Demographics of Namibia

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Namibia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Namibia, Data of FAO, year 2005; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
Population density in Namibia by regions (census 2011)

Census results[edit]

Historical populations in thousands
YearPop.±% p.a.
1921228,910—    
1936320,450+2.27%
1946362,460+1.24%
1951439,000+3.91%
1970761,000+2.94%
19811,033,000+2.82%
19911,490,000+3.73%
20011,830,000+2.08%
20112,104,000+1.41%

As required by the Namibian Statistics Act #66 of 1976, and in accordance with United Nations recommendations, a census is conducted every ten years. After Namibian independence the first Population and Housing Census was carried out in 1991, further rounds followed in 2001 and 2011;[1] the data collection method is to count every person resident in Namibia on the census' reference night, wherever they happen to be. This is called the de facto method.[2] For enumeration purposes the country is demarcated into 4,042 enumeration areas; these areas do not overlap with constituency boundaries in order to get reliable data for election purposes as well.[3]

The 2011 Population and Housing Census counted 2,113,077 inhabitants of Namibia. Between 2001 and 2011 the annual population growth was 1.4%, down from 2.6% in the previous ten–year period.[4]

In 2011 the total fertility rate was 3.6 children per woman, down from 4.1 in 2001.

UN estimates[edit]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[5] the total population was 2,479,713 in 2016, compared to only 485 000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.4%, 59.9% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.7% was 65 years or older .[6]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 485 000 38.8 57.1 4.1
1955 538 000 40.5 55.6 4.0
1960 603 000 41.6 54.7 3.7
1965 683 000 42.5 53.9 3.6
1970 780 000 43.1 53.3 3.6
1975 906 000 44.3 52.2 3.5
1980 1 013 000 46.6 49.9 3.5
1985 1 150 000 47.0 49.5 3.5
1990 1 415 000 43.7 53 3.4
1995 1 651 000 42 54.6 3.4
2000 1 896 000 40.3 56.3 3.4
2005 2 080 000 38.9 57.6 3.4
2010 2 283 000 36.4 59.9 3.7

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Namibia is not complete; the Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [6]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 22 000 12 000 10 000 43.4 22.9 20.4 6.00 172
1955-1960 24 000 11 000 13 000 42.7 19.9 22.8 6.10 149
1960-1965 27 000 11 000 16 000 42.3 17.4 24.9 6.20 130
1965-1970 31 000 11 000 20 000 42.4 15.4 27.0 6.30 115
1970-1975 37 000 12 000 26 000 44.2 13.8 30.4 6.60 101
1975-1980 42 000 12 000 30 000 43.8 12.1 31.6 6.60 88
1980-1985 45 000 11 000 33 000 41.2 10.4 30.8 6.20 75
1985-1990 50 000 12 000 38 000 39.1 9.5 29.6 5.55 69
1990-1995 56 000 14 000 43 000 36.7 8.9 27.8 4.91 62
1995-2000 58 000 17 000 42 000 32.9 9.3 23.6 4.29 55
2000-2005 59 000 21 000 38 000 29.9 10.6 19.3 3.81 48
2005-2010 60 000 19 000 41 000 27.4 8.6 18.8 3.40 38
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[7]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1992 42 5,4 (4,8) 43 4,0 (3,4) 42 6,3 (5,8)
2000 30,5 4,2 (3,4) 29,9 3,1 (2,4) 30,8 5,1 (4,2)
2006-2007 29,2 3,6 (2,7) 28,8 2,8 (2,2) 29,6 4,3 (3,3)
2013 29,5 3,6 (2,9) 30,0 2,9 (2,4) 29,3 4,7 (3,5)

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[8]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Zambezi 4.2 4.5 4.4
Erongo 2.9 6.1 3.3
Hardap 3.7 3.8 3.4
Karas 3.4 6.4 3.4
Kavango 4.6 6.8 5.4
Khomas 2.6 6.4 2.7
Kunene 4.5 8.5 4.6
Ohangwena 5.3 9.8 5.2
Omaheke 4.6 8.6 4.2
Omusati 4.2 6.3 3.6
Oshana 2.7 6.2 3.1
Oshikoto 4.2 5.7 4.0
Otjozondjupa 4.1 5.4 4.0

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015 (UN World Population Prospects)[9]:

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 41.75
1955–1960 Increase 45.27
1960–1965 Increase 48.43
1965–1970 Increase 51.20
1970–1975 Increase 53.52
1975–1980 Increase 56.63
1980–1985 Increase 58.34
1985–1990 Increase 60.67
1990–1995 Increase 61.52
1995–2000 Decrease 58.11
2000–2005 Decrease 53.83
2005–2010 Increase 54.98
2010–2015 Increase 61.75

Ethnic groups[edit]

Namibians are of diverse ethnic origins; the principal groups are the Ovambo, Kavango, Herero, Himba, Damara, mixed race (Coloured and Rehoboth Baster), White Namibians (Afrikaner, German, British and Portuguese), Nama, Caprivian (Lozi), San, and Tswana. The Coloureds and Basters share similar genealogical origins and cultural attributes (such as home language) but nonetheless maintain distinctly separate communal identities, as do most white Namibians and black Namibians, respectively.

The Ovambo make up about half of Namibia's people; the Ovambo, Kavango, and East Caprivian peoples, who occupy the relatively well-watered and wooded northern part of the country, are settled farmers and herders. Historically, they have shown little interest in the central and southern parts of Namibia, where conditions do not suit their traditional way of life.

Until the early 20th century, these tribes had little contact with the Nama, Damara, and Herero, who settled around the central part of the country vying for control of sparse pastureland. German colonial rule destroyed the warmaking ability of the tribes but did not erase their identities or traditional organization. People from the more populous north have settled throughout the country in recent decades as a result of urbanization, industrialization, and the demand for labor.

The minority white population is primarily of South African, British, and German descent, with a few Portuguese. About 60% of the whites speak Afrikaans (a language derived from the 17th century Dutch), 32% speak German, and 7% speak English.

Ethnic groups in Namibia[10]
Ethnic groups
African
87.5%
Mixed
6.5%
White
6.0%
Tribes in Namibia[10]
Tribe
Ovambo
50%
Kavangos
9%
Herero
7%
Damara
7%
Nama
5%
Caprivian
4%
Bushmen
3%
Tswana
0.5%

Languages[edit]

A smoking Nama woman
Distribution of Oshiwambo
Distribution of Khoekhoe (also known as Nama or Damara
Distribution of Afrikaans
Distribution of Otjiherero
Distribution of Kavango languages
Distribution of Caprivi languages

Religion[edit]

Missionary work during the 19th century drew many Namibians to Christianity, especially Lutheranism. While most Namibian Christians are Lutheran, there also are Roman Catholic, Methodist, Anglican, African Methodist Episcopal, and Dutch Reformed Christians represented.

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Modern education and medical care have been extended in varying degrees to most rural areas in recent years; the literacy rate of Africans is generally low except in sections where missionary and government education efforts have been concentrated, such as Ovamboland. The Africans speak various indigenous languages.

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[11]

  • One birth every 7 minutes
  • One death every 29 minutes
  • One net migrant every 1440 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 10 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[12] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

2,533,224 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Namibia in 2017
0-14 years: 36.54% (male 467,392 /female 458,190)
15-24 years: 20.34% (male 257,190 /female 257,984)
25-54 years: 34.74% (male 421,849 /female 458,118)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 50,459 /female 62,478)
65 years and over: 3.93% (male 42,381 /female 57,183) (2018 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

26.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 45th

Death rate[edit]

7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 101st

Total fertility rate[edit]

3.21 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 47th

Median age[edit]

total: 21.4 years. country comparison to the world: 182nd
male: 20.7 years
female: 22.2 years (2018 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.91% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52nd

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

21.5 years (2013 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

56.1% (2013)

Net migration rate[edit]

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 94th

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 68.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 62.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 50% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 64.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 62.7 years (2018 est.)
female: 66.2 years (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 12.1% (2017 est.)

people living with HIV/AIDS: 280,000 (2017 est.)

deaths: 2,700 (2017 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 81.9% (2015 est.)
male: 79.2% (2015 est.)
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 44.9% (2016 est.)
male: 37.7% (2016 est.)
female: 52.5% (2016 est.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census Summary Results". National Planning Commission of Namibia. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  2. ^ Kapitako, Alvine (8 August 2011). "Namibia: 2011 Census Officially Launched". New Era. via allafrica.com.
  3. ^ "Methodology". National Planning Commission of Namibia. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  4. ^ Duddy, Jo Maré (28 March 2013). "Census gives snapshot of Namibia's population". The Namibian.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org.
  8. ^ "Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). Namibia Demographic and Health Survey. 2013.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  10. ^ a b c d "Africa :: NAMIBIA". CIA The World Factbook.
  11. ^ "Namibia Population 2019", World Population Review
  12. ^ "The World FactBook - Namibia", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External links[edit]