The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques and the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. As of 1 January 2018, 67.19 million people lived in France, including all the five overseas departments, but excluding the overseas collectivities and territories. 65,017,000 of these lived in Metropolitan France, mainland France located in Europe. In March 2017, the population of France reached the 67,000,000 mark, it had reached 66,000,000 in early 2014. Between the years 2010-17, the population of France grew from 64,613,000 to 66,991,000, making France one of the fastest-growing countries in Europe; the population of France is growing by 1,000,000 people every three years- an average annual increase of 340,000 people, or +0.6%. France was Europe's most populous country. During the Middle Ages, more than one-quarter of Europe's total population was French. By the beginning of the twentieth century, other European countries, such as Germany and Russia, had caught up with France and overtaken it in number of people.
However, the country's population increased with the baby boom following World War II. According to INSEE, since 2004, 200,000 immigrants entered the country annually. One out of two was born in one in three in Africa. Between 2009-2012, the number of Europeans entering France increased sharply; the national birth rate, after dropping for a time, began to rebound in the 1990s and the country's fertility rate is close to the replacement level. According to a 2006 INSEE study, "the natural increase is close to 300,000 people, a level that has not been reached in more than thirty years." With a total fertility rate of 1.96 in 2016, France however remains the most fertile country in the European Union. Among the 802,000 babies born in metropolitan France in 2010, 80.1% had two French parents, 13.3% had one French parent, 6.6% had two non-French parents. For the same year, 27.3% of newborns in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and 23.9% had at least one parent born outside of Europe.
Between 2006-08, about 40% of newborns in France had one foreign-born grandparent. Censuses on race and ethnic origin were banned by the French Government in 1978, since the term "race" in France invokes associations with Nazi Germany. France was the largest nation in Europe. During the Middle Ages more than one quarter of Europe's population was French. Starting around 1800, the historical evolution of the population in France has been atypical in Europe. Unlike the rest of Europe, there was no strong population growth in France in the 19th and first half of the 20th century; the birth rate in France diminished much earlier than in the rest of Europe in part because inheritance laws dictated distribution of estates whereas in the UK wealth could be passed to the eldest son or child. The country's large population gave Napoleon a limitless supply of men for the Grande Armée, but the birth rate began to fall in the late 1700s; the slow growth of France's population in the 19th century was reflected in the country's low emigration rate.
The French population only grew by 8.6% between 1871 and 1911, while Germany's grew by 60% and Britain's by 54%. Ferdinand Foch joked that the only way for France to permanently improve its relationship with Germany was to castrate 20 million Germans. If the population of France had grown between 1815 and 2000 at the same rate as that of Germany during the same time period, France's population would have been 110 million in 2000. If France's population had grown at the same rate as that of England and Wales, France's population could have been as much as 150 million in 2000. Should one start the comparison at the time of King Louis XIV France would now have the same population as the United States. While France was Europe's leading military power at the time of Louis XIV and Napoleon, the country lost this advantage due to its relative demographic decline after 1800. French concerns about the country's slow population growth began after its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. For four years in the 1890s, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births.
The National Alliance for the Growth of the French Population was formed in 1896, the Cognacq-Jay and other prizes were created for the parents of large families. Émile Zola's 1899 novel Fécondité is representative of contemporary concerns about the birthrate. France lost 10% of its active male population in World War I. ANAPF proposed that parents of large families receive extra
The Nexon Arena is a dedicated eSports stadium in Seoul, South Korea that hosts events for StarCraft II, League of Legends, other games. It is owned by a South Korean game development company. SPOTV is the main broadcaster at the stadium; the Nexon Arena is located in the Gangnam area of Seoul and has an area of 1,683m2 and a seating capacity of over 400 people. The stadium has a stage with five-person and single-person sound proof booths where the players play while the game is shown on a large screen above the main stage. Events are free and open to the public; the Nexon Arena first opened in late 2013 and is the first dedicated eSports stadium built by a game developer. After the conclusion of the 2013 FIFA Online 3 league, it was announced that the Nexon Arena would be opening, featuring events for StarCraft II and FIFA Online 3. In 2014, OnGameNet transferred broadcasting rights of Proleague to SPOTV and it was broadcast with the Adidas Championship as the first leagues to be played at the new studio.
Dota 2 was added to KeSPA's supported eSports in 2014 and thus. Four seasons were broadcast from the Nexon Arena. In 2015, the StarCraft II StarLeague was created as the second individual StarCraft II league in Korea with events being broadcast from the stadium Later that year, the International eSports Federation held the E-Sports World Championship 2015 in Korea and used the Nexon Arena as the main venue for the events. A retirement ceremony was held a few weeks for Lee "Flash" Young-ho, one of the most popular StarCraft Terran players, when he announced that he would be ending his progaming career. After obtaining rights to broadcast League of Legends in 2016, games of League of Legends Champions Korea were played and broadcast from the Nexon Arena. KeSPA announced at the end of the 2016 season of Proleague that the league would be discontinued, ending the broadcasts and leaving the StarCraft II StarLeague the lone StarCraft event broadcast at the Nexon Arena. In 2018, Nexon Arena was chosen as the South Korean venue for the Hearthstone Championship Tour.
StarCraft II League of Legends FIFA Online 3 Action Tournament Kartrider Hearthstone Dota 2 Sudden Attack Official Site
Sundai Michigan International Academy, affiliated with the Sundai Center for International Education, is located in Novi, Michigan, in Metro Detroit. The school's purpose is to prepare Japanese children who have lived in the United States for a long time for a return to Japan, to assist newly arrived Japanese children who have no fluency of English; as of 2008 it was the only Japanese-style year-round school within the State of Michigan. Known as the Koby International Academy, the school was founded in September 1993, by Yoshihisa Kobayashi, who, as of 2008, is the president of the school. Kobayashi moved to the U. S. in 1987 after working as an English teacher in his native Japan. Prior to opening Koby, Kobayashi attended Master of Business Administration courses at the University of Detroit Mercy and worked in the automobile sector; the school began with after Saturday supplemental divisions. In 1999 the day school opened, the school was registered with the Michigan Department of Education in 2000.
In 2008 it had a yearly tuition of a 60 student waiting list. As of 2008 it is not accredited; the school does not take public funds, so it is not required to offer standardized tests such as the Michigan Educational Assessment Program. The school had its main campus in the Peach Tree Plaza shopping center in Novi and the West Maple Center in West Bloomfield Township; as of 2008 the school had plans to occupy empty storefronts and expand within the Peach Tree shopping center. The school offers calligraphy, handicrafts and science courses; as of 2008 the school's teachers give more individualized attention due to the class sizes, as there were 12 students per class. As of 2008 most of the school's students are those; the students live in various parts including Ann Arbor and Canton. As of 2008, 60 students were on the school's waiting list. Velvet S. McNeil of The Detroit News wrote "Students who don't speak fluent English find the school comforting." Katate Masatsuka Sundai educational system Sundai Preparatory School Sundai Ireland International SchoolJapanese community of Detroit History of the Japanese in Metro Detroit Japanese School of Detroit Hinoki International School Niji-Iro Japanese Immersion Elementary School Consulate-General of Japan, DetroitAmerican schools in Japan American School in Japan, American international school in Tokyo Content originated from History of the Japanese in Metro Detroit Sundai Michigan International Academy Koby International Academy
Francis Grant "Frank" Higgins was an American football player and politician. He played college football at the University of Michigan, he was the first native-born person from Montana to become a member of the state's bar and of the state's legislature. He served in the Montana House of Representatives and was elected as the mayor of Missoula, Montana in 1892, he was the fourth Lieutenant Governor of Montana from 1901 to 1905. Higgins was born in 1864 at Hell Gate, near the site of what would become Missoula, Montana, he was the son of Julia Grant and Christopher Powers Higgins, an early Montana pioneer and the founder of the city of Missoula. He attended the public schools of Missoula and graduated in 1881 from the military school in Faribault, Minnesota, he was sent east to attend the Phillips Exeter Academy at New Hampshire. Higgins subsequently enrolled at the University of Michigan where he studied law and played college football as a forward for the undefeated 1885 Michigan Wolverines football team.
After graduating from Michigan in 1886, Higgins returned to Missoula. He was the first person born in Montana to be admitted to the Montana state bar. In the late 1880s, he gave up the practice of law to become president of the Higgins Bank in Missoula, he subsequently began a political career and became the first native-born person from Montana to be elected to the Montana state legislature and as a mayor. He served in the Montana House of Representatives upon Montana's admission to the United States starting in 1889, he served in both the second sessions of the Montana legislature. Higgins is credited with the decision to locate the University of Montana at Missoula, having introduced the bill into the state legislature providing for the establishment of a state university in Missoula, he served a one-year term. He was a delegate from Montana to 1892 Democratic National Convention. During the Spanish–American War, Higgins served two years as a captain in Company F of the United States volunteers.
He was a member of the Grisby Rough Riders during the Battle at Chickamauga. He was elected as the Lieutenant Governor of Montana in 1900 and served in that office from 1901 to 1905. After being elected to the office in 1900, Higgins spoke of his campaign and said "he had tackled the sheep herders, cowboys and lumber jacks, and, of course, liked the miners best of all." Higgins married Barbara Hayes from Ontario, Canada in September 1892. They had Grant Higgins. Higgins died in November 1905 at St. Vincent's hospital in Oregon, he died from complications of diseases contracted while serving in the Spanish–American War. After suffering a relapse, he was taken to Portland in the hope that "the climatic conditions would help to remove the severe strain to his nervous system." At the time of his death, the Anaconda Standard published extensive tributes to the late lieutenant governor. One colleague noted: "Frank G. Higgins was a scholar, one who read a great deal and always of the best; the classics and works of political economy were his favorite books.
He cared not dwelt on facts. He cared but little for poetry, save the poetry of the rushing mountain stream and the music of the wind through the trees of his native heath." 1885 Michigan Wolverines football team Lieutenant Governor of Montana
Seneca Falls is a town in Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 9,040 at the 2010 census; the Town of Seneca Falls contains the former village called Seneca Falls. The town is east of New York, in the northern part of the Finger Lakes District. Seneca Falls is a historic location along a branch of the Erie Canal and the birthplace of women’s rights, where the 1848 women’s rights convention was held, it is believed by some to have been the inspiration for the fictional town of “Bedford Falls”, portrayed in filmmaker Frank Capra’s classic 1946 film It’s a Wonderful life. The region is the former realm of the Cayuga tribe, who were visited by Jesuit missionaries during the 17th century. Cayuga villages were attacked and destroyed by the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 in retaliation for plundering and killing new colonists; the region became part of the Central New York Military Tract, reserved for veterans, after the conclusion of the American Revolution. A canal was completed in 1818 allowing transit between Cayuga Lake.
This canal was connected to the Erie Canal in 1828. The town was established in 1829 from part of the Town of Junius; the community of Seneca Falls in the town set itself apart by incorporating as a village in 1831. The Seneca Falls Convention held July 19–20, 1848, was the first women's rights convention organized by women explicitly for the purpose of discussing women's rights as such. On March 16, 2010, the people of the Village of Seneca Falls voted to dissolve the village into the Town of Seneca Falls, effective in 2012. Goulds Pumps, a leading manufacturer of pumps, is headquartered in Seneca Falls. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.4 square miles, of which, 24.2 square miles of it is land and 3.2 square miles of it is water. The east town line is defined by Cayuga Lake; the Seneca River/Cayuga-Seneca Canal passes across the town. More efforts are underway to complete a scenic trail along the historic canal; the eastern section of the town is part of Montezuma Marsh, an extensive wetland at the north end of Cayuga Lake.
Conjoined US Route 20 and NY-5 form an east–west highway across the town. New York State Route 89 is a north–south highway by the shore of Cayuga Lake. New York State Route 414 is a north–south highway, but has an east–west orientation while conjoined with US-20 and NY-5. New York State Route 318 intersects US-20/NY-5 in the northeast corner of the town; as of 2010 Seneca Falls had a population of 9,040. The ethnic and racial makeup of the population was 93.6% non-Hispanic white, 1.3% African-American, 0.4% Native American, 0.3% Indian, 1.3% other Asian, 0.2% non-Hispanic from some other race, 1.4% from two or more races, 1.0% Puerto Rican and 0.7% other Hispanics. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,347 people, 3,796 households, 2,440 families residing in the town; the population density was 385.6 people per square mile. There were 4,167 housing units at an average density of 171.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.86% White, 0.87% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.52% Asian, 0.30% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.33% of the population. There were 3,796 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.91. The town's population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,245, the median income for a family was $48,565. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $25,094 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,462. About 9.7% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
Bridgeport – A lakeside hamlet east of Seneca Falls CDP on NY-89. Cayuga Lake State Park – A state park on the shore of Cayuga Lake. Finger Lakes Regional Airport – A general aviation airport southeast of Seneca Falls CDP. Halsey Corner – A location in the northeast corner of the town on US-20/NY-5. Lehigh Valley Junction – A hamlet north of Seneca Falls CDP. Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge – A federal conservation area in the eastern end of the town. Montezuma Wildlife Management Area – A state conservation area in the east of the town. Nichols Corner – A location on the north town line on NY-318. Seneca Falls – The CDP of Seneca Falls at US-20/NY-5 and NY-414 an incorporated village; the public school system for Seneca Falls and its nearby villages is provided by the Seneca Falls Central School District. This district has four schools; the current superintendent is Robert F. McKeveny. Frank M. Knight Elementary School is a public school which handles grades K-3 in the Seneca Falls Central School District.
It has an enrollment of about 300 students. The current principal is Janet Clendenen. Elizabeth Cady Stanton School is a public school which handles grades 3-5, it has an enrollment of about 300 students. The current principal is Amy Hibbard. Seneca Falls Middle School is a public school which handles grades 6-8. Enrollment is around 350 students; the current principal is Kevin Rhinehart. Mynderse Academy is a p
Obiter dictum is the Latin phrase meaning "by the way", that is, a remark in a judgment, "said in passing". It is a concept derived from English common law, whereby a judgment comprises only two elements: ratio decidendi and obiter dicta. For the purposes of judicial precedent, ratio decidendi is binding, whereas obiter dicta are persuasive only. A judicial statement can be ratio decidendi only if it refers to the crucial facts and law of the case. Statements that are not crucial, or which refer to hypothetical facts or to unrelated law issues, are obiter dicta. Obiter dicta are remarks or observations made by a judge that, although included in the body of the court's opinion, do not form a necessary part of the court's decision. In a court opinion, obiter dicta include, but are not limited to, words "introduced by way of illustration, or analogy or argument". Unlike ratio decidendi, obiter dicta are not the subject of the judicial decision if they happen to be correct statements of law; the so-called Wambaugh's Inversion Test provides that to determine whether a judicial statement is ratio or obiter, you should invert the argument, to say, ask whether the decision would have been different, had the statement been omitted.
If so, the statement is ratio. If a court rules that it lacks jurisdiction to hear a case, but still goes on to offer opinions on the merits of the case, such opinions may constitute obiter dicta. Other instances of obiter dicta may occur where a judge makes an aside to provide context for the opinion, or makes a thorough exploration of a relevant area of law. If a judge, by way of illumination, provides a hypothetical example, this would be obiter if relevant because it would not be on the facts of the case, as in the Carlill case. University of Florida scholars Teresa Reid-Rambo and Leanne Pflaum explain the process by which obiter dicta may become binding, they write that: In reaching decisions, courts sometimes quote passages of obiter dicta found in the texts of the opinions from prior cases, with or without acknowledging the quoted passage's status as obiter dicta. A quoted passage of obiter dicta may become part of the holding or ruling in a subsequent case, depending on what the latter court decided and how that court treated the principle embodied in the quoted passage.
Under the doctrine of stare decisis, statements constituting obiter dicta are not binding, although in some jurisdictions, such as England and Wales, they can be persuasive. For instance, in the High Trees case, Mr Justice Denning was not content to grant the landlord's claim, but added that had the landlord sought to recover the back rent from the war years, equity would have estopped him from doing so. Given that the landlord did not wish to recover any back rent, Denning's addition was obiter, yet this statement became the basis for the modern revival of promissory estoppel. In Hedley Byrne & Co Ltd v Heller & Partners Ltd, the House of Lords held, that negligent misstatement could give rise to a claim for pure economic loss though, on the facts, a disclaimer was effective in quashing any claim. In Scruttons Ltd v Midland Silicones Ltd, Lord Reid proposed that while doctrine of privity of contract prevented the stevedores in this instance from benefiting from protection of an exemption clause, in future such protection could be effective if four guidelines were all met.
In Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company, Bowen LJ said: If I advertise to the world that my dog is lost, that anybody who brings the dog to a particular place will be paid some money, are all the police or other persons whose business it is to find lost dogs to be expected to sit down and write me a note saying that they have accepted my proposal? Why, of course! Obiter dicta can be influential. One example in United States Supreme Court history is the 1886 case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co.. A passing remark from Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, recorded by the court reporter before oral argument, now forms the basis for the doctrine that juristic persons are entitled to protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. Whether or not Chief Justice Waite's remark constitutes binding precedent is arguable, but subsequent rulings treat it as such. In other instances, obiter dicta can suggest an interpretation of law that has no bearing on the case at hand but might be useful in future cases.
The most notable instance of such an occurrence is the history of the famous Footnote 4 to United States v. Carolene Products Co. which, while rejecting use of the Due Process Clause to block most legislation, suggested that the clause might be applied to strike down legislation dealing with questions of "fundamental right". This obiter dictum is considered to have led to the doctrine of strict scrutiny in racial-, religious-, sexual-discrimination cases, first articulated in Korematsu v. United States; the judgment of Korematsu v. United States was itself condemned by the same court in obiter dictum in Trump v. Hawaii; the arguments and reasoning of a dissenting judgment or dissenting opinion constitute obiter dicta. These, might be cited should a court determine that its previous decision was in error, as when the United States Supreme Court cited Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s dissent in