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Demetrius II Nicator

For the named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair. Demetrius II, called Nicator, was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter by Laodice V, as was his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes, he ruled the Seleucid Empire for two periods, separated by a number of years of captivity in Hyrcania in Parthia: first from September 145 BC to July/August 138 BC and again from 129 BC until his death in 125 BC. His brother Antiochus VII ruled the Seleucid Empire in the interim between his two reigns; as a young boy, Demetrios fled to Crete after the death of his father, his mother and his older brother, when Alexander Balas usurped the Seleucid throne. Victory over Alexander BalasAbout 147 BC he returned to Syria with a force of Cretan mercenaries led by a man called Lasthenes, while Alexander Balas was occupied with a revolt in Cilicia. In 145 BC Ptolemy VI Philometor, king of Egypt, ostensibly in support of Alexander Balas, but he switched his support to Demetrius.

Ptolemy sealed the alliance by divorcing his daughter Cleopatra Thea from Alexander and remarrying her to Demetrius. Shortly after, Antioch surrendered to the Egyptian forces and offered the kingship to Ptolemy VI. However, he insisted Demetrius would become king, believing that Rome would not tolerate the unification of Egypt and Syria. Ptolemy pledged to serve as "a tutor in goodness and a guide" to Demetrius II, he intended for Demetrius to serve as a puppet ruler. Alexander returned from Cilicia with his army, but Ptolemy VI and Demetrius II defeated his forces at the Oenoparas river. Alexander fled to Arabia, where he was killed. Ptolemy died three days later. With both his rival and his self-appointed guardian gone, Demetrius took the opportunity to assert his control over his kingdom. By late 145, Demetrius II had expelled all Ptolemaic troops from Syria and reasserted Seleucid control by leading his own forces all the way down to the Egyptian border. Antiochene riots However, new troubles soon arose.

Once he had expelled the Egyptian forces, he demobilised a large portion of his army. It appears that his financial situation led him to debase the coinage. Demetrius had punished the city of Antioch for having supported Alexander against his father and for speaking to him disrespectfully, he disarmed the citizens and the Cretan mercenaries under Lasthenes slaughtered those who resisted, including women and children. This led the Antiochenes to besiege Demetrios in his palace. Jewish troops violently restored Demetrius' control, burning down a large portion of the city in the process; this left the city more hostile to him. Rebellion of DiodotusIn order to secure his hold on power, Demetrius had eliminated officials associated with Alexander Balas. One of these officials, the general Diodotus, fled into Arabia, where he secured the infant son of Alexander Balas and proclaimed him king as Antiochus VI Dionysus. Many of Demetrius' soldiers defected to Diodotus, out of anger at his conduct or the cuts to their pay.

Demetrius was lost control of Apamea and Antioch to Diodotus. Numismatic evidence indicates that Apamea was lost in early 144 and Antioch in late 144 or early 143. Demetrius proved unable to retake the capital. Antiochus VI died in 142 or 141, but Diodotus made himself king as Tryphon, but the division of the kingdom between Demetrius in Seleucia and Diodotus in Antioch persisted. Diodotus succeeded in bringing the leader of Jonathan Apphus onto his side, but this relationship broke down. By means of adroit diplomacy and grants of extensive freedoms, Demetrios II was able to secure the Jonathan's brother Simon Thassi as a close ally; these grants were seen by the Hasmonean Jewish state as the moment when they achieved full independence. Mithridates I, king of Parthia had taken advantage of the conflict between Demetrius and Tryphon to seize control of Susa and Elymais in 144 and of Mesopotamia in mid-141 BC. In 139/8, Demetrius journeyed east to reclaim these territories from the Parthians, he was successful, but was defeated in the Iranian mountains and taken prisoner in July or August of 138 BC.

Parthian control of Mesopotamia was thus reaffirmed. In Syria, Tryphon was left as uncontested ruler of the remaining Seleucid territories, but the Seleucid dynasty's grip was reestablished under Antiochus VII Sidetes, the younger brother of Demetrius, who married Cleopatra Thea. King Mithridates had kept Demetrius II alive and married him to a Parthian princess named Rhodogune, with whom he had children. However, Demetrius was restless and twice tried to escape from his exile in Hyrcania on the shores of the Caspian Sea, once with the help of his friend Kallimander, who had gone to great lengths to rescue the king: he had travelled incognito through Babylonia and Parthia; when the two friends were captured, the Parthian king did not punish Kallimander but rewarded him for his fidelity to Demetrius. The second time Demetrius was captured when he tried to escape, Mithridates humiliated him by giving him a golden set of dice, thus hinting that Demetrius II was a restless child who needed toys.

It was however for political reasons. In 130 BC Antiochus Sidetes felt secure enough to march against Parthia, scored massive initial successes. Now Phraates II made what he thought was a powerful move: he released Demetrius, hoping that the two brothers would start a civil war. However, Sidetes was defeated soon after his brother's release and never met him

Golden Hinde (mountain)

The Golden Hinde is a mountain located in the Vancouver Island Ranges on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. At 2,195 metres, it is the highest peak on the island; the mountain is located near the geographic centre of Vancouver Island, as well as near the centre of 2,450 km2 Strathcona Provincial Park, at the head of the Wolf River and to the west of Buttle Lake, about 25 kilometres east of the community of Gold River. The peak is popular with experienced backcountry-climbers, having been first ascended in 1913; the mountain is made of basalt, part of the Karmutsen Formation. The mountain took its name from Sir Francis Drake's ship, the Golden Hind, by an early fur-trading captain, reminded of Drake's ship as sunset hit the mountain and in honour of Drake's reputed presence off the coast of the future British Columbia during the explorer's circumnavigation of the globe from 1577–80; the present name was not conferred until 1938, but this was done after a reference to the peak in a fur-trader's log.

The alternative name "The Rooster's Comb" was used by early alpinists because of the mountain's appearance. List of Ultras of North America List of mountains of Canada Mountain peaks of Canada List of the most prominent summits of North America "Golden Hinde". BC Geographical Names. Strathcona Provincial Park from British Columbia Ministry of Environment website. "Golden Hinde". Elite Backpacking - Guiding company specializing in the Golden Hinde

Ernest Narjot

Ernest Étienne Narjot was an American artist of the 19th century. He produced many fine paintings of California landscape, in particular of life in the Gold Country. Ernest Étienne Narjot was born in on December 1826, in Saint-Malo, France, he was brought up in Paris and studied art there before coming to California in 1849 to join the California Gold Rush. He spent three unproductive years in the Gold Country, panning for gold at Fosters Bar on the Yuba River. In 1851, he joined a French mining expedition to Mexico; the expedition was not a success, but Narjot remained in Sonora where he bought a ranch and married a local woman, Santos Ortiz. He continued mining and breeding horses in the area but returned to San Francisco with his family in 1865 and set up a studio at 610 Clay Street. By the 1880s, he had established himself as one of California's foremost painters. In the early 1890s, Narjot was commissioned to paint the ceiling at Leland Stanford, Jr.'s tomb at Stanford University and, while working there, paint splashed in his eyes.

As a result, Narjot was blinded in one eye and his health began to deteriorate. By 1897, his economic circumstances had declined to a point that he was forced to move to a tenement. In response, thirty prominent California artists, among them Thomas Hill, Amédée Joullin, William Keith and Arthur Mathews, came to his aid with a benefit sale of their work, he died in San Francisco on August 24, 1898. Although his work included landscapes, church murals and frescos, as well as book illustrations, Narjot is best known for his art depicting experiences and recollections of his life as a forty-niner, such as his 1882 work, Miners: A Moment at Rest. Only one surviving work of Narjot's was executed while he was at the Mother Lode. Many others were executed years and bear a certain sense of nostalgia. Narjot's paintings and drawings are held in California institutions, including the California Historical Society. Many of his paintings were destroyed in fire. 1888 - Bathing at Glen Ellen, oil on canvas, Shasta State Historic Park, Shasta County, California Edwards, Robert W..

Jennie V. Cannon: The Untold History of the Carmel and Berkeley Art Colonies, Vol. 1. Oakland, Calif.: East Bay Heritage Project. Pp. 323, 331, 335, 374, 393, 416, 452, 455, 512–513, 690. ISBN 9781467545679.. An online facsimile of the entire text of Vol. 1 is posted on the Traditional Fine Arts Organization website. Ernest Etienne Narjot by Claudine Chalmers California History, Vol. 78, No. 3, p. 146 Published by: California Historical Society

David Crombie Park

David Crombie Park is a park in downtown Toronto, the spine of the St Lawrence Neighbourhood. While not a destination for visitors from outside the neighbourhood, the park is well used by residents, by tourists using it as a corridor to walk from downtown to the entertainments found in the nearby Distillery District; the park is named after David Crombie, during his successive three term as mayor of Toronto, had taken a leadership role in the redevelopment of the neighbourhood that surrounds the park. The efforts of Crombie and his colleagues, to preserve the human scale of the neighbourhood, keep it liveable, are praised, in retrospect; the neighbourhood has been called "the gold standard for mixed development" and "the best example of a mixed-income, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly, sensitively scaled, densely populated community built in the province." Media related to David Crombie Park at Wikimedia Commons

Phase curve (astronomy)

In astronomy a phase curve describes the brightness of a reflecting body as a function of its phase angle. The brightness refers the object's absolute magnitude, which, in turn, is its apparent magnitude at a distance of astronomical unit from the Earth and Sun; the phase angle equals the arc the sun as measured at the body. The phase curve is useful for characterizing an object's atmosphere, it is the basis for computing the geometrical albedo and the Bond albedo of the body. In ephemeris generation, the phase curve is used in conjunction with the distances from the object to the Sun and the Earth to calculate the apparent magnitude; the phase curve of Mercury is steep, characteristic of a body on which bare regolith is exposed to view. At phase angles exceeding 90° the brightness falls off sharply; the shape of the phase curve indicates a mean slope on the surface of Mercury of about 16°, smoother than that of the Moon. Approaching phase angle 0° the curve rises to a sharp peak; this surge in brightness is called the opposition effect because for most bodies it occurs at astronomical opposition when the body is opposite from the Sun in the sky.

The width of the opposition surge for Mercury indicates that both the compaction state of the regolith and the distribution of particle sizes on the planet are similar to those on the Moon. Early visual observations contributing to the phase curve of Mercury were obtained by G. Muller in the 1800s and by André-Louis Danjon in the mid-twentieth century. W. Irvine and colleagues used photoelectric photometry in the 1960s; some of these early data were analyzed by G. de Vaucouleurs, summarized by D. Harris and used for predicting apparent magnitudes in the Astronomical Almanac for several decades. Accurate new observations covering the widest range of phase angles to date were carried out by A. Mallama, D. Wang and R. Howard using the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite, they obtained new CCD observations from the ground. These data are now the major source of the phase curve used in the Astronomical Almanac for predicting apparent magnitudes.

The apparent brightness of Mercury as seen from Earth is greatest at phase angle 0° when it can reach magnitude −2.6. At phase angles approaching 180° the planet fades to about magnitude +5 with the exact brightness depending on the phase angle at that particular conjunction; this difference of more than 7 magnitudes corresponds to a change of over a thousand times in apparent brightness. The flat phase curve of Venus is characteristic of a cloudy planet. In contrast to Mercury where the curve is peaked approaching phase angle zero that of Venus is rounded; the wide illumination scattering angle of clouds, as opposed to the narrower scattering of regolith, causes this flattening of the phase curve. Venus exhibits a brightness surge near phase angle 170°, when it is a thin crescent, due to forward scattering of sunlight by droplets of sulfuric acid that are above the planet's cloud tops. Beyond 170° the brightness does not decline steeply; the history of observation and analysis of the phase curve of Venus is similar to that of Mercury.

The best set of modern observations and interpretation was reported by A. Mallama, D. Wang and R. Howard, they used the LASCO instrument on SOHO and ground-based, CCD equipment to observe the phase curve from 2 to 179°. As with Mercury, these new data are the major source of the phase curve used in the Astronomical Almanac for predicting apparent magnitudes. In contrast to Mercury the maximal apparent brightness of Venus as seen from Earth does not occur at phase angle zero. Since the phase curve of Venus is flat while its distance from the Earth can vary maximum brightness occurs when the planet is a crescent, at phase angle 125°, at which time Venus can be as bright as magnitude −4.9. Near inferior conjunction the planet fades to about magnitude −3 although the exact value depends on the phase angle; the typical range in apparent brightness for Venus over the course of one apparition is less than a factor of 10 or 1% that of Mercury. The phase curve of the Earth has not been determined as as those for Mercury and Venus because its integrated brightness is difficult to measure from the surface.

Instead of direct observation, earthshine reflected from the portion of the Moon not lit by the Sun has served as a proxy. A few direct measurements of the Earth's luminosity have been obtained with the EPOXI spacecraft. While they do not cover much of the phase curve they reveal a rotational light curve caused by the transit of dark oceans and bright land masses across the hemisphere. P. Goode and colleagues at Big Bear Solar Observatory have measured the earthshine and T. Livengood of NASA analyzed the EPOXI data. Earth as seen from Venus near opposition from the Sun would be bright at magnitude −6. To an observer outside the Earth's orbit on Mars our planet would appear most luminous near the time of its greatest elongation from the Sun, at about magnitude −1.5. Only about 50° of the martian phase curve can be observed from Earth because it orbits farther from the Sun than our planet. There is an opposition surge but it is less pronounced than that of Mercury; the rotation of bright and dark surface markings across its disk and variability of its atmospheric state superimpose variations on the phase curve.

R. Schmude obtained many of the Mars brightness measurements used in a comprehensive phase curve analysis performed by A. Malla

Les Roches International School of Hotel Management

Les Roches Global Hospitality Education is a private hospitality school owned by Eurazeo and located in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. Les Roches is a hospitality school founded in 1979. 1118 students from 68 different countries attend every semester, with an additional 150 students on internship around the world at any given time. The École des Roches, an international boarding school for young people, was founded in 1954 by Messrs Clivaz. In 1979, "Les Roches International School" became “Les Roches Hotel and Tourism School" and was the first hospitality school in Switzerland to offer all courses in English. In 2016 they became Les Roches Global Hospitality Education; the main campus was destroyed by a fire in April 1985. This obliged the school to house facilities in three hotels. In June 1987, the school moved into its new buildings. In November 2000, Les Roches became part of the group now known as Laureate Education Inc. who manages Glion Institute of Higher Education. The school maintains close ties with the hotel and tourism industry through a panel of advisors from four major hotel chains.

The school offers a range of undergraduate, graduate and MBA courses in the field of hospitality management. Les Roches has campuses in Switzerland and Spain. Undergraduate options include the Bachelor of Business Administration in Global Hospitality Management, as well as a Diploma in International Hotel Management. Students learn information hotel and service industry operations, as well as administrative skillsets. While studying, they embark both for a period of six months each. In the final year of the Bachelor’s programme, students can choose a specialisation in Hospitality Entrepreneurship, Digital Marketing Strategies, Hotel Financial Performance Management or Resort Development and Management; the graduate studies division offers programmes for students from different backgrounds. For students who have a degree in a field unrelated to hospitality, the Postgraduate Diploma in International Hospitality Management provides an overview of hotel operations and general business courses; the Master of Business Administration in Global Hospitality Management is adapted for students with a degree in hospitality, as well as experience in a related field.

This programme requires a dissertation, offers management and strategic business development courses, two business field trips to Chicago and Shanghai. Les Roches is accredited by the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Students on internship: 833 Students on campus: 1,900 Employment stats on graduation day: 92% employed or received multiple job offers In 2018, education company Quacquarelli Symonds ranked Les Roches among the world’s top three institutions for employer reputation in hospitality and leisure management. In the rankings, which included 50 hospitality institutions from around the world, Les Roches was ranked among the top three Swiss institutions and was placed sixth overall. Les Roches, Bluche The Les Roches Switzerland campus is located in the village of Bluche, Valais, at 1,200 meters of altitude; the campus features three academic wings with 30 classrooms, two computer labs, one demonstration kitchen/bar, a reception, a mock hotel room, a housekeeping classroom, two professional kitchens, two auditoriums, a library and separate media centre.

Student accommodations are spread throughout the village and are made up of 16 separate buildings with different types of room options. The Les Roches campus provides sport and recreational facilities, including a fitness centre and volleyball courts, a football field and an outdoor swimming pool. Les Roches, Marbella The campus and joint student residence are located in a residential area in the heart of Marbella’s Golden Mile district, between Marbella city centre and the tourist destination of Puerto Banús. Les Roches Jin Jiang, Shanghai Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College, founded in 2004, is a private college in Shanghai, China. LRJJ offers undergraduate and graduate diploma programmes in international hospitality management in a multicultural environment of more than 870 enrolled students. Official Website Les Roches Gruyères University of Applied Science Official Website