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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million. Polish and Latin were the two co-official languages; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.

The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution – the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.

The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simplified the name to Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.

Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.

It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, which w

Nicholas Economides

Nicholas Economides is an internationally recognized academic authority on network economics, electronic commerce and public policy. His fields of specialization and research include the economics of networks of telecommunications and information, the economics of technical compatibility and standardization, industrial organization, the structure and organization of financial markets and payment systems, application of public policy to network industries, strategic analysis of markets and law and economics. Professor Economides is a Professor of Economics at the NYU Stern School of Business. Professor Economides has published more than 100 articles in top academic journals in the areas of networks, telecommunications, antitrust, product positioning and on the liquidity and the organization of financial markets and exchanges, he holds a PhD and MA in Economics from the University of California at Berkeley, as well as a BSc in Mathematical Economics from the London School of Economics. He taught at Columbia University and at Stanford University.

He is editor of the Information Economics and Policy, Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, the Journal of Financial Transformation, Journal of Network Industries, on the Advisory Board of the Social Science Research Network, editor of Economics of Networks Abstracts by SSRN and former editor of the International Journal of Industrial Organization. His website on the Economics of Networks has been ranked as one of the top four economics sites worldwide by The Economist magazine. Professor Economides is Executive Director of http://www. NETinst.org, a worldwide focal point for research on the economics of network and high technology industries. He is advisor to the US Federal Trade Commission, the governments of Greece, New Zealand and Portugal, the Attorney General of New York State, major telecommunications corporations, a number of the Federal Reserve Banks, the Bank of Greece and major Financial Exchanges, he serves on the Advisory Board of the Economist Intelligence Unit. He has commented extensively in broadcast and in print on high technology and public policy issues.

He is a founding member of Greek Economists for Reform.com, a blog about economic policy and reforms in Greece. Faculty biography page from NYU Stern School of Business Economics of Networks site Greek Economists for Reform.com

Eric Alejandro

Eric Javier Alejandro is an athlete representing Puerto Rico and competing in the 400 meters hurdles. He was born in New Jersey, United States. An alumnus of Eastern Michigan University, he represented Puerto Rico in the men's 400 meters hurdles in the 2012 Summer Olympics. 400 m: 47.75 s – Tampa, Florida, 14 March 2014 110 m hurdles: 14.13 s – Oxford, Ohio, 12 May 2007 400 m hurdles: 49.07 s – São Paulo, 2 August 2014 60 m: 6.99 s – Ypsilanti, Michigan, 12 January 2008 200 m: 22.21 s – Ann Arbor, Michigan, 17 February 2007 400 m: 47.56 s – Allendale, Michigan, 21 February 2014 60 m hurdles: 7.41 s – Ypsilanti, Michigan, 1 March 2008 GeneralEric Alejandro at World Athletics Evans, Hilary. "Eric Alejandro". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Specific Tilastopaja biography