Demetrius I of Macedon

Demetrius I, called Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian nobleman, military leader, king of Macedon. He was its first member to rule Macedonia. At the age of twenty-two he was left by his father to defend Syria against Ptolemy the son of Lagus, he was defeated at the Battle of Gaza, but soon repaired his loss by a victory in the neighbourhood of Myus. In the spring of 310, he was soundly defeated when he tried to expel Seleucus I Nicator from Babylon; as a result of this Babylonian War, Antigonus lost two thirds of his empire: all eastern satrapies fell to Seleucus. After several campaigns against Ptolemy on the coasts of Cilicia and Cyprus, Demetrius sailed with a fleet of 250 ships to Athens, he freed the city from the power of Cassander and Ptolemy, expelled the garrison, stationed there under Demetrius of Phalerum, besieged and took Munychia. After these victories he was worshipped by the Athenians as a tutelary deity under the title of Soter. At this time Demetrius married Eurydike, an Athenian noblewoman, reputed to be descendant from Miltiades.

Antigonus sent Demetrius instructions to attack Ptolemy's positions there. Demetrius sailed from Athens in the spring of 306 BC and in accordance with his father's orders he first went to Karia where he summoned the Rhodians to support his naval campaign; the Rhodians refused, a decision. In the campaign of 306 BC, he defeated Ptolemy and Menelaus, Ptolemy's brother, in the naval Battle of Salamis destroying the naval power of Ptolemaic Egypt. Demetrius conquered Cyprus in 306 BC. Following the victory, Antigonus assumed the title "king" and bestowed the same upon his son Demetrius. In 305 BC, he endeavoured to punish the Rhodians for having deserted his cause. Among his creations were a battering ram 180 feet long, requiring 1000 men to operate it. In 302 BC, he returned a second time to Greece as liberator, reinstated the Corinthian League, but his licentiousness and extravagance made the Athenians long for the government of Cassander. Among his outrages was his courtship of a young boy named Democles the Handsome.

The youth one day found himself cornered at the baths. Having no way out and being unable to physically resist his suitor, he took the lid off the hot water cauldron and jumped in, his death was seen as a mark of honor for his country. In another instance, Demetrius waived a fine of 50 talents imposed on a citizen in exchange for the favors of Cleaenetus, that man's son, he sought the attention of Lamia, a Greek courtesan. He demanded 250 talents from the Athenians, which he gave to Lamia and other courtesans to buy soap and cosmetics, he roused the jealousy of Alexander's Diadochi. The hostile armies met at the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia. Antigonus was killed, Demetrius, after sustaining severe losses, retired to Ephesus; this reversal of fortune stirred up many enemies against him—the Athenians refused to admit him into their city. But he soon afterwards ravaged the territory of Lysimachus and effected a reconciliation with Seleucus, to whom he gave his daughter Stratonice in marriage. Athens was at this time oppressed by the tyranny of Lachares—a popular leader who made himself supreme in Athens in 296 BC—but Demetrius, after a protracted blockade, gained possession of the city and pardoned the inhabitants for their misconduct in 301 BC.

After Athens' capitulation, Demetrius formed a new government which espoused a major dislocation of traditional democratic forms, which anti Macedonian democrats would have called oligarchy. The cyclical rotation of the secretaries of the Council and the election of archons by allotment, were both abolished. In 293/3 - 293/2 B. C. two of the most prominent men in Athens were designated by the Macedonian king and Phillipides of Paiania. The royal appointing is implied by Plutarch who says that "he established the archons which were most acceptable to the Demos." In 294 BC, he established himself on the throne of Macedonia by murdering Alexander V, the son of Cassander. He faced rebellion from the Boeotians but secured the region after capturing Thebes in 291 BC; that year he married Lanassa, the former wife of Pyrrhus, but his new position as ruler of Macedonia was continually threatened by Pyrrhus, who took advantage of his occasional absence to ravage the defenceless part of his kingdom. After besieging Athens without success he passed into Asia and attacked some of the provinces of Lysimachus with varying success.

Famine and pestilence destroyed the greater part of his army, he solicited Seleucus' support and assistance. However, before he reached Syria hostilities broke out, after he had gained some advantages over his son-in-law, Demetrius was forsaken by his troops on the field of battle and surrendered to Seleucus, his son Antigonus offered all his possessions, his

Allentown, Pennsylvania

Allentown is a city located in Lehigh County, United States. It is the 233rd largest city in the United States; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 118,032 and it is the fastest growing major city in Pennsylvania with an estimated 121,433 residents according to the 2018 census estimate. It is the largest city in the metropolitan area known as the Lehigh Valley, which had a population of 821,623 residents as of 2010. Allentown constitutes a portion of the New York City Combined Statistical Area and is the county seat of Lehigh County. In 2012, the city celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding in 1762. Located on the Lehigh River, Allentown is the largest of three adjacent cities in Northampton and Lehigh counties that make up a region of eastern Pennsylvania known as the Lehigh Valley. Allentown is 60 miles north-northwest of Philadelphia, the sixth most populous city in the United States, 60 miles south-southeast of Scranton and the Wyoming Valley, 80 miles east-northeast of Harrisburg, the state capital, 75 miles west of New York City, the nation's largest city.

Being centrally located in the Northeast Megalopolis, there are 30 million people living within 100 miles of Allentown and the city has direct access to some of the largest markets, airports and population centers in the United States but with a lower cost of living than many surrounding cities and regions. Allentown was one of only six communities in the country to have been named a "national success story" in April 2016 by the Urban Land Institute for its downtown redevelopment and transformation that has generated nearly $1 billion in new development projects as of April 2019. In the early 1700s, the land now occupied by the city of Allentown and Lehigh County was a wilderness of scrub oak where neighboring tribes of Native Americans fished for trout and hunted for deer and other game. In 1736, a large area to the north of Philadelphia, embracing the present site of Allentown and what is now Lehigh County, was deeded by 23 chiefs of the five great Native American nations to John and Richard Penn, sons of William Penn.

The price for this tract included shoes and buckles, shirts, scissors, needles, looking glasses and pipes. The land, to become Allentown was part of a 5,000-acre plot William Allen purchased on September 10, 1735, from his business partner Joseph Turner, assigned the warrant to the land by Thomas Penn, son of William Penn, on May 18, 1732; the land was surveyed on November 23, 1736. A subsequent survey done in 1753 by David Schultz for a road from Easton to Reading, of which present-day Union and Jackson streets were links, shows the location of a log house owned by Allen, situated near the western bank of Jordan Creek, believed to have been built around 1740. Used as a hunting and fishing lodge, here Allen entertained prominent guests including his brother-in-law, James Hamilton, colonial Pennsylvania governor John Penn; the area, today the center of Allentown was laid out as Northampton Town in 1762 by William Allen, a wealthy shipping merchant, former mayor of the city of Philadelphia and then-Chief Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania.

It is that a certain amount of rivalry with the Penns prompted Judge Allen to decide to start a town of his own in 1762. Ten years before, in 1752, Northampton and Berks counties had been formed, each with a county seat and Reading, respectively, it is recorded that, in 1763, the year after the founding of Allentown, an effort was made to have the county seat moved from Easton to the new town. To this effort William Allen lent all his influence as Chief Justice and as the son-in-law of Andrew Hamilton; the influence of the Penns, however and Easton was retained as the county seat of all that vast area which the notorious "Walking Purchase" had opened up. The original plan for the town, now in the archives of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, comprised forty-two city blocks and consisted of 756 lots 60 feet in width and 230 feet in depth; the town was located between present-day Fourth and Tenth Streets, Union and Liberty Streets. Many streets on the original plan were named for Allen's children: Margaret, James and John.

Allen Street was named for Allen himself, was the main thoroughfare. Hamilton Street was named for James Hamilton. Gordon Street was named for Sir Patrick Gordon, Deputy Governor of Colonial Pennsylvania from 1726–1736. Chew Street was named for Benjamin Chew, Turner Street was named for Allen's business partner, Joseph Turner. Allen hoped that Northampton Town would displace Easton as the seat of Northampton County and become a commercial center due to its location along the Lehigh River and its proximity to Philadelphia. Allen gave the property to his son James in 1767. Three years in 1770, James built a summer residence, Trout Hall, in the new town, near the site of his father's former hunting lodge. On March 18, 1811, the town was formally incorporated as the borough of Northampton Town. On March 6, 1812, Lehigh County was formed from the western half of Northampton County, Northampton Town was selected as the county seat; the town was renamed "Allentown" on April 16, 1838, after years of popular usage.

Allentown was formally incorporated as a city on March 12, 1867. The beginnings of the American Revolutionary War began in Northampton

Romuald Spasowski

F. Romuald Spasowski, once an ardent Communist and Poland's ambassador to the United States, is best known for having defected at the height of the Solidarity crisis in 1981. Francis Romuald Spasowski was born in Poland, his father, Władysław, was leading intellectual. Although not a member of the Polish Communist party, Władysław Spasowski wrote "The Liberation of Man," an important Communist theoretical work, raised Romuald to believe in Marxism long before it was fashionable in Polish intellectual circles. Romuald studied and taught at the College of Mechanics until Poland was invaded in 1939; the Spasowski family was active in the Polish resistance during World War II. Spasowski and his father were arrested several times by the Gestapo, his father committed suicide in 1941 after being tortured by the Nazis. Spasowski hid in his mother's home in Milanówek for a time, where the family harbored several Jewish families. In 1942 he fled to the Soviet Union. Spasowski served as an officer in the Polish Army division formed in the Soviet Union under Gen. Zygmunt Berling.

Intensely loyal to Poland and convinced that Communism held great promise for his homeland, he joined the Polish United Worker's Party, the official Communist party in Poland, entered government service immediately after the war. In time, Spasowski served on the Central Auditing Commission, which maintained and audited the party's finances. Spasowski was appointed a member of the Polish War Crimes Mission at the Nuremberg trials. Fluent in both English and Spanish, Spasowski served as Poland's ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1951 to 1953 and two years as ambassador to Argentina. Spasowski's first tour as Polish ambassador to the United States lasted from 1955 to 1961, he was the youngest member of the ambassadorial corps at the time. He kept a low profile during the Cold War with the exception his annual appearances at observances marking the anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising of 1943, his and his family's commitment to religious tolerance led him to denounce Polish anti-Semitism during these occasions.

In a speech in 1958, Spasowski said,'I will not say to you here that in Poland anti-Semitism has been eliminated.' In 1964, Spasowski represented Poland as a member of the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam, established to mediate peace between Hanoi and Saigon during the Vietnam War. From 1967 till 1971 Spasowski served as Poland's ambassador to India. In the mid-1970s, Spasowski was named Deputy Foreign Minister in the Polish Foreign Ministry. In the mid-1970s he served as the Chief of the Polish Military Mission in West Berlin. Spasowski returned to the United States for a second tour as ambassador in 1978. Spasowski's wife had been a practicing Catholic for many years; the former Wanda Alina Sikorska was a cousin of Poland's former prime minister, Gen. Władysław Sikorski. Wanda Spasowska's influence and religious views helped undermine her husband's belief in Communism. For years, Spasowski's faith in the Polish Communist regime had been wavering, but the ascension of a Pole to the papacy in 1978 provided the impetus for a clear break.

The day Karol Cardinal Wojtyła became Pope John Paul II, Spasowski attended a special Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral in Washington, D. C. taking a place of honor in the first pew. It marked the beginning of an contentious relationship with the Polish Foreign Ministry; the formation of Solidarity in September 1980 moved Spasowski. He is said to have voiced support for Solidarity's leader, Lech Wałęsa, the labor movement's goals. Spasowski's daughter and son-in-law, supporters of Solidarity, fled to the United States early in 1981 and received asylum. In October 1981, the Polish government ordered Spasowski home, he protested, the recall order was rescinded. On December 13, 1981, Polish government leader General Wojciech Jaruzelski started a crack-down on Solidarity, declaring martial law. On the afternoon of December 19, 1981, Spasowski telephoned the U. S. State Department to announce that he was requesting asylum; the next day he told a worldwide radio audience that he had defected to show support for Solidarity and Lech Wałęsa.

"The cruel night of darkness and silence was spread over my country," he said. The Polish government confiscated his family's property, branded him a traitor and condemned him to death in absentia. Spasowski toured the United States throughout the 1980s, denouncing the Communist regime in Poland and playing a leading role in the U. S. Information Agency's anti-Communist television program,'Let Poland Be Poland'. In 1985, of a Calvinist family, was baptized a Catholic by Philadelphia's Archbishop John Krol. In 1986, Spasowski published his autobiography, The Liberation of One, became an American citizen. After the overthrow of Communist rule in Poland in 1989, Spasowski's death sentence was revoked. In 1993, Polish President Lech Wałęsa restored Spasowski's Polish citizenship. Spasowski died at his home in Oakton, Virginia, in 1995; the cause of death was cancer. Spasowski was survived by his wife, a daughter, Maria Grochulska, of Warsaw, his son, Władysław, died in India in 1968. List of Eastern Bloc defectors Linda.

"Man in the News: Disenchanted Diplomat". New York Times. Binder, David. "Romuald Spasowski, 74, Dies. S.". New York Times. Romuald Spasowski at Find a Grave