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Deluge (history)

The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War only; the term deluge was popularized by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel The Deluge. During the wars the Commonwealth lost one third of its population as well as its status as a great power due to invasions by Sweden and Russia. According to Professor Andrzej Rottermund, manager of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, the destruction of Poland in the deluge was more extensive than the destruction of the country in World War II. Rottermund claims that Swedish invaders robbed the Commonwealth of its most important riches, most of the stolen items never returned to Poland.

Warsaw, the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, was destroyed by the Swedes, out of a pre-war population of 20,000, only 2,000 remained in the city after the war. According to the 2012 Polish estimates, financial losses of Poland are estimated at 4 billion złotys. Swedish and Russian invaders destroyed 188 cities and towns, 81 castles, 136 churches in Poland. In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky led a popular uprising of Zaporozhian Cossacks and Ukrainian peasants discontented with the rule of Polish and Lithuanian magnates. Although the initial phase of the rebellion ended at the Battle of Berestechko, it brought into focus the rivalry between Russia and the Commonwealth for hegemony over Ukraine and over the eastern Slavic lands in general. Thus, in October 1653, the Russian Zemsky Sobor declared war on the Commonwealth, in June 1654 the forces of Tsar Alexis of Russia invaded the eastern half of Poland-Lithuania, starting the Russo-Polish War of 1654–67. In the summer of 1654, the Russians managed to capture most important cities and strongholds of today's Belarus.

Smolensk was captured after a siege on October 3, 1654. The Swedish Empire, which technically was at war with the Commonwealth, invaded in July 1655 and occupied the remaining half of the country. Following the Thirty Years' War, the Swedish Empire emerged as one of the strongest nations on the continent, it had a large army but little money to pay its soldiers. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, weakened by wars with the Cossacks and Tsardom of Russia, seemed like easy prey because its best soldiers had been massacred in the 1652 Battle of Batih. Furthermore, Swedes remembered claims to their throne by Polish kings Sigismund III Vasa and his sons Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir, who themselves belonged to the House of Vasa. An earlier conflict, the Polish–Swedish War had ended with the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf; the Polish–Lithuanian King John II Casimir lacked support among the Commonwealth nobility due to his sympathies with absolutist Austria and his open contempt for the "Sarmatist" culture of the nobility.

Earlier, in 1643, John Casimir had become a member of the Jesuits and had received the title of Cardinal. In December 1646, he returned to Poland and, in October 1647, resigned his position as Cardinal to stand for election to the Polish throne, after the death of his brother Władysław IV Vasa, he became King in 1648. However, some of the nobility supported Charles Gustav for the Polish–Lithuanian throne. Many members of the Polish nobility regarded John Casimir as a weak king or a "Jesuit-King". Two Lithuanian noble princes, Janusz Radziwiłł and Bogusław Radziwiłł, introduced dissension into the Commonwealth and began negotiations with the Swedish king Charles X Gustav of Sweden aimed at breaking up the Commonwealth and the Polish–Lithuanian union, they signed the Treaty of Kėdainiai, which envisaged the Radziwiłł princes ruling over two duchies carved out from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania under Swedish protection. In July 1655 two Swedish armies, operating from Swedish Pomerania and the Province of Pomerania, entered Greater Poland, one of the richest and most developed provinces of the Commonwealth, which had for centuries been unaffected by any military conflicts, whose Levée en masse had not been used to fighting.

The Greater Poland's nobility camp, located in the valley of the Noteć river, near the town of Ujście, looked more like a large party, as the szlachta, gathered there to face the Swedish Army, was more interested in drinking. To make matters worse, two powerful magnates, the Voivode of Poznań Krzysztof Opaliński, the Voivode of Kalisz Andrzej Karol Grudziński, argued with each other whether to fight or to give up to the enemy. Polish troops lacked gunpowder and food, stolen at local villages by the hungry soldiers. After an easy Swedish victory at the Battle of Ujście, Krzysztof Opaliński surrendered Greater Poland to Charles Gustav. On July 31, 1655, the army commanded by Arvid Wittenberg captured Poznań, on August 20 near Konin, the armies of Wittenberg

1767 in art

Events from the year 1767 in art. March – Giovanni Battista Tiepolo is commissioned to paint seven altarpieces for the Convento de San Pascual, Aranjuez, at this time under construction, by its founder Charles III of Spain. Canaletto spends his last full year painting, in Venice. Francis Cotes – The infant Charlotte, Princess Royal, with her mother, Queen Charlotte Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Swing David MartinBenjamin Franklin Richard Paton – The Battle of Cape Passaro, 11 August 1718 Joshua ReynoldsElizabeth, Lady Amherst Alexander Roslin Double portrait of himself and his wife, painting a portrait of Henrik Peill Portrait of Jean-François Marmontel Johann Zoffany – John, 3rd Duke of Atholl, family January 5 – Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, French painter January 24 – Emanuel Thelning, Swedish-born Finnish painter February 18 – John Glover, English-born Australian landscape painter March 9 – Johan Erik Hedberg, Finnish painter March 17 – Charles Peale Polk, American portrait painter April 10 – William Alexander, English painter and engraver April 11 – Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter April 24 – Jacques-Laurent Agasse, Swiss animal and landscape painter date unknown Immanuel Alm, Finnish painter of religious-themed works George Barret, Jr. English landscape painter Edme Bovinet, French engraver Ulrika Melin, textile artist and member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Art George Watson, Scottish portrait painter January 9 – Joseph Ignatz Sadler, Czech fresco painter February 3 – Jacob Folkema, Dutch designer and engraver March 24 – Christian Friedrich Zincke, German miniature painter May 11 – Nicolas Edelinck, French-born engraver, son of Gerard Edelinck June 14 – Antonio Elenetti, Italian painter July 17 – Norbert Grund, Czech painter of the Rococo style August 17 – Gaspare Diziani, Italian Roccoco painter August 28 – Giacomo Ceruti, Italian painter of peasants September 12 – Thomas Smith, landscape painter and father of John Raphael Smith of Derby September 26 – Pietro Antonio Magatti, Italian painter known for paintings and frescoes in his hometown of Milan October 2 – Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels November 6 – Giambattista Pittoni, Italian painter of religious and mythological subjects November 11 – Clemente Ruta, Italian painter specializing in landscapes with pen and watercolor date unknown Ferdinando Porta, Italian painter and engraver Giuseppe Zocchi, Italian veduta painter and printmaker

Dalton Plan

The Dalton Plan is an educational concept created by Helen Parkhurst. It is inspired by the intellectual ferment at the turn of the 20th century. Educational thinkers such as Maria Montessori and John Dewey influenced Parkhurst while she created the Dalton Plan, their aim was to achieve the needs of the community. The American teacher Helen Parkhurst developed what has come to be called the Dalton Plan as a reform to existing philosophies of teaching and classroom management. In the 1920s and 1930s, Dalton education was spread throughout the world. There is no certainty regarding the exact numbers of Dalton schools, but there was Dalton education in America, England, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, India and Japan. In the Netherlands and Japan, Dalton education has remained in existence. In recent years there has been a revival of international interest, it crops up again, for instance, in England, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Netherlands is the country with the highest density of Dalton schools.

In 2013 there were five hundred. Comprising five percent of all elementary schools, Dalton education is by far the largest educational reform movement in the Netherlands. And, contrary to Montessori, Jena Plan and Waldorf education, it is on the increase; the only Dalton school in the USA, is the school that Helen Parkhurst founded herself in 1919, which she was subsequently to direct for more than twenty years: the Dalton School in New York. It is a renowned school, but today its fame is not due to its origins as an experiment in progressive education: the Dalton School is one of the most expensive private schools in New York. Parkhurst's specific objectives were as follows: To tailor each student's program to his or her needs and abilities. To promote each student's independence and dependability. To enhance the student's social skills. To increase their sense of responsibility toward others, she developed a three-part plan that continues to be the structural foundation of a Dalton education: The House, a social community of students.

The Assignment, a monthly goal which students contract to complete. The Laboratory, a subject-based classrooms intended to be the center of the educational experience; the laboratory involves students from fourth grade through the end of secondary education. Students explore themes at their own pace. On May 27, 1920, a enthusiastic article describing the working of the Dalton Plan in detail was published in the Times' Educational Supplement. Parkhurst "has given to culture of the University student. At the same time the children under her regime cover automatically all the ground prescribed for examinations'of matriculation standard,' and examination failures among them are nil."The Dalton Plan is a method of education by which pupils work at their own pace, receive individual help from the teacher when necessary. There is no formal class instruction. Students draw up time-tables and are responsible for finishing the work on their syllabuses or assignments. Students are encouraged to help each other with their work.

The underlying aim of the Dalton Plan is to achieve the highest mental, moral and spiritual development of the pupil. In the spring of 1921, English headmistress Rosa Bassett went to the Children's University School and stayed with Parkhurst, they spent hours talking about education. Parkhurst found Bassett in complete agreement with her ideas: "She was Dalton," Parkhurst wrote 50 years later, she described Bassett and Belle Rennie as the two people in England who were most enthusiastic and most helpful about the introduction of the Dalton Plan. It was in 1922 that the UK Board of Education gave official approval and many hundreds of schools in England adopted some form of the Dalton Plan; that same year Parkhurst published Education on the Dalton Plan. In time it was claimed that there were a thousand "Dalton" schools in Japan, another thousand in India, many in the Soviet Union, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Today there are a number of schools around the world and that employ variations of teaching methods based on the Dalton Plan.

Most of the schools listed below interpret the Dalton Plan according to their needs. As of this date, the only schools that have strong affiliation with Helen Parkhurst's Dalton School in New York are Dalton Tokyo and Dalton Nagoya. Dalton International J. G. Jeffreys, who introduced the Plan at Bryanston School, in England. Dalton School homepage