England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Gunpowder known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur and potassium nitrate; the sulfur and charcoal act as fuels. Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been used as a propellant in firearms, artillery and fireworks, as a blasting powder in quarrying and road building. Gunpowder was invented in 9th-century China and spread throughout most parts of Eurasia by the end of the 13th century. Developed by the Taoists for medicinal purposes, gunpowder was first used for warfare about 1000 AD. Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its slow decomposition rate and low brisance. Low explosives deflagrate at subsonic speeds, whereas high explosives detonate, producing a supersonic wave. Ignition of gunpowder packed behind a projectile generates enough pressure to force the shot from the muzzle at high speed, but not enough force to rupture the gun barrel.
Gunpowder thus makes a good propellant, but is less suitable for shattering rock or fortifications with its low-yield explosive power. However, by transferring enough energy a bombardier may wear down an opponent's fortified defenses. Gunpowder was used to fill fused artillery shells until the second half of the 19th century, when the first high explosives were put into use. Gunpowder is no longer used in modern weapons, nor is it used for industrial purposes, due to its inefficient cost compared to newer alternatives such as dynamite and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil. Today gunpowder firearms are limited to hunting, target shooting, bulletless historical reenactments. Based on a 9th-century Taoist text, the invention of gunpowder by Chinese alchemists was an accidental byproduct from experiments seeking to create the elixir of life; this experimental medicine origin of gunpowder is reflected in its Chinese name huoyao, which means "fire medicine". The first military applications of gunpowder were developed around 1000 AD.
The earliest chemical formula for gunpowder appeared in the 11th century Song dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao, however gunpowder had been used for fire arrows since at least the 10th century. In the following centuries various gunpowder weapons such as bombs, fire lances, the gun appeared in China. Saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and was produced in the provinces of Sichuan and Shandong. There is strong evidence of the use of sulfur in various medicinal combinations. A Chinese alchemical text dated 492 noted saltpeter burnt with a purple flame, providing a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, thus enabling alchemists to evaluate and compare purification techniques; the first reference to the incendiary properties of such mixtures is the passage of the Zhenyuan miaodao yaolüe, a Taoist text tentatively dated to the mid-9th century: "Some have heated together sulfur and saltpeter with honey. The Chinese word for "gunpowder" is Chinese: 火药/火藥.
In the following centuries a variety of gunpowder weapons such as rockets and land mines appeared before the first metal barrel firearms were invented. Explosive weapons such as bombs have been discovered in a shipwreck off the shore of Japan dated from 1281, during the Mongol invasions of Japan; the Chinese Wujing Zongyao, written by Zeng Gongliang between 1040 and 1044, provides encyclopedia references to a variety of mixtures that included petrochemicals—as well as garlic and honey. A slow match for flame throwing mechanisms using the siphon principle and for fireworks and rockets is mentioned; the mixture formulas in this book do not contain enough saltpeter to create an explosive however. The Essentials was however written by a Song dynasty court bureaucrat, there is little evidence that it had any immediate impact on warfare. However, by 1083 the Song court was producing hundreds of thousands of fire arrows for their garrisons. Bombs and the first proto-guns, known as "fire lances", became prominent during the 12th century and were used by the Song during the Jin-Song Wars.
Fire lances were first recorded to have been used at the Siege of De'an in 1132 by Song forces against the Jin. In the early 13th century the Jin utilized iron-casing bombs. Projectiles were added to fire lances, re-usable fire lance barrels were developed, first out of hardened paper, metal. By 1257 some fire lances were firing wads of bullets. In the late 13th century metal fire lances became'eruptors', proto-cannons firing co-viative projectiles, by 1287 at the latest, had become true guns, the hand cannon; the earliest Western accounts of gunpowder appear in texts written by English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century. Several sources men
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. The first cuirassiers were produced as a result of armoured cavalry, such as the man-at-arms and demi-lancer, discarding their lances and adopting the use of pistols as their primary weapon. In the 17th century, the cuirassier lost his limb armour and subsequently employed only the cuirass, sometimes a helmet. By this time, the sword was the primary weapon of the cuirassier, pistols being relegated to a secondary function. Cuirassiers achieved increased prominence during the Napoleonic Wars and were last fielded in the opening stages of World War I. Cuirassiers continue to be employed as ceremonial troops by a number of countries; the French term means the breastplate armour which they wore. The first cuirassiers were similar in appearance to the armoured Late Medieval man-at-arms, they wore three-quarter armour that covered the entire upper body as well as the front half of the legs down to the knee.
The head was protected by a close helm, burgonet or lobster-tailed pot helmet worn with a gorget for the neck. The torso was protected by a breast and back plate, sometimes reinforced by a'placate'; the arms and shoulders were armoured with pauldrons, elbow couters and vambraces. Armoured gauntlets were abandoned for the right hand, as they interfered with the loading of pistols. Long tassets, instead of a combination of short tassets with cuisses, protected the front of the thighs and knees, Riding boots were substituted for lower leg armour. Weapons included a pair of pistols in saddle holsters, a sword, sometimes a "horseman's pick". Horse armour was not used; the armour of a cuirassier was expensive. During the latter half of the 16th century, the heavy "knightly" lance fell out of use because of the widespread adoption of the infantry pike; the lance required a great amount of practice to perfect its use, whilst proficiency in the use of firearms was more acquired. The lancer or demi-lancer, when he had abandoned his lance, became the pistol-armed cuirassier or reiter.
The adoption of the pistol as the primary weapon led to the development of the stately caracole tactic, where cuirassiers fired their pistols at the enemy retired to reload whilst their comrades advanced in turn to maintain the firing. Following some initial successes, this tactic proved to be ineffective as infantry, with superior firearms and numbers could outgun the cuirassiers; the change from cavalry being reliant on firearms, to shock-capable close combat cavalry reliant on the sword was attributed to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the 1620s and 1630s. Gustavus Adolphus reduced the number of ranks in a cavalry formation from the usual six to ten, for pistol-based tactics, to three to suit his sword-based shock tactics, or as a partial remedy to the frequent numerical inferiority of his cavalry arm. Only two cuirassier regiments were raised during the English Civil War, the Lifeguard of the Earl of Essex and the'London lobsters,' though individuals within other regiments did serve in full armour.
With the refinement of infantry firearms the introduction of the powerful musket, the usefulness of the protection afforded by full armour became lessened. By the mid 17th century, the armoured cuirassier was becoming anachronistic; the cuirassier entered the 18th century with just the breast and backplate. Body armour, restricted to a breast and backplate, fell out of use during the 18th century. Cuirassiers played a prominent role in the armies of Austria, of Frederick the Great of Prussia. By the time of the French Revolutionary Wars, few heavy cavalry regiments, excepting those of Austria, wore the cuirass on campaign; the twelve Austrian cuirassier regiments in existence between 1768 and 1802 unusually wore only a front plate. This reduced the burden of the weight carried by the individual trooper but left his back unprotected during a swirling cavalry melee. Most heavy cavalry from c. 1700 to c. 1785 wore the tricorne hat, which evolved into the bicorne, or cocked hat, towards the close of the century.
In the first two decades of the 19th century, helmets of hardened leather with brass reinforcement, replaced the bicorne hat. A resurgence of armoured cavalry took place in France under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte, who increased the number of armoured regiments from one to sixteen. During the first few decades of the 19th century most of the major states of Europe, excepting Austria which had retained its armoured cavalry, readopted the cuirass for some of their heavy cavalry in emulation of the French; the Russians fielded two divisions of armoured cavalry, but most other states armoured a few senior regiments: Prussia three regiments, the Kingdom of Saxony three, the Kingdom of Westphalia two, Spain one and the Duchy of Warsaw one. The three Household Cavalry regiments of the British Army adopted cuirasses shortly af
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century. Although the term arquebus was applied to many different forms of firearms from the 15th to 17th centuries, it referred to "a hand-gun with a hook-like projection or lug on its under surface, useful for steadying it against battlements or other objects when firing." These "hook guns" were in their earliest forms defensive weapons mounted on German city walls in the early 1400s, but by the late 1400s had become handheld firearms. The development of the arquebus is somewhat tied to technology developed for the crossbow as without the stock from the crossbow, the arquebus would not have a stable platform to rest one's shoulder on. Priming pans were placed on the arquebus. A matchlock mechanism was added around 1475 and it became the first firearm with a trigger; the heavy arquebus, known as the musket, was developed to better penetrate plate armor and appeared in Europe around 1521.
A standardized arquebus, the caliver, was introduced in the latter half of the 16th century. The name "caliver" is derived from the English corruption of calibre, a reference to the gun's standardized bore; the caliver allowed troops to load bullets faster since they fit their guns more whereas before soldiers had to modify their bullets into suitable fits, or were forced to make their own prior to battle. The smoothbore matchlock arquebus is considered the forerunner to the rifle and other long gun firearms. Heavy arquebuses mounted on wagons were called arquebus à croc; these carried a lead ball of about 3.5 ounces. An infantryman armed with an arquebus is called an arquebusier; the arquebus has at times been known as the harquebus, hackbut, archibugio, schiopo, sclopus, tüfenk, tofak and firelock. In the early 16th century, the term "arquebus" was used to describe an assortment of guns, but by the late 16th century the arquebus and musket had settled down into size categories for firearms. Continental European powers such as the Iberians and French differentiated muskets from arquebuses by size and if they required a fork rest or not.
However, the musket – a large arquebus –, introduced around 1521, fell out of favor in the mid 16th century due to the decline of armor, but the term stuck around and musket became a generic descriptor for all'shoulder arms' fireweapons into the 1800s. At least on one occasion the musket and arquebus have been used interchangeably to refer to the same weapon, referred to as an "arquebus musket". A Habsburg commander in the mid-1560s once referred to muskets as "double arquebuses"; the matchlock firing mechanism became a common term for the arquebus after it was added to the firearm. Flintlock firearms were sometimes called fusils or fuzees. Prior to the appearance of the serpentine lever by around 1411, handguns were fired from the chest, tucked under one arm, while the other arm maneuvered a hot pricker to the touch hole to ignite the gunpowder; the matchlock which appeared around 1475 changed this by adding a firing mechanism consisting of two parts, the match, the lock. The lock mechanism held within a clamp a two to three feet long length of smoldering rope soaked in saltpeter, the match.
Connected to the lock lever was a trigger, which lowered the match into a priming pan when squeezed, igniting the priming powder, causing a flash to travel through the touch hole igniting the gunpowder within the barrel, propelling the bullet out the muzzle. The trigger mechanism of the early arquebus most resembled that of a crossbow: a curved lever pointing backward and parallel to the stock. By the 16th century, gunsmiths in most countries had begun to introduce the short trigger perpendicular to the stock, familiar to modern shooters. However, the majority of French matchlock arquebuses retained the crossbow-style trigger throughout the 17th century. While matchlocks provided a crucial advantage by allowing the user to aim the firearm using both hands, it was awkward to utilize. To avoid accidentally igniting the gunpowder the match had to be detached while loading the gun. In some instances the match would go out, so both ends of the match were kept lit; this proved cumbersome to maneuver as both hands were required to hold the match during removal, one end in each hand.
The procedure was so complex that a 1607 drill manual published by Jacob de Gheyn in the Netherlands listed 28 steps just to fire and load the gun. In 1584 the Ming general Qi Jiguang composed an 11 step song to practice the procedure in rhythm: "One, clean the gun. Two, pour the powder. Three, tamp the powder down. Four, drop the pellet. Five, drive the pellet down. Six, put in paper. Seven, drive the paper down. Eight, open the flashpan cover. Nine, pour in the flash powder. Ten, close the flashpan, clamp the fuse. Eleven, listen for the signal open the flashpan cover. Aiming at the enemy, raise your gun and fire." Reloading a gun during the 16th century took anywhere from 20 seconds to a minute under the most ideal conditions. The development of volley fire – by the Ottomans, the Chinese, the Japanese, the Dutch – made the arquebus more feasible for widespread adoption by the military; the volley fire technique transformed soldiers carrying firearms into organized firing squads with each row of soldiers firing in turn and reloading in a systematic fashion.
Volley fire was implemented with cannons as early as 1388 by Ming artillerists, but volley fire with matchlocks was not implemented until 1526 when the Ottoman Janissaries utilized it during the Battle of Mohács. The matchlock volley fire techn
The Dutch Revolt was the revolt of the northern Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces. The northern provinces separated from the southern provinces, which continued under Habsburg Spain until 1714; the religious "clash of cultures" built up but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, whose first leader was William the Silent, followed by several of his descendants and relations; this revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the United Provinces. King Philip was successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged; the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, in 1648 de jure. During the revolt, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, better known as the Dutch Republic grew to become a world power through its merchant shipping and experienced a period of economic and cultural growth.
The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule. The continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch imposed a rigid blockade on the southern provinces that prevented Baltic grain from relieving famine in the southern towns from 1587 to 1589. By the end of the war in 1648, large areas of the Southern Netherlands had been lost to France, which had, under the guidance of Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII of France, allied itself with the Dutch Republic in the 1630s against Spain; the first phase of the conflict can be considered the Dutch War of Independence. The focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the de facto independence of the United Provinces; this phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power and the founding of the Dutch Empire. In a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces.
Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500. He was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among. Subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including that of King of Spain, which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, Charles became ruler of the Habsburg empire, he gained the title Holy Roman Emperor in 1530. Although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s. Flanders had long been a wealthy region, coveted by French kings; the other regions of the Netherlands had grown wealthy and entrepreneurial. Charles V's empire had become a worldwide empire with large European territories; the latter were, distributed throughout Europe. Control and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empire's borders.
This large realm was continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars and against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea. Further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany; the Dutch paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, because they were directed against their most important trading partners. During the 16th century, Protestantism gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities. By the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it formed a minority then. In a society dependent on trade and tolerance were considered essential. Charles V, from 1555 his successor Philip II, felt it was their duty to defeat Protestantism, considered a heresy by the Catholic Church and a threat to the stability of the whole hierarchical political system.
On the other hand, the intensely moralistic Dutch Protestants insisted their theology, sincere piety and humble lifestyle were morally superior to the luxurious habits and superficial religiosity of the ecclesiastical nobility. The harsh measures of suppression led to increasing grievances in the Netherlands, where the local governments had embarked on a course of peaceful coexistence. In the second half of the century, the situation escalated. Philip sent troops to make the Netherlands once more a Catholic region. Although failing in his attempts to introduce the Spanish Inquisition directly, the Inquisition of the Netherlands was sufficiently harsh and arbitrary in nature to provoke fervent dislike. Part of the shifting balance of power in the late Middle Ages meant that besides the local nobility, many of the Dutch administrators by now were not traditional aristocrats but instead stemmed from non-noble families that had risen in status over previous centuries. By the 15th century, Brussels had thus become the de facto
The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier. During the periods of classical and medieval warfare, it evolved into being the leading weapon in cavalry charges, was unsuited for throwing or for repeated thrusting, unlike similar weapons of the javelin/pike family used by infantry. Lances were equipped with a vamplate – a small circular plate to prevent the hand sliding up the shaft upon impact. Though best known as a military and sporting weapon carried by European knights, the use of lances was widespread throughout Asia, the Middle East, North Africa wherever suitable mounts were available; as a secondary weapon, lancers of the medieval period bore swords, hammers, or maces for hand-to-hand combat, since the lance was a one-use-per-engagement weapon. The name is derived from the word lancea - the Roman auxiliaries' throwing knife. Compare λόγχη, a Greek term for "spear" or "lance". A lance in the original sense is javelin; the English verb to launch "fling, throw" is derived from the term, as well as the rarer or poetic to lance.
The term from the 17th century came to refer to spears not thrown, used for thrusting by heavy cavalry, in jousting. A thrusting spear, used by infantry is referred to as a pike; the Byzantine cavalry used lances exclusively in mixed lancer and mounted archer formations. The Byzantines used lance both underarm, couched; the best known usage of military lances was that of the full-gallop closed-ranks charge of a group of knights with underarm-couched lances, against lines of infantry, archery regiments, defensive embankments, opposition cavalry. Two variants on the couched lance charge developed, the French method, en haie, with lancers in a double line and the German method, with lancers drawn up in a deeper formation, wedge-shaped, it is believed that this became the dominant European cavalry tactic in the 11th century after the development of the cantled saddle and stirrups, of rowel spurs. Cavalry thus outfitted and deployed had a tremendous collective force in their charge, could shatter most contemporary infantry lines.
Recent evidence has suggested, that the lance charge was effective without the benefit of stirrups. Because of the extreme stopping power of a thrusting spear, it became a popular weapon of infantry in the Late Middle Ages; these led to the rise of the longest type of spears, the pike. This adaptation of the cavalry lance to infantry use was tasked with stopping lance-armed cavalry charges. During the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, these weapons, both mounted and unmounted, were so effective that lancers and pikemen not only became a staple of every Western army, but became sought-after mercenaries. In Europe, a jousting lance was a variation of the knight's lance, modified from its original war design. In jousting, the lance tips would be blunt spread out like a cup or furniture foot, to provide a wider impact surface designed to unseat the opposing rider without spearing him through; the centre of the shaft of such lances could be designed to be hollow, in order for it to break on impact, as a further safeguard against impalement.
They were at least 4m long, had hand guards built into the lance tapering for a considerable portion of the weapon's length. These are the versions that can most be seen at medieval reenactment festivals. In war, lances were much more like stout spears and balanced for one-handed use, with sharpened tips; as a small unit that surrounded a knight when he went into battle during the 14th and 15th centuries, a lance might have consisted of one or two squires, the knight himself, one to three men-at-arms, an archer. Lances were combined under the banner of a higher-ranking nobleman to form companies of knights that would act as an ad-hoc unit; the advent of wheellock technology spelled the end of the heavy knightly lance in Western Europe, with newer types of heavy cavalry such as reiters and cuirassiers spurning the old one-use weapon and supplanting the older gendarme type Medieval cavalry. While many Renaissance captains such as Sir Roger Williams continued to espouse the virtues of the lance, many such as François de la Noue encouraged its abandonment in the face of the pistol's greater armor piercing power and greater general utility.
At the same time the adoption of pike and shot tactic by most infantry forces would neuter much of the power of the lancer's breakneck charge, making them a non-cost effective type of military unit due to their expensive horses in comparison to cuirassiers and reiters, who charging only at a trot could make do with lower quality mounts. After the success of pistol-armed Huguenot heavy horse against their Royalist counterparts during the French Wars of Religion, most Western European powers started rearming their lancers with pistols as an adjunct weapon and as a replacement, with the Spanish retaining the lance the longest. Only the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with its far greater emphasis on cavalry warfare, large populat