The demography of Germany is monitored by the Statistisches Bundesamt. According to the first census since reunification, Germany's population was 82,790,700, making it the sixteenth-most populous country in the world and the most populous in the European Union; the total fertility rate was rated at 1.57 in 2018. In 2008, fertility was related to educational achievement. In 2011, this was no longer true for Eastern Germany, where more educated women now had a somewhat higher fertility rate than the rest of the population. Persons who said they had no religion tend to have fewer children than those who identify as Christians, studies found that conservative-leaning Christians had more children compared to liberal-leaning Christians. In vitro fertilisation is legal in Germany, with an age limit of 40 years; the United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide, behind the United States and Saudi Arabia. More than 16,000,000 people are descended from immigrants.
96.1 % of those reside in western Berlin. About 7,000,000 of these 16,000,000 are foreign residents, defined as those without German citizenship; the largest ethnic group of non-German origin are the Turkish. Since the 1960s, West and reunified Germany has attracted immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Turkey, many of whom have acquired German citizenship over time. While most of these immigrants arrived as guest workers, Germany has been a prime destination for refugees who have applied for asylum in Germany, in part because the German constitution has long had a clause guaranteeing political asylum as a human right. Germany has one of the world's highest levels of education, technological development, economic productivity. Since the end of World War II, the number of students entering university has more than tripled, the trade and technical schools are among the world's best. With a per capita income of about €40,883 in 2018, Germany is a broadly middle-class society. However, there has been a strong increase in the number of children living in poverty.
In 1965, one in 75 children was on the welfare rolls. These children live in relative poverty, but not in absolute poverty. Germans are well-travelled, with millions travelling overseas each year; the social welfare system provides for universal health care, unemployment compensation, child benefits and other social programmes. Germany's ageing population and struggling economy strained the welfare system in the 1990s, so the government adopted a wide-ranging programme of belt-tightening reforms, Agenda 2010, including the labour-market reforms known as Hartz concept; the contemporary demographics of Germany are measured by a series of full censuses, with the most recent held in 1987. Since reunification, German authorities rely on a micro census; the total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation. Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations. 1875-1950 1950-2015 Source: UN World Population Prospects Population statistics since 1900.
Territorial changes of Germany occurred in 1918/1919, 1921/1922, 1945/1946 and in 1990. In 2018, 598,364 children were born to mothers with German citizenship, while 189,159 children were born to mothers with foreign citizenship. Births for January–November 2018 = 727,833 Births for January–November 2019 = 713,692 Deaths for January–November 2018 = 873,875 Deaths for January–November 2019 = 854,861 Population growth for January–November 2018 = -146,042 Population growth for January–November 2019 = -141,169 After the World War II border shifts and expulsions, the Germans from Central and Eastern Europe and the former eastern territories moved westward to post-war Germany. During the partition of Germany, many Germans from East Germany fled to West Germany for political and economic reasons. Since Germany's reunification, there are ongoing migrations from the eastern New Länder to the western Old Länder for economic reasons; the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic followed different paths when it came to demographics.
The politics of the German Democratic Republic was pronatalistic while that of the Federal Republic was compensatory. Fertility in the GDR was higher than that in the FRG. Demographic politics was only one of the reasons. Women in the GDR had fewer "biographic options", young motherhood was expected of them. State funded. Mother's mean age at first birth in East and West Germany Note: Berlin is included into East Germany for the year 2002 and 2008. Source: Kreyenfeld. After 1990, the total fertility rate in the East dropped to 0.772 in 1994. This has been attributed to a "demographic shock": people not only had fewer children, they were less to marry or divorce after the end of the GDR. Young motherhood seemed to be less attractive and the age of the first birth rose sharply. In the following years, the TFR i
"Good Wilt Hunting" is a 44-minute made-for-television film starring the cast of Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends. It premiered on November 23, 2006. Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends is having their annual five-year reunion with their creators. While seeing what the creators of all their friends are like, both Bloo and Mac begin to wonder who and where Wilt's creator is, they ask him where his creator is and ask about what kind of person he or she is, but as soon as they pester him with continuous questions, Wilt anxiously runs away from the scene. That night, Bloo wakes up after hearing some noise. Heading downstairs, he spots Wilt, overhears that he has decided to temporarily run away from Foster's in order to settle the score with a mysterious enemy; this results in a chase around the world, in which Bloo, Eduardo, Frankie, police officer Nina Valerosa and Adam attempt to bring Wilt back home. They make it to the nearest bus station, but Wilt has left. However, Nina is able to find out his route.
They head to his next stop. Wilt arrives at the next bus station, sits down. Upon sitting, he finds an umbrella, takes it to the lost and found. In the lost and found, he finds a little teddy bear imaginary friend named Foofy Woogums, she explains to Wilt that her family stopped in the same bus station but lost her and has been in the lost and found for several months. Wilt promises throwing him off schedule. Shortly after he leaves with her, the Foster's gang arrives at the bus station just missing Wilt, they found out that Wilt has changed course, they continue to look for him. The next day, as Wilt and Foofy get off the bus, Foofy is worried that her creator won't want her anymore. However, Wilt convinces her that she has missed her much and that she has nothing to worry about, they arrive at her creator's home, have an emotional reunion. As a reward, the family pays for Wilt's train tickets. While waiting at the train station, Wilt spots an elderly farmer struggling to get hay into a machine that makes haystacks.
He sees that he has two hours until his train arrives, so he decides to help him out by converting the hay into hay-like basketballs and shooting them into the machine to make the haystacks. While doing so, Wilt reveals why his creator imagined him, stating that his creator had a big passion for basketball and needed a guide to help him get better; as this is going on, the Foster's gang arrive at the home of Foofy's family, find out that Wilt is at the nearest train station. The head over there to see that Wilt is not there, assume that he has left, so they rush over to his next stop. After many hours, Wilt finishes the farmer's work, but has missed his train the process; the farmer offers him his tractor as a symbol of gratitude, Wilt heads off on the tractor. The following morning, Wilt is riding through a suburban neighborhood, notices that many of the lawns have high grass. Using the tractor, Wilt begins to mow all of the overgrown lawns. While mowing, Wilt spots a group of kids playing basketball, a flashback sequence begins.
In the flashback, we see Wilt, with two working eyes and arms, teaching basketball to his young creator, revealed to be a little boy. As training goes well, two neighborhood kids challenge them to a game of basketball, they win, with the other neighborhood kids congratulating them; the flashback ends, Wilt sadly looks away from the kids playing basketball, continues to drive off on the tractor mowing overgrown lawns. Several hours Wilt finishes mowing all the lawns, making him more delayed, he spots three men putting furniture into a moving van. After seeing one of them get injured, Wilt reluctantly offers them help, he completes loading up the truck, finds out that his tractor is out of gas. The three men offer him a ride in the back of the truck. While in the back, Wilt watches the ride become more and more chaotic, the truck comes to an abrupt stop; the back of the truck opens, Wilt is greeted by several police officers. The officers arrest Wilt for assisted burglary, making Wilt realize that those three men were criminals.
The following morning, the Foster's gang checks out of a motel, are about to give up on their mission and just hope that Wilt decides to come back in the near future. While going in the bus, they spot the same three criminals trying to hot-wire the bus. Nina attempts to question them. With the help of Eduardo terrorizing them, Nina is able to find out: in jail, they resume their mission, head over there. While Wilt is sitting in a jail cell with four other inmates, they all explain how they ended up in jail, trying to see, the toughest in the group; this leads to Wilt explaining more of his backstory. He explains to the inmates why he was created, how his creator was so proud of all of his accomplishments with Wilt. However, one kid in the neighborhood was jealous of them, so one day he imagined a basketball playing imaginary friend of his own, challenged Wilt and his creator. Wilt sadly reveals that he and his creator lost that game, making Wilt believe that he had crushed his creators dreams.
The Foster's gang arrive at the police station Wilt was taken into, find out that he was sent over to the nearest courthouse, so they rush over there. At the courthouse, they found out that Wilt was set free by the court due to his good deed of mowing all of the overgrown la
Gap dynamics refers to the pattern of plant growth that occurs following the creation of a forest gap, a local area of natural disturbance that results in an opening in the canopy of a forest. Gap dynamics are a typical characteristic of both temperate and tropical forests and have a wide variety of causes and effects on forest life. Gaps are the result of natural disturbances in forests, ranging from a large branch breaking off and dropping from a tree, to a tree dying falling over, bringing its roots to the surface of the ground, to landslides bringing down large groups of trees; because of the range of causes, therefore, have a wide range of sizes, including small and large gaps. Regardless of size, gaps allow an increase in light as well as changes in moisture and wind levels, leading to differences in microclimate conditions compared to those from below the closed canopy, which are cooler and more shaded. For gap dynamics to occur in disturbed areas, either primary or secondary succession must occur.
Ecological secondary succession is much more common and pertains to the process of vegetation replacement after a natural disturbance. Secondary succession results in second-growth or secondary forest, which covers more of the tropics than old-growth forest. Since gaps let in more light and create diverse microclimates, they provide the ideal location and conditions for rapid plant reproduction and growth. In fact, most plant species in the tropics are dependent, at least in part, on gaps to complete their life cycles. Gap dynamics are the result of disturbances within an ecosystem. There are both large scale and small scale disturbances, both are influenced by duration and frequency; these all affect the resulting regeneration patterns of the ecosystem. The most common type of disturbance within a tropical ecosystem is fire. Since most nutrients in a tropical ecosystem are contained in the biomass of plants, fire is an important component of recycling these nutrients and therefore regenerating an ecosystem.
An example of a small scale disturbance is a tree falling. This can cause soil movement, which redistributes any nutrients or organisms that were attached to the tree; the tree falling opens up the canopy for light entrance, which can support the growth of other trees and plants. After a disturbance, there are several ways. One way, termed the advance regeneration pathway, is when the primary understory contains seedlings and saplings; this method is most common in the Neotropics. The next pathway is from tree remains, or any growth from bases or roots, is common in small disturbance gaps; the third route is referred to as the soil seed bank, is the result of germination of seeds found in the soil. The final regeneration pathway is the arrival of new seeds via wind movement; the most critical components of the regeneration are seed distribution and survival. Until forest regeneration practices in North America have followed an agricultural model, with research concentrated on techniques for establishing and promoting early growth of planted stock after clearcutting, followed by studies of growth and yield emphasizing single-species growth uninfluenced by overstorey canopy.
Coates questioned this approach and proposed a shift to a more ecologically and based approach able to accommodate greater diversity in managed stands. Predictive models of forest regeneration and growth that take account of variable levels of canopy retention will be needed as the complexity of managed forest stands increases. Tree regeneration occurring inside canopy gaps after disturbance has been studied widely. Studies of gap dynamics have contributed much to an understanding of the role of small-scale disturbance in forest ecosystems, but they have been little used by foresters to predict tree responses following partial cutting. In high-latitude northern forests, position inside a gap can have a pronounced effect on resource levels and microclimate conditions along the north–south axis; such variation must affect the amount and growth of regeneration. Among the many factors affecting seedling establishment following canopy disturbance are parent tree proximity and abundance, seedbed substrate, presence of seed consumers and dispersers, climatic and microclimatic variability.
Planted trees can be used to avoid many of the stochastic events surrounding natural seedling establishment. Gradients of canopy influence can be created by partial cutting, tree growth responses within gaps of various sizes and configurations, as well as within the adjacent forest matrix can form a basis for tree species selection. Hybrid spruce was one of several coniferous species used in a study in the Moist Cold subzone of the Interior Cedar–Hemlock zone in northwestern British Columbia. A total of 109 gaps were selected from a population of openings created by logging within each light and heavy partial cutting treatment in stands averaging 30 m in canopy height. Canopy gap size was calculated as the area of an ellipse, the major axis of, the longest line that could be run from canopy edge to canopy edge inside the gap, the minor axis was the longest line that could be run from canopy edge perpendic
"Perfect" is a song by Australian recording artist Vanessa Amorosi. "Perfect" was released in April 2008 as the second single from Amorosi's third studio album, Somewhere in the Real World. Amorosi co-wrote "Perfect" with Australian songwriter David Franj and they each brought a different perspective to the theme of love, resulting in a powerful tune. "He was in love with his girlfriend, so his take on it was she's perfect, everything about her is so magnificent. And I'm the other side of love where I'm like that's obsessive and there's hard work in love and what you see as perfect is not going to be perfect in 20 years time."Amorosi says "Perfect" is "really a love story by two different people. That's my interpretation of it. I mean, it's open to anyone's interpretation but for me love is... I find it to be quite obsessive. I love the imperfections in a person more so than the perfect things about them. Love can come in different shapes and forms and that's what it's going on about.""Perfect" was the most played song by an Australian artist on the 2008 National Airplay Chart.
The track hit #1 on the Australian iTunes Store on 6 June 2008. Before release as a single, "Perfect" was featured in promotions by the Seven Network for the American show Bionic Woman, it will be used in a commercial campaign for jeans by Calvin Klein in Australia. The music video was shot on green screen by noted video producer Stuart Gosling, it features a glamorous Amorosi walking through a desert setting while peeling back the layers of her get-up. "The idea with this video clip was that beauty comes in all different forms and you can be over-accessorised and look gorgeous and beautiful but you can look just as beautiful stripping all that away", she said. CD single/digital EP "Perfect" — 04:49 "Perfect" — 03:20 "Perfect" — 06:09 "Perfect" — 04:52iTunes single "Perfect" — 04:49 " A Natural Woman" — 05:17 Album version — 04:49 Acoustic version — 05:54 Bexta radio edit — 04:25 Instrumental — 04:52 Paolos San Terenzo remix — 04:00 T-Funk remix — 03:27 Radio edit — 03:20 Soulful version — 06:09
The 354th Fighter Group was an element of the United States Army Air Forces Ninth Air Force during World War II. The unit was known as the Pioneer Mustang Group and was the first to fly the P-51B Mustang in combat; the group served as bomber escort in the European theater of operations until D-Day moved to France to support the drive to Germany. The 354th Fighter Group was constituted on November 12 and activated on November 15th, 1942 at Hamilton Army Airfield in California; the Group trained with the Bell P-39 Airacobra, one of the principal fighter aircraft in service at the time. The group transferred to Tonopah Army Air Field, Nevada in January 1943, Santa Rosa Army Air Field, California in March 1943, Portland Army Air Base, Oregon, in June 1943 The Group moved to RAF Boxted in England between October and November 1943 and was attached to the Ninth Air Force; the group was the first to use them in combat. These aircraft were used by the group throughout the war except for the period between November 1944 and February 1945 when they used the P-47 Thunderbolt.
The 354th was used as an escort for long-range heavy bombers of the Eighth Air Force. The Group received a Distinguished Unit Citation for its activities up to May 1944; the Group moved to RAF Lashenden in April 1944. Major James H. Howard commander of the 356th Fighter Squadron received the Medal of Honor for single-handedly defending a formation of B-17 bombers of the 401st Bomb Group against 30 German fighters on January 11, 1944. Howard was the only fighter pilot in the European Theater of Operations in World War II to receive the Medal of Honor; the Group supported the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 by escorting gliders on D-Day and attacking ground targets such as bridges and German gun positions in northern France The Group moved to Cricqueville Airfield in France in June 1944, to Gael Airfield in August 1944, Orconte Airfield, in September 1944, Rosieres En Haye Airfield, in December 1944. The 354th received a second Distinguished Unit Citation for destroying a large number of enemy aircraft on the ground an in the air in support of the airborne attack on Holland in September 1944.
The Group participated in the Battle of the Bulge from December 1944 to January 1945 supporting ground forces and supported the crossing of the Rhine between February and May 1945. The Group moved into Germany in April 1945 to Ober Olm Airfield to Ansbach Airfield and to AAF Station Herzogenaurach in May 1945; the Group returned to Bolling Field, Washington, DC in February 1946 and was inactivated on 31 Mar 1946. The 354th Fighter Group was redesignated 117th Fighter Group and assigned to the Alabama Air National Guard on 24 May 1946. However, on 26 Sep 1956, the group returned to the Air Force where 354th lineage is now held by the 354th Operations Group; the 117th Fighter Group lineage is held by the 117th Operations Group of the Alabama Air National Guard. Glenn T. Eagleston was the leading ace of the 354th Fighter Group and a commander of the 353rd Fighter Squadron. Eagleston was credited with 18.5 aerial victories, two probable, seven damaged, five aircraft destroyed on the ground. Don M. Beerbower was the second leading ace with 15.5 victories.
He was shot down and killed on August 9, 1944. Near Reims, France. Jack T. Bradley was a commanding officer of the 353rd Fighter Squadron and the third leading ace in the 354th Fighter Group. Kenneth H. Dahlberg of the 353rd Fighter Squadron was credited with 14 aerial victories. Dahlberg was able to return to the 354th twice. On February 14, 1945, Dahlberg was downed for the third time, near Bitburg, became a prisoner of war until May 1945. Wah Kau Kong was born in Honolulu and was America's first Chinese American fighter pilot, he was killed in action over Blomberg, Germany on February 22, 1944. "354th Fighter Group". America Air Museum in Britain. Retrieved 2018-07-07
The establishment of industrial ecology as field of scientific research is attributed to an article devoted to industrial ecosystems, written by Frosch and Gallopoulos, which appeared in a 1989 special issue of Scientific American. Industrial ecology emerged from several earlier ideas and concepts, some of which date back to the 19th century; the term "industrial ecology" has been used alongside "industrial symbiosis" at least since the 1940s. Economic geography was one of the first fields to use these terms. For example, in an article published in 1947, George T. Renner refers to "The General Principle of Industrial Location" as a "Law of Industrial Ecology". Stated this is: Any industry tends to locate at a point which provides optimum access to its ingredients or component elements. If all these component elements be juxtaposed, the location of the industry is predetermined. If, they occur separated, the industry is so located as to be most accessible to that element which would be the most expensive or difficult to transport and which, becomes the locative factor for the industry in question.
In the same article the author defines and describes industrial symbiosis: Often the location of an industry cannot be understood in terms of its locative ingredient elements. There are relationships between industries, sometimes simple, but quite complex, which enter into and complicate the analysis. Chief among these is the phenomenon of industrial symbiosis. By this is meant the consorting together of two or more of dissimilar industries. Industrial Symbiosis, when scrutinized, is seen to be of two kinds and conjunctive, it appears that the concept of Industrial Symbiosis was not new for the field of economic geography, since the same categorization is used by Walter G. Lezius in his 1937 article "Geography of Glass Manufacture at Toledo, Ohio" published in the Journal of Economic Geography. Used in a different context, the term "Industrial Ecology" is found in a 1958 paper concerned with the relationship between the ecological impact from increasing urbanization and value orientations of related peoples.
The case study is in Lebanon: The central ecological variable in the present research is ecological mobility, or the movement of men in space. It is patent that modern Industrial Ecology requires more such adaptive mobility than does traditional folk-village organization. In 1963, we find the term Industrial Ecology being used to describe the social nature and complexity of industrial systems:...industrial organisations are social rather than mechanical systems. A firm is not only a working organisation with a working purpose, it is rather a community with its own'politics', in so far as it is involved in problems concerned with the proper distribution of power between individuals and groups of individuals and with questions of individual and group prestige, influence and standing... the understanding which the student of management is expected to gain is no less than the attainment of insight into an Industrial Ecology of great complexity. In 1967, the President of the American association for the advancement of science writes in "The experimental city" that "There are examples of industrial symbiosis where one industry feeds off, or at least neutralizes, the wastes of another..."
The same author in 1970 talks about "The Next Industrial Revolution" The concept of material and energy sharing and reuse is central to his proposal for a new industrial revolution and he cites agro-industrial symbiosis as a practical way for achieving this: The object of the next industrial revolution is to ensure that there will be no such thing as waste, on the basis that waste is some substance that we do not vet have the wit to use... The next industrial revolution is this generating of a huge new... will not produce products, it will rather reprocess the things we call wastes so they may be reproduced in the factories into the things we need... Having the city near the rural area will enable waste heat to be used to speed up the biological processes of treating the organic wastes before they go back into the land; this might end in an elegant arrangement-the power plants located close enough to the center of use, to the people who need the power, but within the economics, close enough to the agriculture lands so that the waste heat may be used there.
This is an example of agro-industrial symbiosis. In these early articles, "Industrial Ecology" is used in its literal sense - as a system of interacting industrial entities; the relation to natural ecosystems is not explicit. Industrial Symbiosis on the other hand, is clearly defined as a type of industrial organization, the term symbiosis is borrowed from the ecological sciences to describe an analogous phenomenon in industrial systems. Industrial Ecology has been a research subject of the Japan Industrial Policy Research Institute since 1971, their definition of Industrial Ecology is "research for the prospect of dynamic harmonization between human activities and nature by a systems approach based upon ecology". This programme has resulted to a number of reports. One of the earliest definitions of Industrial Ecology was proposed by Harry Zvi Evan at a seminar of the Economic Commission of Europe in Warsaw in 1973. Evan defined Industrial Ecology as a systematic analysis of industrial operations including factors like: Technology, natural resources, bio-m