Democratic socialism

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Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates achieving socialist goals within a democratic system as opposed to what it perceives as undemocratic socialist ideologies such as Marxist–Leninist-inspired socialism which is viewed as being non-democratic in practice.[1][2] Democratic socialists oppose the Soviet economic model, rejecting the authoritarian form of governance and highly centralized command economy that took form in the Soviet Union in the early 20th century.[3]

Democratic socialism has promoted as economic solutions to capitalist systems public property through a democratically elected government of major industries, utilities, and transportation systems; some limits on the conversion of public resources to private property; governmental regulation of the economy; extensive publicly financed assistance and pension programs;[4] and self-management and democratic management in companies sometimes including wider schemes of market socialist, participatory and decentralized planned economy.[5]

The modern history of democratic socialism goes back to early to mid 19th century socialist thought and movements associated with the label "utopian socialism" [6] as well as a socialist republican movement such as Chartism.[7][8] There is considerable controversy among scholars regarding Karl Marx's attitude toward democracy, but two lines of thought developed from Marx: one emphasizing democracy and one rejecting it while other socialists rejected Marx.[9] In the United Kingdom the Fabian Society was formed and it tended to emphasize "the democratic elements of democratic socialism: electoral success, the rational presentation of their position (in innumerable publications), careful study of the current social situation, and gradualism."[10] Another important source of inspiration was Eduard Bernstein´s proposal of "evolutionary socialism" which argued that socialism could be achieved by peaceful means through incremental legislative reform in democratic societies as opposed to revolutionary socialism. The 20th century saw the ascendence of socialist, labor, and social democratic parties in Europe who started to be elected in democratic elections to form governments in their countries. The terms "democratic socialism" and "social democracy" have significant overlap[11][12] and during the late 20th century those labels started to be both embraced, contested and rejected due to the emergence of developments within the world´s left such as eurocommunism, the fall of eastern communist governments, the Third Way, the Latin American Pink tide, and the rise of anti-austerity movements in the late 2000s and early 2010s motivated by the Great Recession. This last development contributed to the emergence of politicans such as Jeremy Corbyn in the UK and Bernie Sanders in the US[13] who assumed the label democratic socialist to describe their rebellion against "Third way" and centrist politicians within the UK Labour and US Democratic parties respectively.[14][15]

Definition[edit]

Democratic socialism is defined as having a socialist economy in which the means of production (including wealth) are socially and collectively owned or controlled alongside a politically democratic system of government.[1] Peter Hain classifies democratic socialism, along with libertarian socialism, as a form of anti-authoritarian "socialism from below" (using the term popularized by Hal Draper), in contrast to Stalinism, a variant of authoritarian state socialism. For Hain, this democratic/authoritarian divide is more important than the revolutionary/reformist divide.[16] In this type of democratic socialism, it is the active participation of the population as a whole and workers in particular in the management of economy that characterizes democratic socialism while nationalization and economic planning (whether controlled by an elected government or not) are characteristic of state socialism. A similar, but more complex argument is made by Nicos Poulantzas.[17] Draper himself uses the term "revolutionary-democratic socialism" as a type of socialism from below in his The Two Souls of Socialism and writes: "[T]he leading spokesman in the Second International of a revolutionary-democratic Socialism-from-Below [was] Rosa Luxemburg, who so emphatically put her faith and hope in the spontaneous struggle of a free working class that the myth-makers invented for her a 'theory of spontaneity'".[18] Similarly, about Eugene Debs he writes: "'Debsian socialism' evoked a tremendous response from the heart of the people, but Debs had no successor as a tribune of revolutionary-democratic socialism".[19]

Tendencies of democratic socialism follow a gradual, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one, with socialism as an eventual long-term outcome.[20] This tendency is often invoked in an attempt to distinguish democratic socialism from Marxist–Leninist socialism as in Donald Busky's Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey,[21] Jim Tomlinson's Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951, Norman Thomas Democratic Socialism: a new appraisal or Roy Hattersley's Choose Freedom: The Future of Democratic Socialism. A variant of this set of definitions is Joseph Schumpeter's argument, set out in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1941), that liberal democracies were evolving from "liberal capitalism" into democratic socialism, with the growth of workers' self-management, industrial democracy and regulatory institutions.[22]

For example the new version of Clause IV of the constitution of the UK Labour Party, though affirming a commitment to democratic socialism,[23][24] no longer definitely commits the party to public ownership of industry: in its place it advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services ... either owned by the public or accountable to them."[23]

Another example is the Democratic Socialists of America who define socialism as a decentralized socially-owned economy, but while ultimately committed to socialism they focus their political activities on reforms within capitalism:

Social ownership could take many forms, such as worker-owned cooperatives or publicly owned enterprises managed by workers and consumer representatives. Democratic socialists favor as much decentralization as possible. While the large concentrations of capital in industries such as energy and steel may necessitate some form of state ownership, many consumer-goods industries might be best run as cooperatives.

Democratic socialists have long rejected the belief that the whole economy should be centrally planned. While we believe that democratic planning can shape major social investments like mass transit, housing, and energy, market mechanisms are needed to determine the demand for many consumer goods.[25]

As we are unlikely to see an immediate end to capitalism tomorrow, DSA fights for reforms today that will weaken the power of corporations and increase the power of working people.[26]

For Labour Party (UK) politician and ex MP Peter Hain:

Democratic socialism should mean an active, democratically accountable state to underpin individual freedom and deliver the conditions for everyone to be empowered regardless of who they are or what their income is. It should be complemented by decentralisation and empowerment to achieve increased democracy and social justice...Today democratic socialism's task is to recover the high ground on democracy and freedom through maximum decentralisation of control, ownership and decision making. For socialism can only be achieved if it springs from below by popular demand. The task of socialist government should be an enabling one, not an enforcing one. Its mission is to disperse rather than to concentrate power, with a pluralist notion of democracy at its heart.[27]

The term is sometimes used to refer to policies within capitalism as opposed to an ideology that aims to transcend and replace capitalism, though this is not always the case. For example, Robert M. Page, a reader in Democratic Socialism and Social Policy at the University of Birmingham, writes about "transformative democratic socialism" to refer to the politics of the Clement Attlee government (a strong welfare state, fiscal redistribution and some public ownership) and "revisionist democratic socialism" as developed by Anthony Crosland and Harold Wilson:

The most influential revisionist Labour thinker, Anthony Crosland..., contended that a more "benevolent" form of capitalism had emerged since the [Second World War] ... According to Crosland, it was now possible to achieve greater equality in society without the need for "fundamental" economic transformation. For Crosland, a more meaningful form of equality could be achieved if the growth dividend derived from effective management of the economy was invested in "pro-poor" public services rather than through fiscal redistribution.[28]

Some proponents of market socialism see it as an economic system compatible with the political ideology of democratic socialism.[29] Some tendencies of democratic socialism advocate for revolution in order to transition to socialism, distinguishing it from some forms of social democracy.[30] The term "democratic socialism" can be used even another way to refer to a version of the Soviet model that was reformed in a democratic way. For example, Mikhail Gorbachev described perestroika as building a "new, humane and democratic socialism".[31] Consequently, some former Communist parties have rebranded themselves as democratic socialist, as with the Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany.

Philosophical support for democratic socialism can be found in the works of political philosophers like Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, among others. Honneth has put forward the view that political and economic ideologies have a social basis, that is they originate from intersubjective communication between members of a society.[32] Honneth criticizes the liberal state because it assumes that principles of individual liberty and private property are ahistorical and abstract, when in fact they evolved from a specific social discourse on human activity. Contra liberal individualism, Honneth has emphasized the inter-subjective dependence between humans, that is our well-being depends on recognising others and being recognized by them. Democratic socialism with an emphasis on community and solidarity can be seen as a way of safeguarding this dependency.

History[edit]

Forerunners and formative influences[edit]

Fenner Brockway, a leading democratic socialist of the Independent Labour Party, identified three early democratic socialist groups in his book Britain's First Socialists: 1) the Levellers, who were pioneers of political democracy and the sovereignty of the people; 2) the Agitators, who were the pioneers of participatory control by the ranks at their workplace; 3) and the Diggers, who were pioneers of communal ownership, cooperation and egalitarianism.[33] The tradition of the Diggers and the Levellers was continued in the period described by EP Thompson in The Making of the English Working Class by Jacobin groups like the London Corresponding Society and by polemicists such as Thomas Paine. Their concern for both democracy and social justice marks them out as key precursors of democratic socialism.[34]

The term "socialist" was first used in English in the British Cooperative Magazine in 1827[35] and came to be associated with the followers of the Welsh reformer Robert Owen, such as the Rochdale Pioneers who founded the co-operative movement. Owen's followers again stressed both participatory democracy and economic socialization, in the form of consumer co-operatives, credit unions and mutual aid societies. The Chartists similarly combined a working class politics with a call for greater democracy. Many countries have this.

The British moral philosopher John Stuart Mill also came to advocate a form of economic socialism within a liberal context. In later editions of his Principles of Political Economy (1848), Mill would argue that "as far as economic theory was concerned, there is nothing in principle in economic theory that precludes an economic order based on socialist policies".[36][37]

Modern democratic socialism[edit]

Keir Hardie was an early democratic socialist, who founded the Independent Labour Party in Great Britain

.Hardie was the first-ever elected Labour MP in the UK. He served as the Member of Parliament for West Ham South from 1892, until he lost his seat at the 1895 general election.Democratic socialism became a prominent movement at the end of the nineteenth century. In Germany, the Eisenacher socialist group merged with the Lassallean socialist group in 1875 to form the German Social Democratic Party.[38] In Australia, the labor and socialist movements were gaining traction and the Australian Labor Party (ALP) was founded in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891 by striking pastoral workers. A minority government led by the party was formed in Queensland in 1899 with Anderson Dawson as the Premier of Queensland where it was founded and was in power for one week, the world's first democratic socialist-led government.[citation needed] The ALP has been the main driving force for workers' rights in Australia, backed by Australian Trade Unions, in particular the Australian Workers' Union. Since the Whitlam Government, the ALP has moved towards social democratic and Third Way ideals which are found among many of the ALP's Right Faction members. Democratic socialist, Christian socialist, libertarian Marxist and agrarian socialist ideologies lie within the ALP's Left Faction.

In the United States, Eugene V. Debs, a prominent American socialist, led a movement focussed on democratic socialism and made five unsuccessful runs for the Presidency of the United States, once in 1900 as the nominee for the Social Democratic Party and then four more times on the ticket of the Socialist Party of America.[39] The socialist industrial unionism of Daniel DeLeon in the United States represented another strain of early democratic socialism in this period. It favoured a form of government based on industrial unions, but which also sought to establish this government after winning at the ballot box.[40] The tradition continued to flourish in the Socialist Party of America (especially under the leadership of Norman Thomas)[41] and later the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA). Upon the DSA's founding in 1983, Michael Harrington and socialist-feminist author Barbara Ehrenreich were elected as co-chairs of the organization. Currently philosopher and activist Cornel West is one of several honorary chairs. The organization does not stand its own candidates in elections but instead "fights for reforms... that will weaken the power of corporations and increase the power of working people".[42] More recently, the U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders from Vermont described himself as a democratic socialist, and admires the Nordic model practiced in Scandinavian countries.[43]

In the United Kingdom, the democratic socialist tradition was represented in particular by William Morris's Socialist League and in the 1880s by the Fabian Society and later the Independent Labour Party (ILP) founded by Keir Hardie in the 1890s, of which writer George Orwell would later be a prominent member.[44] In the early 1920s, the guild socialism of G. D. H. Cole attempted to envision a socialist alternative to Soviet-style authoritarianism, while council communism articulated democratic socialist positions in several respects, notably through renouncing the vanguard role of the revolutionary party and holding that the system of the Soviet Union was not authentically socialist.[45] During the 1970s and 1980s, prominent democratic socialists within the Labour movement included Cabinet Ministers Michael Foot and Tony Benn, considered by many to have redefined democratic socialism into an actionable manifesto, which was voted overwhelmingly against at the 1983 general election and referred to as "The longest suicide note in history" by Labour MP Gerald Kaufman. The modern Labour Party has often referred to itself as a democratic socialist party throughout the twentieth century and explicitly identifies as such in Clause IV of the Labour Party Rule Book. The extract from Clause IV can also be found on the back of Labour Party membership cards.

Italian President Giuseppe Saragat

In other parts of Europe, many democratic socialist parties were united in the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (the "Two and a Half International") in the early 1920s and in the London Bureau (the "Three and a Half International") in the 1930s, along with many other socialists of different tendencies and ideologies. The socialist Internationales sought to steer a course between the social democrats of the Second International, who were seen as insufficiently socialist (and had been compromised by their support for World War I) and the perceived anti-democratic Third International. The key movements within the Two and a Half International were the ILP and the Austromarxists and the main forces in the Three and a Half International were the ILP and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) of Spain.[46][47] In Italy, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party broke away from the Italian Socialist Party in 1947, when this latter joined the Soviet-funded Italian Communist Party to prepare the decisive 1948 general election. Despite remaining a minor party in Italian Parliament for fifty years, party leader Giuseppe Saragat became President of Italy in 1964.

During India's freedom movement, many figures on the left-wing of the Indian National Congress organized themselves as the Congress Socialist Party. Their politics and those of the early and intermediate periods of Jayaprakash Narayan's career combined a commitment to the socialist transformation of society with a principled opposition to the one-party authoritarianism they perceived in the Stalinist revolutionary model. This political current continued in the Praja Socialist Party, the later Janata Party and the current Samajwadi Party.[48][49] In Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto introduced the concept of democratic socialism and the Pakistan Peoples Party remained one of the prominent supporters for the social democratic policies in the country. In Nepal, B.P Koirala introduced the concept of democratic socialism.

In the Middle East, the largest democratic socialist party is the Organization of Iranian People's Fedaian (Majority).

The Folkesocialisme (translated into "popular socialism" or "people's socialism") that emerged as a vital current of the left in Nordic countries beginning in the 1950s could be characterized as a democratic socialism in the same vein. Former Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme is a key proponent of democratic socialism.[50]

21st century[edit]

Bernie Sanders, junior Senator of Vermont and self-described democratic socialist, at his 2016 presidential campaign kickoff in May 2015

According to a 2013 article in The Guardian, "[c]ontrary to popular belief, Americans don't have an innate allergy to socialism. Milwaukee has had several socialist mayors (Frank Zeidler, Emil Seidel and Daniel Hoan), and there is currently an independent socialist in the US Senate, Bernie Sanders of Vermont".[51] Sanders, once mayor of Vermont's largest city, Burlington, has described himself as a democratic socialist[52][53] and has praised Scandinavian-style social democracy.[54][55] In 2016, Sanders made a bid for the Democratic Party presidential candidate, thereby gaining considerable popular support, particularly among the younger generation, but lost the nomination to Hillary Clinton. Usage of the term "democratic socialism" in the US, prompted the Prime Minister of Denmark, Lars Løkke Rasmussen, to assert that the Nordic model involves a market economy and not a socialist one.[56]

Socialism of the 21st century is a political term used to describe the interpretation of socialist principles advocated first by German sociologist and political analyst Heinz Dieterich in 1996 and later by Latin American leaders like Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, Rafael Correa of Ecuador, Evo Morales of Bolivia and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil.[57] within the Latin American "Pink tide" of the 2000s and 2010s. Socialism of the 21st century argues that both free market industrial capitalism and 20th-century socialism have failed to solve urgent problems of humanity like poverty, hunger, exploitation, economic oppression, sexism, racism, the destruction of natural resources and the absence of a truly participative democracy.[58] Because of the local unique historical conditions, socialism of the 21st century is often contrasted with previous applications of socialism in other countries and aims for a more decentralized and participatory planning process.[59].

Economic positions[edit]

Democratic socialists have promoted a variety of different models of socialism ranging from market socialism where socially-owned enterprises operate in competitive markets and are in some cases self-managed by their workforce to non-market participatory socialism based on decentralized economic planning.[5]

Historically, democratic socialism has been committed to a decentralized form of economic planning where productive units are integrated into a single organization and organized on the basis of self-management as opposed to Stalinist-style command planning.[3] For example, Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas, both of whom were United States presidential candidates for the Socialist Party of America, understood socialism to be an economic system structured upon production for use and social ownership in place of the profit system and private ownership.[60][61]

Contemporary proponents of market socialism have argued that the major reasons for the economic shortcomings of Soviet-type planned economies was their failure to create rules and operational criteria for the efficient operation of state enterprises and the lack of democracy in the political systems that the Soviet-type economies were combined with.[62]

Parliamentary democratic socialist parties[edit]

The following is a list of socialist parties and democratic socialist parties around the world.

  •   a governing party (including as junior coalition partner)
Party Country Date established % of popular vote
in the latest election
Seats in the lower house
(if bicameral)
Sandinista National Liberation Front  Nicaragua 1961 65.9% (2016)
71 / 92 (77%)
Movement for Socialism  Bolivia 1998 61.4% (2014)
88 / 130 (68%)
PAIS Alliance  Ecuador 2006 39.07% (2017)
74 / 137 (54%)
Labour Party  UK 1900 40.0% (2017)
262 / 650 (40%)
Socialist Party  Portugal 1973 32.31% (2015)
86 / 230 (37%)
Inuit Ataqatigiit[63]  Greenland 1976 33.5% (2014)
11 / 31 (35%)
United Socialist Party  Venezuela 2007 40.9% (2015)
52 / 165 (32%)
Sinn Féin[64][65]  Northern Ireland 1970 26.2% (2011)
29 / 108 (27%)
Party of Socialists[66]  Moldova 1997 20.5% (2014)
25 / 101 (25%)
Left-Green Movement[67]  Iceland 1999 16.9% (2017)
11 / 63 (17%)
Broad Front  Peru 2013 13.9% (2016)
20 / 130 (15%)
Sinn Féin[64]  Ireland 1970 13.8% (2016)
23 / 166 (14%)
Workers' Party  Brazil 1980 13.9% (2014)
58 / 513 (11%)
Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP)[68][69]  Turkey 2012 10.8% (11/2015)
59 / 550 (11%)
The Left (Die Linke)[70]  Germany 2007 9.2% (2017)
69 / 709 (10%)
Socialist Party  Netherlands 1971 9.1% (2017)
14 / 150 (9%)
Socialist Party  Serbia 1990 10.9% (2016)
20 / 250 (8%)
Red–Green Alliance  Denmark 1989 7.8% (2015)
14 / 179 (8%)
Armenian Revolutionary Federation[71][72]  Armenia 1890 6.58% (2017)
7 / 105 (7%)
United Left [73]  Slovenia 2014 6% (2014)
6 / 90 (7%)
Left Alliance[74]  Finland 1990 7.1% (2015)
12 / 200 (6%)
Left Party  Sweden 1917 5.7% (2014)
21 / 349 (6%)
Left Ecology Freedom/Italian Left[75]  Italy 2010 3.2% (2013)
37 / 630 (6%)
Labourists – Labour Party[76]  Croatia 2010 5.1% (2011)
6 / 151 (4%)
Socialist Left[77]  Norway 1975 4.1% (2013)
7 / 169 (4%)
The Left[78]  Luxembourg 1999 4.9% (2013)
2 / 60 (3%)
La France insoumise[79]  France 2016 11.03% (2017)
17 / 577 (3%)
Movement of Socialist Democrats  Tunisia 1978 N/A (2014)
1 / 217 (0.5%)

Notable self-described democratic socialists[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Heads of state[edit]

Other politicians[edit]

Intellectuals and activists[edit]

Criticism[edit]

Compatibility of "socialism" and "democracy"[edit]

Some politicians, economists, and theorists have argued that "socialism" and "democracy" are incompatible. For instance, economist Milton Friedman stated that "a society which is socialist cannot also be democratic, in the sense of guaranteeing individual freedom".[143] Sociologist Robert Nisbet argued in 1978 that there is "not a single free socialism to be found anywhere in the world".[143]

Irving Kristol argued: "Democratic socialism turns out to be an inherently unstable compound, a contradiction in terms. Every social-democratic party, once in power, soon finds itself choosing, at one point after another, between the socialist society it aspires to and the liberal society that lathered [sic – fathered?] it". He added: "[S]ocialist movements end up [in] a society where liberty is the property of the state, and is (or is not) doled out to its citizens along with other contingent 'benefits'".[143]

Richard Pipes wrote:[143]

The merger of political and economic power implicit in socialism greatly strengthens the ability of the state and it's bureaucracy to control the population. Theoretically, this capacity need not be exercised and need not lead to growing domination of the population by the state. In practice, such a tendency is virtually inevitable. For one thing, the socialization of the economy must lead to a numerical growth of the bureaucracy required to administer it, and this process cannot fail to augment the power of the state. For another, socialism leads to a tug of war between the state, bent on enforcing it's economic monopoly, and the ordinary citizen, equally determined to evade it; the result is repression and the creation of specialized repressive organs.

According to Michael Makovi: "An economic analysis of the political institutions of democratic socialism shows that democratic socialism must necessarily fail for political (not economic) reasons even if nobody in authority has ill-intentions or abuses their power".[144]

Response[edit]

One of the major scholars who have argued that socialism and democracy are compatible is the Austrian-born American economist Joseph Schumpeter, who was hostile to socialism.[145] In his book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (first published in 1942), he "emphasize[s] that political democracy was thoroughly compatible with socialism in its fullest sense".[143]

In a 1963 address to the All India Congress Committee, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru stated: "Political Democracy has no meaning if it does not embrace economic democracy. And economic democracy is nothing but socialism".[146]

Political historian Theodore Draper wrote: "I know of no political group which has resisted totalitarianism in all its guises more steadfastly than democratic socialists".[143]

Robert Heilbroner: "There is, of course, no conflict between such a socialism and freedom as we have described it; indeed, this conception of socialism is the very epitome of these freedoms", referring to open association of individuals in political and social life; the democratization and humanization of work; and the cultivation of personal talents and creativities.[143]

Bayard Rustin wrote:[143]

For me, socialism has meaning only if it is democratic. Of the many claimants to socialism only one has a valid title—that socialism which views democracy as valuable per se, which stands for democracy unequivocally, and which continually modifies socialist ideas and programs in the light of democratic experience. This is the socialism of the labor, social-democratic, and socialist parties of Western Europe.

Kenneth Arrow argued: "We cannot be sure that the principles of democracy and socialism are compatible until we can observe a viable society following both principles. But there is no convincing evidence or reasoning which would argue that a democratic-socialist movement is inherently self-contradictory. Nor need we fear that gradual moves in the direction of increasing government intervention will lead to an irreversible move to "serfdom" [referring to The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich Hayek]".[143]

William Pfaff wrote: "It might be argued that socialism ineluctably breeds state bureaucracy, which then imposes its own kinds of restrictions upon individual liberties. This is what the Scandinavians complain about. But Italy's champion bureaucracy owes nothing to socialism. American bureaucracy grows as luxuriantly and behaves as officiously as any other".[143]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasize by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism. 
  2. ^ Curian, Alt, Chambers, Garrett, Levi, McClain, George Thomas, James E., Simone, Geoffrey, Margaret, Paula D. (October 12, 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. Democratic socialism is a term meant to distinguish a form of socialism that falls somewhere between authoritarian and centralized forms of socialism on the one hand and social democracy on the other. The rise of authoritarian socialism in the twentieth century in the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence generated this new distinction. 
  3. ^ a b Prychito, David L. (July 31, 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1840645194. It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralized socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organization) would follow the workers' self-management principle. 
  4. ^ Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 117
  5. ^ a b Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN 978-1412918121. Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socializes the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a nonmarket, participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism. 
  6. ^ "which included varying forms of democratic political decision making" Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 118
  7. ^ Malcolm Chase, Chartism: A New History (Manchester UP, 2007)
  8. ^ Boyd Hilton, A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People?: England 1783–1846 (2006) pp. 612–21
  9. ^ Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 118
  10. ^ Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 118
  11. ^ "Because many communists now call themselves democratic socialists, it is sometimes diffi cult to know what a political label really means. As a result, social democratic has become a common new label for democratic socialist political parties." Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 117
  12. ^ "Crosland's response to 1951 was to develop his 'revisionist' theory of socialism, what today we call democratic socialism or 'social democracy'. By freeing Labour from past fixations that social change had rendered redundant, and by offering fresh objectives to replace those which had already been achieved or whose relevance had faded over time, Crosland showed how socialism made sense in modern society." Peter Hain. Back to the future of socialism, Policy Press (26 January 2015). pg. 3
  13. ^ "Socialism is stubborn. After decades of dormancy verging on death, it is rising again in the west. In the UK, Jeremy Corbyn just led the Labour party to its largest increase in vote share since 1945 on the strength of its most radical manifesto in decades. In France, the leftist Jean-Luc Melenchon recently came within two percentage points of breaking into the second round of the presidential election. And in the US, the country's most famous socialist – Bernie Sanders – is now its most popular politician...For the resurgent left, an essential spark is social media. In fact, it's one of the most crucial and least understood catalysts of contemporary socialism. Since the networked uprisings of 2011 – the year of the Arab spring, Occupy Wall Street and the Spanish indignados – we've seen how social media can rapidly bring masses of people into the streets. But social media isn't just a tool for mobilizing people. It's also a tool for politicizing them. ""How social media saved socialism" by The Guardian
  14. ^ "In a joint Guardian and Financial Times interview, Mr Blair said he believed some of Mr Sanders' and Mr Corbyn's success was due to the "loss of faith in that strong, centrist progressive position", which defined his own career. He said: "One of the strangest things about politics at the moment – and I really mean it when I say I'm not sure I fully understand politics right now, which is an odd thing to say, having spent my life in it – is when you put the question of electability as a factor in your decision to nominate a leader, it's how small the numbers are that this is the decisive factor. That sounds curious to me." "Tony Blair admits he can't understand the popularity of Jeremy Corbyn and Bernie Sanders" by the Telegraph
  15. ^ "Democratic socialism hits the heartland: Ocasio-Cortez, Sanders to campaign in deep-red Kansas" at NBC News
  16. ^ Peter Hain Ayes to the Left Lawrence and Wishart.
  17. ^ "Towards a Democratic Socialism," New Left Review I/109, May–June 1978.
  18. ^ Draper 1966, Chapter 7: The "Revisionist" Facade.
  19. ^ Draper 1966, Chapter 8: The 100% American Scene.
  20. ^ This tendency is captured in this statement: Anthony Crosland "argued that the socialisms of the pre-war world (not just that of the Marxists, but of the democratic socialists too) were now increasingly irrelevant." Pierson, Chris (2005). "Lost property: What the Third Way lacks". Journal of Political Ideologies. 10 (2): 145–163. doi:10.1080/13569310500097265. . Other texts which use the terms "democratic socialism" in this way include Malcolm Hamilton Democratic Socialism in Britain and Sweden (St Martin's Press 1989).
  21. ^ See pp. 7–8.
  22. ^ See John Medearis, "Schumpeter, the New Deal, and Democracy," The American Political Science Review, 1997.
  23. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference constitution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ "How we work – How the party works". Labour.org.uk. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  25. ^ "Doesn't socialism mean that the government will own and run everything?". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  26. ^ "About DSA". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  27. ^ Peter Hain. Back to the future of socialism, Policy Press (26 January 2015), pp. 133–148
  28. ^ Robert M Page, "Without a Song in their Heart: New Labour, the Welfare State and the Retreat from Democratic Socialism," Jnl Soc. Pol., 36, 1, 19–37. 2007.
  29. ^ For example, David Miller, Market, State, and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism (Oxford University Press, 1990).
  30. ^ What is Democratic Socialism? Questions and Answers from the Democratic Socialists of America.
  31. ^ Paul T. Christensen "Perestroika and the Problem of Socialist Renewal" Social Text 1990.
  32. ^ Honneth, Axel (1995). "The Limits of Liberalism: On the Political-Ethical Discussion Concerning Communitarianism". In Honneth, Axel. The Fragmented World of the Social. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 231–247. ISBN 0-7914-2300-X. 
  33. ^ Quoted in Peter Hain Ayes to the Left Lawrence and Wishart, p.12.
  34. ^ Isabel Taylor "A Potted History of English Radicalism" Albion Magazine Summer 2007; M. Thrale (ed.) Selections from the Papers of the London Corresponding Society 1792–1799 (Cambridge University Press, 1983); E. P. Thompson The Making of the English Working Class. Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1963.
  35. ^ Hain, op cit, p.13.
  36. ^ Wilson, Fred. "Stuart Mill." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 10 July 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  37. ^ "Mill, in contrast, advances a form of liberal democratic socialism for the enlargement of freedom as well as to realize social and distributive justice. He offers a powerful account of economic injustice and justice that is centered on his understanding of freedom and its conditions." Bruce Baum, "[J. S. Mill and Liberal Socialism]," Nadia Urbanati and Alex Zacharas, eds., J. S. Mill's Political Thought: A Bicentennial Reassessment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  38. ^ Eduard Bernstein, (1961). Evolutionary Socialism (from Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der Sozialdemokratie). Schocken Books. p. xi. ISBN 978-0805200119. "Six years before that he (Eduard Bernstein) had had joined the Eisenacher socialist group which merged with the Lassallean socialist group in 1875 to form the German Social Democratic Party."
  39. ^ Donald Busky, "Democratic Socialism in North America," Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey especially pp. 153–177.
  40. ^ Donald Busky "Democratic Socialism in North America" Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey especially pp. 150–154.
  41. ^ Robert John Fitrakis, "The idea of democratic socialism in America and the decline of the Socialist Party: Eugene Debs, Norman Thomas and Michael Harrington. (Volumes I and II) Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine." (January 1, 1990). ETD Collection for Wayne State University. Paper AAI9029621. See also "What is Democratic Socialism? Questions and Answers from the Democratic Socialists of America."
  42. ^ "About DSA". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  43. ^ a b Bierman, Noah (12 April 2014). "Bernie Sanders seeks to pull Democrats left in 2016 primary". The Boston Globe. The lawmaker, who is possibly the most liberal of all members of Congress — and the only one to call himself a democratic socialist... 
  44. ^ Donald Busky, "Democratic Socialism in Great Britain and Ireland," Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, pp. 83–5 on Morris, pp. 91–109 on Hardie and the ILP. On Morris as democratic socialist, see also volume 3 of David Reisman, ed., Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952 and E P Thompson, William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary (London: Merlin, 1977). On the ILP as democratic socialist, see also The ILP: A Very Brief History; James, David, Jowitt, Tony, and Laybourn, Keith, eds. The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party. Halifax: Ryburn, 1992.
  45. ^ On Cole as democratic socialist, see also volume 7 of David Reisman, ed, Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952.
  46. ^ F. Peter Wagner, Rudolf Hilferding: Theory and Politics of Democratic Socialism (Atlantic Highlands 1996).
  47. ^ Janet Polasky, The Democratic Socialism of Emile Vandervelde: Between Reform and Revolution (Oxford 1995).
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  57. ^ Partido dos Trabalhadores. Resoluções do 3º Congresso do PT (PDF). 3º Congresso do PT. 
  58. ^ Heinz Dieterich: „Der Sozialismus des 21. Jahrhunderts – Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Demokratie nach dem globalen Kapitalismus“, Einleitung
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  60. ^ The Socialist Party's Appeal, by Debs, Eugene. 1912. The Independent.
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  62. ^ Gregory and Stuart, Paul and Robert (2003). Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First. South-Western College Pub. p. 152. ISBN 0-618-26181-8. ..market socialism's contemporary supporters argue that planned socialism failed because it was based on totalitarianism rather than democracy and that it failed to create rules for the efficient operation of state enterprises. 
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  64. ^ a b "What Sinn Féin stands for". sinnfein.ie. Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin is a 32-County party striving for an end to partition on the island of Ireland and the establishment of a democratic socialist republic. 
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  71. ^ Armenian Revolutionary Federation Program (PDF). The Armenian Revolutionary Federation in its world outlook and traditions is essentially a socialist, democratic, and revolutionary party. 
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  81. ^ Patsouras, Louis (2005). Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 265. In Chile, where a large democratic socialist movement was in place for decades, a democratic socialist, Salvadore Allende, led a popular front electoral coalition, including Communists, to victory in 1970. 
  82. ^ Medina, Eden (2014). Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile. MIT Press. p. 39. ...in Allende's democratic socialism. 
  83. ^ Winn, Peter (2004). Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberalism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002. Duke University Press. p. 16. The Allende government that Pinochet overthrew in 1973 had been elected in 1970 on a platform of pioneering a democratic road to a democratic socialism. 
  84. ^ Stephen Schlesinger (June 3, 2011). Ghosts of Guatemala's Past. The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  85. ^ Morgan, Kenneth O. (2001). Britain Since 1945: The People's Peace. Oxford University Press. p. 111. The last years of Attlee's democratic socialist regime... 
  86. ^ Beech, Matt (2012). "The British Welfare State and its Discontents". In Connelly, James; Hayward, Jack. The Withering of the Welfare State: Regression. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 90. Attlee's goal was a democratic socialist society... 
  87. ^ Livingston Hall, Anthony (2007). The Ipinions Journal: Commentaries on Current Events, Volume 2. iUniverse. p. 18. Chileans elected Michelle Bachelet as their new president ... Because her advocacy of democratic socialism. 
  88. ^ Gal, Allon (1991). David Ben-Gurion and the American Alignment for a Jewish State. Indiana University Press. p. 216. Ben-Gurion, Zionist and socialist-democrat... 
  89. ^ Jones, Clive A. (2013). Soviet Jewish Aliyah, 1989-92: Impact and Implications for Israel and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 61. ...Mapai, the democratic socialist party of David Ben Gurion. 
  90. ^ Cohen, Mitchell (12 June 2015). "'Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist,' by Pierre Birnbaum". New York Times. Blum declared that he was what Nazis "hated most, . . . a democratic socialist and a Jew." 
  91. ^ Gress, David (1 July 1983). "Whatever Happened to Willy Brandt?". Commentary. 
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h Sargent, Lyman (2008). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis. Cengage Learning. p. 118. 
  93. ^ "Hugo Chavez". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Campaigning as a democratic socialist, Chávez... 
  94. ^ a b c d e f g Navarro, Armando (2012). Global Capitalist Crisis and the Second Great Depression: Egalitarian Systemic Models for Change. Lexington Books. p. 299. 
  95. ^ Munck, Ronaldo (2012). Contemporary Latin America. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 119. In a broad historical sense Chávez has undoubtedly played a progressive role but he is clearly not a democratic socialist... 
  96. ^ a b Patrick Iber "[https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/path-democratic-socialism-lessons-latin-america The Path to Democratic Socialism: Lessons from Latin America" Dissent Spring 2016: "Most of the world's democratic socialist intellectuals have been skeptical of Latin America's examples [including Chavez and Correa), citing their authoritarian qualities and occasional cults of personality. To critics, the appropriate label for these governments is not socialism but populism."
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  98. ^ a b Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Westad, Odd Arne (2004). The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford University Press. p. 441. Palme: Why I am a Democratic Socialist, 1982. 
  99. ^ Beaglehole, Tim. "Fraser, Peter - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  100. ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (26 December 2011). "Gorbachev and the Struggle for Democracy". The Huffington Post. During his six years of rule, Gorbachev was intent on renovating Soviet socialism through peaceful and democratic means. 
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  105. ^ Taylor, Bruce M. (15 March 1989). "In Jamaica, Manley's Success Will Be U.S. Gain". New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
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  109. ^ Moraes, Frank (2007). Jawaharlal Nehru. Jaico Publishing House. p. 187. 
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  111. ^ Hoadley, J. Stephen (1975). The Future of Portuguese Timor. Institute of Southeast Asian. p. 25. Ramos Horta during his December 1974 trip to Australia was careful to distinguish between Fretilin and Frelimo, arguing that his own party was a democratic socialist party.... 
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  113. ^ Anwar, Rosihan (2010). Sutan Sjahrir: True Democrat, Fighter for Humanity, 1909–1966. Penerbit Buku Kompas. p. 115. Sjahrir...called the ideology he had thought up and that he followed 'democratic socialism'...(sosialisme kerakyatan). 
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  115. ^ Stone, Jon (26 January 2015). "Syriza: Everything you need to know about Greece's new Marxist governing party". The Independent. ...a democratic socialist group Synaspismós, which current Syriza leader Alexis Tsipras led. 
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  118. ^ Duncan Hall (2011). A2 Government and Politics: Ideologies and Ideologies in Action. Lulu.com. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4477-3399-7. 
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  129. ^ Alan Ryan (1981). Bertrand Russell: A Political Life. Macmillan. p. 87. ISBN 9780374528201. None the less Russell joined the ILP [Independent Labour Party] and declared himself a democratic socialist, then and thereafter. 
  130. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2007). Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743264747. For the rest of his life Einstein would expound a democratic socialism that had a liberal, anti—authoritarian underpinning. 
  131. ^ Calaprice, Alice; Lipscombe, Trevor (2005). Albert Einstein: A Biography. Greenwood. p. 61. ISBN 9780313330803. He committed himself to the democratic- socialist goals that became popular among intellectuals in Europe at the time. 
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