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Demographics of Libya

Libyans and their population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics registration exists in Libya. Of the over 6,000,000 Libyans that lived in Libya prior to the Libyan Crisis, more than a million were immigrants; the estimates in this article are from the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects, prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, unless otherwise indicated. The Libyan population resides in the country of Libya, a territory located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, to the west of and adjacent to Egypt. Most Libyans live in Tripoli, it is the capital of the country and first in terms of urban population, as well as Benghazi, Libya's second largest city. Berber, over the centuries, Libya has been occupied by the Phoenicians, Romans and Arabs; the Phoenicians had a big impact on Libya.

Many of the coastal towns and cities of Libya were founded by the Phoenicians as trade outposts within the southern Mediterranean coast in order to facilitate the Phoenician business activities in the area. Starting in the 8th century BCE, Libya was under the rule of the Phoenician Carthage. After the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War, Libya became a Roman province under the name of Tripolitania until the 7th century CE when Libya was conquered by the Arab Muslims as part of the Arab conquest of North Africa. Centuries after that, the Ottoman Empire conquered Libya in 1551, it remained in control of its territory until 1911. In the 18th century Libya was used as the base for various pirates. In the Second World War Libya was one of the main battlegrounds of North Africa. During the war, the territory was under an Anglo-French military government until it was overrun by the Axis Powers, who, in turn, were defeated by the Allies in 1943. In 1951, the country was granted independence by the United Nations.

In 1969, a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi resulted in the overthrow of King Idris I. Gaddafi established an anti-Western leadership. In 1970, Gaddafi ordered all American military bases closed; the Libyan population has increased after 1969. They were only 523,176 people in 1911, 2 million in 1968, 5 million in 1969; that population growth was due in large part to King Idris and Gaddafi granting citizenship to many Tunisians and other immigrants. Many migrant workers came to Libya since 1969. Among the workers were construction workers and laborers from Tunisia and laborers from Egypt, teachers from Palestine, doctors and nurses from Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. 1,000,000 workers from other neighboring African countries like Sudan, Niger and Mali, migrated to Libya in the 1990s, after changes were made to Libya's Pan-African policies. Gaddafi used money from the sale of oil to improve the living conditions of the population and to assist Palestinian guerrillas in their fight against the Israelis.

In 1979, Libya fought in Uganda to assist the government of Idi Amin in the Ugandan Civil War, in 1981, fought in the Libyan-Chadian War. Libya had occupied the Aozou Strip. In September 2008, Italy and Libya signed a memorandum by which Italy would pay $5 billion over the next 20 years to compensate Libya for its dominion over Libya for its reign of 30 years. Since 2011, the country is swept by Libyan Civil War, which broke out between the Anti-Gaddafi rebels and the Pro-Gaddafi government in 2011, culminating in the death and overthrow of Gaddafi. Today Libya still continues to generate problems within the area and beyond affecting its population and the migrant route to Europe. Libya has a small population residing in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per km² in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area along the coast. About 90% of the population is urban concentrated in the four largest cities, Benghazi and Bayda.

Thirty percent of the population is estimated to be under the age of 15, but this proportion has decreased during the past decades. Eight population censuses have been carried out in Libya, the first in 1931 and the most recent one in 2006; the population multiplied sixfold between 1931 and 2006. During the past 60 years the demographic situation of Libya changed considerably. Since the 1950s, life expectancy increased and the infant mortality rates decreased; as the fertility rates remained high until the 1980s, population growth was high for three decades. However, after 1985 a fast decrease in fertility was observed from over 7 children per woman in the beginning of the 1980s to less than 3 in 2005-2010; because of this decrease in fertility the population growth slowed down and the proportion of Libyans under the age of 15 decreased from 47% in 1985 to 30% in 2010. Births and deaths 1950-1955: 42.85 years 1955-1960: 45.4 years 1960-1965: 48.1 years 1965-1970: 50.5 years 1970-1975: 52.8 years 1975-1980: 56.45 years 1980-1985: 60.2 years 1985-1990: 63.5 years 1990-1995: 65.85 years 1995-2000: 67.2 years 2000-2005: 68.8 years 2005-2010: 69.9 years The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population 6,754,507 Age structure 0-

Jules-Charles Le Bozec

Jules-Charles Le Bozec was a French sculptor, whose work reflects a commitment to the local design traditions of his native province of Brittany. Le Bozec was born in Côtes-d'Armor, Brittany, he was apprenticed to the carpenter Alfred Ély-Monbet, of the nearby village of Caurel. He moved on to study at the École des Beaux-Arts of Rennes, before progressing to that of Paris, he was a pupil of the sculptor Jean Boucher, for whom he always retained a profound respect mingled with affection. Le Bozec settled in Mellionnec. With Marcel Le Louët, Georges Robin and others he joined the Breton art movement Seiz Breur, a group of young artists who were dedicated to the revival of decorative arts in Brittany. With James Bouillé and Xavier de Langlais, he helped to found An Droellen, the Breton studio of Christian Art. In 1927, in collaboration with the painter René-Yves Creston, he designed the costumes for three plays: Ar C'hornandoned, by Yann Bayon and Jean-Marie Perrot, Tog Jani by Yves Le Moal and Lina by Roparz Hemon, the first performance of which took place in January 1927.

Soon becoming well known, he received many commissions from churches and chapels in Brittany, including bas-reliefs for altars, as well as war memorials, which were built in large numbers at this period after World War I. Some of Le Bozec's sculptures were reproduced by the ceramics company Faïencerie HB-Henriot in Quimper, whose activities date back to 1690. Among these were "Woman Digging", a reduced version of the sculpture Earth, exhibited at the Salon in 1927. Another was "Meditation", showing the bust from The Potato Harvester; this latter work was reissued in 2007 from the original moulds and is included in the new catalogue of the pottery in its collection of "Quimper White" ware. At an auction in the Drouot hotel in Paris, another of his works - Young Girl with an Umbrella - reproduced by the Faïencerie HB-Henriot reached the sum of 3100 euros. In 1937, he made sculptures for the Chapel of Koat-Keo in Scrignac, built by his friend James Bouillé at the initiative of Abbot Perrot, founder of the Breton Catholic youth organization Bleun-Brug.

The chapel is seen as a significant attempt to create a distinctive modern Breton architecture. In 1946, he created the granite statue of Our Lady of Kerdro in Locmariaquer. 2.70 metres high, the sculpture was left for sixteen years in the church before being moved to the edge of Kerpenhir to replace another statue, erected in 1883, but had been destroyed during World War II. He died at Côtes-d'Armor. List of works by Jules-Charles Le Bozec

Roof-top synagogue

The Roof-top synagogue was a private synagogue built on the roof of the home of Philip Salomons on the Regency-era Brunswick estate in Hove, now a constituent part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. It is a small octagonal edifice on the top of a glass room forming part of the fourth floor, in reference to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Brunswick Terrace, built in four parts facing the English Channel coast on Hove seafront, was part of the Brunswick estate development laid out at the extreme east end of Hove following the rapid growth of neighbouring Brighton in the early 19th century, in response to Kemp Town. Although within the parish of Hove, it was closer to the boundary of Brighton and was considered part of the latter; the estate was laid out by Amon Henry Wilds and Charles Busby between 1824 and 1828. The terrace, described as an "elegant Regency block", has Grade; the Salomons family moved into 26 Brunswick Terrace in the early 1850s. The interior was restored. At some point between and his death in 1867, he commissioned an unknown architect to design and built a private synagogue and prayer-room on the roof of the house.

In common with the eastern half of Brunswick Terrace, only this, the central house, has a fourth floor above the portico. It was the subject of an acrimonious debate between Salomons and the members of the Middle Street Synagogue, since private synagogues violated the Laws of the Congregation. In Salomons' lifetime, the synagogue displayed his fine collection of antique Judaica. For a period after his death, it was turned into a Jewish history museum; the Tablets of the Ten Commandments from the synagogue are preserved in the collection of the Salomons Museum in Tunbridge Wells. The synagogue is now a Grade II listed building; the house is still in use as a private residence – the whole top floor forming one of the building's several flats. The cupola and base can be seen from the lawns on the promenade; the synagogue is a pedimented, Neoclassical cube with glass from waist height, surmounted by an octagonal dome set atop an octagonal drum. Today it contains bench seating for six people, around the edges.

The large dome was intended as a replica of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. The roof-top synagogue is one of a considerable number of synagogues and synagogue domes built in the form of an octagon, a tradition that developed from the once held opinion that the architects of the Dome of the Rock emulated the shape of the Temple in Jerusalem and, that the ancient Jewish Temple was octagonal in shape. An example of this opinion can be seen in Raphael's The Marriage of the Virgin. Brighton's First Jewish Congregations on Jewish Communities and Records – UK

The Fray discography

The Fray, an American rock band, have released four studio albums, three live albums, one compilation album, five extended plays, twelve singles, one promotional single and ten music videos. The members of the group met in a music store in Denver – independently, positive coverage from many local media outlets brought them to the attention of Epic Records, who signed them in 2004; the Fray's debut studio album, How to Save a Life, was released in 2005. Five singles were released from the album in total: the first two, "Over My Head" and the album's title track, both reached the top ten of the US Billboard Hot 100 and were certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America: the latter topped the Irish singles chart and reached number 4 in the United Kingdom; the Fray's second album, The Fray, was inspired by a series of trips they took to Rwanda, again featured production from Aaron Johnson, Mike Flynn and Engineering from Warren Huart. After its release in February 2009, The Fray became their first album to top the US Billboard 200, reached the top ten of the Canadian and United Kingdom albums charts.

Its release was preceded by the release of the single "You Found Me", which reached number 7 on the Billboard Hot 100 and was certified triple platinum by the RIAA. It achieved success in Australia, where it topped the singles chart and was certified double platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Three further singles – "Never Say Never", a cover of the Kanye West song "Heartless" and "Syndicate" – were released from the album. In 2012, The Fray released their third album, named Scars & Stories: the title comes from an unreleased B-side recorded by the group, it charted at number 4 on the Billboard 200 and at number 6 in Canada, spawned two singles: "Heartbeat", which reached number 42 on the Billboard Hot 100, "Run for Your Life". Official website The Fray discography at Discogs The Fray discography at MusicBrainz

Yury Dombrovsky

Yury Osipovich Dombrovsky was a Russian writer who spent nearly eighteen years in Soviet prison camps and exile. Dombrovsky was the son of Russian mother. Dombrovsky fell foul of the authorities as early as 1932, for his part in the student suicide case described in The Faculty of Useless Knowledge, he was exiled to Alma-Ata in Kazakhstan where he established himself as a teacher, which provided the setting for his novel The Keeper of Antiquities. This work, translated into English by Michael Glenny, gives several ominous hints as to the development of the Stalinist terror and its impact in remote Alma-Ata. Dombrovsky had begun publishing literary articles in Kazakhstanskaya Pravda by 1937, when he was imprisoned again — this time for a mere seven months, having the luck to be detained during the partial hiatus between the downfall of Yezhov and the appointment of Beria. Dombrovsky's first novel Derzhavin was published in 1938 and he was accepted into the Union of Soviet Writers in 1939, the year in which he was arrested yet again.

This time he was sent to the notorious Kolyma camps in northeast Siberia, of which we are given brief but chilling glimpses in The Faculty of Useless Knowledge. Dombrovsky paralysed, was released from the camps in 1943 and lived as a teacher in Alma-Ata until 1949. There he wrote The Monkey Comes for The Dark Lady. In 1949, he was again arrested, this time in connection with the campaign against foreign influences and cosmopolitanism; this time, he received a ten-year sentence, to be served in the Tayshet and Osetrovo regions in Siberia. In 1955, he was released and rehabilitated the following year; until his death in 1978, he lived in Moscow with Klara Fazulayevna. He was allowed to write, his works were translated abroad, but none of them were re-issued in the USSR. Nor was he allowed abroad to Poland; the Faculty of Useless Knowledge, translated by Alan Myers the sombre and chilling sequel to The Keeper of Antiquities took eleven years to write, was published in Paris in 1978. A widespread opinion is.

The KGB did not approve of the work, it was noted that the book had been finished in 1975. Dombrovsky received numerous threats through the post. Two months after the incident, on May 29, 1978 he died in hospital from severe internal bleeding caused by varicose veins of the digestive system. An account about Dombrovsky written by Armand Maloumian, a fellow inmate of the GULAG, can be found in Kontinent 4: Contemporary Russian Writers, entitled "And Even Our Tears."Jean-Paul Sartre described Yuri Dombrovsky as the last classic. 1939: Derzhavin 1943: Obez'iana prikhodit za svoim cherepom 1964: Khranitel' drevnostei. The Keeper of Antiquities The Keeper of Antiquities The Keeper of Antiquities The Keeper of Antiquities 1969: Smuglaia ledi: tri novelly o Shekspire 1970: Khudozhnik Kalmykov 1973: Dereviannyi dom na ulitse Gogolia 1974: Fakel 1975: Fakul'tet nenuzhnykh veshchei The Faculty of Useless Things The Faculty of Useless Knowledge 1977: Ruchka, ogurechik. / That are words from Peter. Iurii Dombrovskii: Freedom Under Totalitarianism.

Studies in Russian and European literature. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Harwood Academic. ISBN 978-90-5702-624-9. Works of Dombrovsky Dombrovsky's ethnic background Новая Газета #26, 22 мая 2008, Novaya Gazeta #26, 22 May 2008 Толстой, Иван. Алфавит инакомыслия. Юрий Домбровский. Svoboda.org. Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2016-04-03

Kampong Cham Province

Kampong Cham is a province of Cambodia located on the central lowlands of the Mekong River. It borders the provinces of Kampong Chhnang to the west, Kampong Thom and Kratié to the north, Tbong Khmum to the east, Prey Veng and Kandal to the south. Kampong Cham was divided into two provinces on 31 December 2013 in what was seen by many as a political move by the ruling party. All land west of the Mekong remained Kampong Cham while land east of the river became Tbong Khmum province. Prior to this division, Kampong Cham extended eastward to the international border with Vietnam, was the eleventh largest province in Cambodia, with a population of 1,680,694, was the most populous province in Cambodia, its capital and largest city is Kampong Cham. Kampong Cham means "Port of the Chams" in Khmer. Kampong means port, harbor. Cham refers to the ethnic Cham people living in the province; the word Kampong in Cham is shared in other Austronesian language, the Malaysian and Indonesian, both mean village. A symbol the province is known for is two snakes wrapped around each other, which located at the capital city bridge, Kampong Cham.

Kampong Cham is lowlands. The main river is the Mekong River which forms the eastern border of the province, separating it from Tbong Khmum province. Kampong Cham is subdivided into 9 districts and 1 municipality which in turn are subdivided into communes which are further divided into villages; the province consisted of 16 districts, however a request by Hun Sen's government to split the province in two was made after his ruling Cambodian People's Party lost the province to the opposition in the July 2013 elections. The CPP won only eight of the available 18 National Assembly seats in Hun Sen's home province; the request, ostensibly made in order to improve administrative efficiency in the large province, was approved by King Sihamoni on 31 December 2013. The 10 districts that remain in Khampong Cham province overwhelmingly voted for the opposition Cambodia National Rescue Party, led by Sam Rainsy, while five of the six districts cut out from Kampong Cham to form Tbong Khmum Province were won solidly by the CPP.

Kampong Cham is allocated 10 seats in the National Assembly, down from 18. It had been the largest constituency until 2018. Bun Rany, President of Cambodian Red Cross Hang Thun Hak, former Prime Minister Hem Heng, diplomat Heng Samrin, Speaker of the National Assembly Hun Manet, son of Hun Sen Hun Neang, father of Hun Sen Hun Sen, Prime Minister In Tam, former Prime Minister Keng Vannsak, author Kong Korm, Senator Say Chhum, President of the Senate Sim Var, former Prime Minister Champa Kampong Cham, the capital of Kampong Cham province. Khmer people Map