dislocations of the shoulder joint, compression of the axilla with a crutch or fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus. An example of injury to the axillary nerve includes axillary nerve palsy. Injury to the nerve results in: Paralysis of the teres minor muscle and deltoid muscle, resulting in loss of abduction of arm, weak flexion and rotation of shoulder. Paralysis of deltoid and teres minor muscles results in flat shoulder deformity. Loss of sensation in the skin over a small part of the lateral upper arm.
Axillary nerve dysfunction This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 934 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Axillary_nerve at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program
In human anatomy, the deltoid tuberosity is a rough, triangular area on the anterolateral surface of the middle of the humerus to which the deltoid muscle attaches. It has been reported as prominent in less than 10% of cases; the deltoid tuberosity develops through endochondral ossification in a two-phase process. The initiating signal is tendon-dependent, whilst the growth phase is muscle-dependent. In mammals, the humerus displays a wide morphological variation; the size and orientation of its functionally important features, including the deltoid tubercle, greater tubercle, medial epicondyle, are pivotal to an animal's style of locomotion and habitat. In cursorial animals such as the pronghorn, the deltoid tubercle is located about a quarter of the way down the shaft, which allows for rapid but weak limb flexion and extension. In natatorial animals such as the North American river otter, the tubercle is located nearly halfway down the shaft, which allows for powerful limb flexion and extension.
The tuberosity can be pronounced in fossorial animals, such as the mountain beaver
Anatomical terms of motion
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints and specific sections of the body; the terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane. Flexion and extension are examples of angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, are described as internal or external. Other terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomical terms derive from Latin terms with the same meaning. Motions are classified after the anatomical planes they occur in, although movement is more than not a combination of different motions occurring in several planes.
Motions can be split into categories relating to the nature of the joints involved: Gliding motions occur between flat surfaces, such as in the intervertebral discs or between the carpal and metacarpal bones of the hand. Angular motions occur over synovial joints and causes them to either increase or decrease angles between bones. Rotational motions move a structure in a rotational motion along a longitudinal axis, such as turning the head to look to either side. Apart from this motions can be divided into: Linear motions, which move in a line between two points. Rectilinear motion is motion in a straight line between two points, whereas curvilinear motion is motion following a curved path. Angular motions occur when an object is around another object decreasing the angle; the different parts of the object do not move the same distance. Examples include a movement of the knee, where the lower leg changes angle compared to the femur, or movements of the ankle; the study of movement is known as kinesiology.
A categoric list of movements of the human body and the muscles involved can be found at list of movements of the human body. The prefix hyper- is sometimes added to describe movement beyond the normal limits, such as in hypermobility, hyperflexion or hyperextension; the range of motion describes the total range of motion. For example, if a part of the body such as a joint is overstretched or "bent backwards" because of exaggerated extension motion it can be described as hyperextended. Hyperextension increases the stress on the ligaments of a joint, is not always because of a voluntary movement, it may be other causes of trauma. It may be used in surgery, such as in temporarily dislocating joints for surgical procedures; these are general terms. Most terms have a clear opposite, so are treated in pairs. Flexion and extension describe movements; these terms come from the Latin words with the same meaning. Flexion describes a bending movement that decreases the angle between a segment and its proximal segment.
For example, bending the elbow, or clenching a hand into a fist, are examples of flexion. When sitting down, the knees are flexed; when a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, flexion refers to movement in the anterior direction. When the chin is against the chest, the head is flexed, the trunk is flexed when a person leans forward. Flexion of the shoulder or hip refers to movement of the leg forward. Extension is the opposite of flexion, describing a straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts. For example, when standing up, the knees are extended; when a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, extension refers to movement in the posterior direction. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the leg backward. Abduction is the motion of a structure away from the midline while adduction refer to motion towards the center of the body; the centre of the body is defined as the midsagittal plane. These terms come from Latin words with similar meanings, ab- being the Latin prefix indicating "away," ad- indicating "toward," and ducere meaning "to draw or pull".
Abduction refers to a motion that pulls a part away from the midline of the body. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to spreading the digits apart, away from the centerline of the hand or foot. Abduction of the wrist is called radial deviation. For example, raising the arms up, such as when tightrope-walking, is an example of abduction at the shoulder; when the legs are splayed at the hip, such as when doing a star jump or doing a split, the legs are abducted at the hip. Adduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to bringing the digits together, towards the centerline of the hand or foot. Adduction of the wrist is called ulnar deviation. Dropping the arms to the sides, bringing the knees together, are examples of adduction. Ulnar deviation is the hand moving towards the ulnar styloid. Radial deviation is the hand moving towards the radial styloid; the terms elevation and depression refer to movement below the horizontal.
They derive from the Latin terms with similar meaningsElevation refers to movement in a superior direction. For example
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect bipedal locomotion. Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 315,000 years ago. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago, in several waves of migration, they ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world; the spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, problem solving and culture through social learning.
Humans use tools better than any other animal. Humans uniquely use such systems of symbolic communication as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established an wide variety of values, social norms, rituals, which together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, mythology, religion and numerous other fields of knowledge. Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization; these human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, unifying people within regions to form states and empires.
The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of fuel-driven technologies and increased lifespans, causing the human population to rise exponentially. The global human population was estimated to be near 7.7 billion in 2015. In common usage, the word "human" refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans; the clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. There is a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species; the English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain from Latin hūmānus, the adjective form of homō "man."
The word's use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex; the species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The generic name "Homo" is a learned 18th-century derivation from Latin homō "man," "earthly being"; the species-name "sapiens" means "wise" or "sapient". Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, that "sapiens" is the singular form; the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia 125,000–60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand between the years 300 and 1280.
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas. With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. By using the technique called a molecular clock which estimates the time required for the number of divergent mutations to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate date for the split between lineages can be calculated; the gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the line leading to the h
Delta Tau Delta
Delta Tau Delta known as Delt or DTD, is a United States-based international Greek letter college fraternity. Delta Tau Delta was founded in 1858 at Bethany College, Virginia, it has around 140 student chapters nationwide, as well as few regional alumni groups. Its national philanthropic partner is the diabetes research organization JDRF. Delta Tau Delta Fraternity was founded in 1858, though some early documents reference the founding in 1859 or 1860, at Bethany College in Bethany, Virginia; the social life on campus at that time centered around a literary society. According to Jacob S. Lowe, in late 1858 a group of students met in Lowe's room in the Dowdell boarding house to discuss means to regain control of the Neotrophian Society and return control to the students at large; the underlying controversy was that the Neotrophian Society, in the opinion of the eight men who formed Delta Tau Delta, had awarded a literary prize after a rigged vote. A constitution, badge and motto were devised, Delta Tau Delta was born.
Member Henry King Bell of Lexington, heard of the Civil War's effects on Bethany College and the membership of Delta Tau Delta. After riding to Bethany and realizing that the longevity of Delta Tau Delta was at risk, Bell traveled to Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. On February 22, 1861, Bell rode to Jefferson College from Bethany to bring the designation of the Alpha Chapter and the governance of the Fraternity back to his home campus.. In response to Jefferson College merging with the Washington Academy, an election was held at the General Convention. Ohio Wesleyan assumed the Alpha designation. Before the Alpha designation was transferred to Allegheny College, the Ohio Wesleyan chapter dissolved temporarily because of a lack of membership. After the Ohio Wesleyan chapter disappeared in 1875, the Allegheny College chapter, the fourth and final chapter to hold Alpha designation, assumed control of the fraternity. Allegheny College member James S. Eaton, traveled to Delaware, Ohio, to collect what remained of the organization's records and to investigate what had happened the Ohio Wesleyan chapter which returned in 1890.
Eaton brought the "Alpha" designation back with him to Allegheny College, where a group of undergraduates managed the larger organization as well as their own chapter. During that time a magazine was established and 15 chapters were founded, of which eight survive. In 1886, Delta Tau Delta merged with the secret society known as the Rainbow Fraternity, a southern fraternity founded in 1848 at the University of Mississippi; as an ode to the merged fraternity, Delta Tau Delta Chapters perform a public ceremony, the Rite of Iris. The national organization's seasonal magazine is called "The Rainbow"; the Delta Tau Delta Founders House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Members of Delta Tau Delta are informally referred to as "Delts." The eight men considered to be the Founders of the Delta Tau Delta fraternity are: 2000 The chapter at Miami University was suspended for three years. The chapter was re-colonized in 2005. 2008 Freshman Johnny D. Smith died of alcohol poisoning.
Wabash College revoked the lease on their house. 2010 The chapter at Ohio University pled no contest to a hazing charge and received a five-year suspension in addition to $12,000 in fines/restitution for hazing. The hazing involved blindfolding, large amounts of alcohol, physical abuse. 2011 The chapter at Lehigh University was suspended for three years for hazing pledges. 2012 The chapter at the University of Oklahoma was temporarily suspended for hazing pledges. 2014 The chapter at the University of South Carolina was closed by the fraternity's national leadership for multiple alcohol citations. 2015 The chapter at Florida State University was suspended after a police report concerning hazing and misconduct. According to the police report, pledges were forced to fist fight in the basement of the fraternity house and were threatened by fraternity members; the chapter at University of Arizona chapter lost its recognition status due to hazing. 2016 The chapter at West Virginia University was suspended indefinitely for filming an inappropriate audition for the "Real World" TV series.
2017 The chapter at Pepperdine University was deactivated for an alcohol related incident and other repeated violations. The chapter at Indiana University was suspended that year as well for multiple hazing violations. 2018 The chapter at Georgia Southern University lost its national charter due to hazing. 2019 The chapter at Miami University was suspended due to reports of alleged hazing. List of Delta Tau Delta undergraduate chapters List of notable Delta Tau Delta members List of social fraternities and sororities Official Delta Tau Delta page Official Delta Tau Delta Educational Foundation