The Lozi people are an ethnic group of western Zambia, inhabiting the region of Barotseland. They number 575,000 in Zambia out of a population of 10 million. Lozi are found in Namibia, Botswana, the bigger chunk of, found in the now Zambia, Zimbabwe; the Lozi are known as the Barotsi, Silozi, Barotose, Rozi, Rutse, or Tozvi. The Lozi speak a central Bantu language; the lives of the Lozi people seem to revolve around the Zambezi river, the second longest river in Africa. The word Lozi means'plain' in the Makololo language, in reference to the Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi on and around which most Lozi live, it may be spelt Lotse or Rotse, the spelling Lozi having originated with German missionaries in what is now Namibia. Mu- and Ba- are corresponding singular and plural prefixes for certain nouns in the Silozi language, so Murotse means'person of the plain' while Barotse means'people of the plain, it would be interesting. Lozi tradition states. In about 1830, an army that originated in the Sotho-speaking Bafokeng region of South Africa, known as the Makololo, led by a warrior called Sebetwane, invaded Barotseland and conquered the Lozi.
They ruled until 1864. The political organisation of the Lozi has long centred on a monarchy, whose reigning head, the Paramount King, is known as'Litunga' which means'keeper of the earth.' The renowned Litunga Lewanika, whose latter name was a nickname from the Mbunda meaning "unifier" following the Lozi revolt that overthrew the Sotho clique, reigned from 1878 to 1916 with a short insurrectionist break in 1884-85, requested Queen Victoria to bring Barotseland under protectorate status. Great Britain, was uninterested in acquiring the territory. A granting of a royal charter for the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes allowed the company to acquire Barotseland under the guise of the British government. Although under protectorate status, Lewanika realized that he had been tricked and petitioned for the protectorate status to be corrected. Yet, the land remained under Rhodes's control, when the territory failed to produce gold, copper or other exports, the "British South Africa Company defaulted on every commitment it had made to Lewanika," and few developments in infrastructure and education were made.
Although Barotseland was incorporated into Northern Rhodesia, it retained a large degree of autonomy, carried over when Northern Rhodesia became Zambia on its independence in 1964. In the run-up to independence, the Litunga, the Ngambela and about a dozen senior indunas went to London for talks with the Colonial Office, in an attempt to have Barotseland remain a Protectorate; the Litunga, Sir Mwanawina Lewenika III, quoted his grandfather's words to Queen Victoria, that "My country is your blanket, my people are but the fleas in your blanket." Although before colonial times, the region was self-sufficient in food and exported crops to neighbouring regions, today it is the least-developed region of Zambia, with only one major road into the province, from Lusaka to Mongu, only intermittent supplies of electricity. There remains some support in the region for greater autonomy within Zambia or for full independence, it is clear that history does not state where the Lozi people may have came from.
Lozi society is stratified, with a monarch at the top and those of recent royal descent occupying high positions in society. The monarch or Barotse Royal Establishment is known as Mulonga, Lozi society tolerates little criticism of an unpopular Litunga. Criticisms of a Litunga by a foreigner are treated as criticisms of the Lozi nation as a whole; the Lozi are not separate into clans, unlike most African ethnic groups. Lozi culture is influenced by the flood cycle of the Zambezi river, with annual migrations taking place from the flood plain to higher ground at the start of the wet season; the most important of these festivals is the Kuomboka, in which the Litunga moves from Lealui in the flood plain to Limulunga on higher ground. The Kuomboka takes place in February or March; these annual floods displace hundreds of people every year. Barotseland.com A history of the Lozi Media related to Lozi people at Wikimedia Commons An organisation promoting the development of the Lozi people Information on the Kuomboka
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
Kunene is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia and home to the Himba ethnic group. Compared to the rest of Namibia, it is underdeveloped; this is due to the mountainous inaccessible geography and the dryness that hinders agriculture. The region's name comes from the Kunene River; the largest town and capital is Opuwo. Kunene's western edge is the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. In the north, it borders Angola's Namibe Province, in the far eastern part of its northern edge it borders Cunene Province. Domestically, it borders the following regions: Omusati - northeast, west of Oshana Oshana - northeast, between Omusati and Oshikoto Oshikoto - northeast, east of Oshikoto Otjozondjupa - east Erongo - southThe region comprises seven constituencies: Epupa Kamanjab Khorixas Opuwo Rural Opuwo Urban Outjo Sesfontein Kunene is one of few regions that Namibia's ruling SWAPO party does not dominate; the rivalry was with the United Democratic Front, but other parties show good results in Kunene's constituencies.
In November 2008, SWAPO activists and politicians called for organization to "destroy" the UDF government in Kunene. SWAPO claimed that UDF and Democratic Turnhalle Alliance were "sabotaging" local government initiatives in the region due to incompetence. Central to the politics of Kunene Region is the battle over the proposed Epupa Dam in Epupa Constituency near the border with Angola. Business leaders based in Opuwo, who are Ovambo people, formed the Kaoko Development League which supports the proposed dam; the dam would bring in economic development to much of the Region but would interfere with the traditional way of life of the Himba people who reside in the area. A longtime rivalry exists between the Himba people. In the 2004 election for the National Assembly of Namibia, voters in Kunene Region supported numerous parties; the UDF earned the party's single highest vote total and 22.19% of the party's national vote total in the region. The only members of the 3rd National Council of Namibia, created by appointments from every regional council, who are not members of SWAPO were chosen by the Kunene Regional Council.
These Councillors are Sebastian Ignatius ǃGobs of the UDF and Ngohauvi Lydia Kavetu of the DTA. Themistokles Dudu Murorua, a UDF member, was subsequently appointed Governor of Kunene Region in 2005, he was replaced by Joshua ǁHoebeb. Following the 2014 elections and SWAPO's win in Kunene, Angelika Muharukua was appointed Governor, after her death in 2017, Marius Sheya was appointed. In the 2015 regional elections SWAPO won in five of the seven constituencies; the two Kunene constituencies Epupa and Opuwo Rural were the only ones the DTA won throughout Namibia. Cholera is a major concern in Kunene Region near the border with Angola. In December 2008, while the Zimbabwean cholera outbreak caused the deaths of hundreds of Zimbabweans, a similar but separate outbreak occurred in the northern Kunene Region constituency of Epupa; as 19 December, 3 people had died and 29 had become sick. In May 2008 15 people died of cholera as well. February 2012, traditional Himba chiefs issued two separate Declarations to the African Union and to the OHCHR of the United Nations.
The first, titled "Declaration of the most affected Ovahimba, Ovatwa and Ovazemba against the Orokawe Dam in the Baynes Mountains" outlines the objections from regional Himba chiefs and communities that reside near the Kunene River. The second, titled "Declaration by the traditional Himba leaders of Kaokoland in Namibia" lists violations of civil, economic, environmental and political rights perpetrated by the Government of Namibia. September 2012, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples visited the Himba, heard their concerns that they do not have recognized traditional authorities, that they are placed under the jurisdictions of chiefs of neighboring dominant tribes, who make decisions on behalf of the minority communities. In his view, the lack of recognition of traditional chiefs is, in accordance with Namibian law, relates to a lack of recognition of the minority indigenous tribes' communal lands. November 23, 2012, hundreds of Himba and Zemba from Omuhonga and Epupa region protested in Okanguati against Namibia’s plans to construct a dam in the Kunene River in the Baynes Mountains, against increasing mining operations on their traditional land and human rights violations against them.
March 25, 2013, over thousand Himba and Zemba people marched in protest again, this time in Opuwo, against the ongoing human rights violations that they endure in Namibia. They expressed their frustration over their traditional chiefs not being recognized as "Traditional Authorities" by the Government of Namibia, Namibia's plans to build the Orokawe dam in the Baynes Mountains at the Cunene River without consulting with the Himba that do not consent to the construction plans, culturally inappropriate education, the illegal fencing of parts of their traditional land, the lack of land rights to the territory that they have lived upon for centuries, against the implementation of the Communal Land Reform Act of 2002. Kunene has 60 schools with a total of 20,332 pupils. According to the Namibia 2001 Population and Housing Census, Kunene had a population of 68,735 growing at an annual rate of 1.9%. The fertility rate was 4.7 children per woman. 25% lived in urban areas while 75% lived in rural areas, with an area of 115,293 km2, the population density was 0.6 persons per km2.
By age, 15% of the population was under 5 years old, 26% between 5–14 years, 48% between 15–59 years, 7% 60 years and
Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
The Herero known as Ovaherero, are an ethnic group inhabiting parts of Southern Africa. The majority reside with the remainder found in Botswana and Angola. There were an estimated 250,000 Herero people in Namibia in 2013, they speak a Bantu language. Unlike most Bantu, who are subsistence farmers, the Herero are traditionally pastoralists, they make a living tending livestock. Cattle terminology in use among many Bantu pastoralist groups testifies that Bantu herders acquired cattle from Cushitic pastoralists inhabiting Eastern Africa. After the Bantu settled in Eastern Africa, some Bantu nations spread south. Linguistic evidence suggests that the Bantu borrowed the custom of milking cattle from Cushitic peoples; the Herero claim to comprise several sub-divisions, including the Himba, Tjimba and Kwandu. Groups in Angola include the Mucubal Kuvale, Hakawona, Tjavikwa and Himba, who cross the Namibia/Angola border when migrating with their herds. However, the Tjimba, though they speak Herero, are physically distinct indigenous hunter-gatherers.
It may be in the Hereros' interest to portray indigenous peoples as impoverished Herero who do not own livestock. The leadership of the Ovaherero is distributed over eight royal houses, among them: Ovaherero Traditional Authority, of the Ovaherero Kingdom, Paramount Chief Adv. Vekuii Rukoro Maharero Royal Traditional Authority, chief Tjinaani Maharero Zeraeua Royal Traditional Authority at Otjimbingwe Ovambanderu Royal Traditional Authority, chief Kilus Karaerua Nguvauva Onguatjindu Royal Traditional Authority at Okakarara, chief Sam KambazembiSince conflicts with the Nama people in the 1860s necessitated Ovaherero unity, they have a paramount chief ruling over all eight royal houses, although there is an interpretation that such paramount chieftaincy violates the Traditional Authorities Act, Act 25 of 2000. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Herero migrated to what is today Namibia from the east and established themselves as herdsmen. In the beginning of the 19th century, the Nama from South Africa, who possessed some firearms, entered the land and were followed, in turn, by white merchants and German missionaries.
At first, the Nama began displacing the Herero, leading to bitter warfare between the two groups, which lasted the greater part of the 19th century. The two peoples entered into a period of cultural exchange. During the late 19th century, the first Europeans began entering to permanently settle the land. In Damaraland, German settlers acquired land from the Herero in order to establish farms. In 1883, the merchant Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz entered into a contract with the native elders; the exchange became the basis of German colonial rule. The territory became a German colony under the name of German South West Africa. Soon after, conflicts between the German colonists and the Herero herdsmen began. Controversies arose because of disputes about access to land and water, but the legal discrimination against the native population by the white immigrants. In the late 19th and early 20th century and colonialism in Africa peaked, affecting the Hereros and the Namas. European powers were seeking trade railways, as well as more colonies.
Germany claimed their stake in a South African colony in 1884, calling it German South West Africa until it was taken over in 1915. The first German colonists arrived in 1892, conflict with the indigenous Herero and Nama people began; as in many cases of colonization, the indigenous people were not treated fairly. Between 1893 and 1903, the Herero and Nama people's land and cattle were progressively being taken by German colonists; the Herero and Nama resisted expropriation over the years, but they were unorganized and the Germans defeated them with ease. In 1903, the Herero people learned that they were to be placed in reservations, leaving more room for colonists to own land and prosper. In 1904, the Herero and Nama began a great rebellion that lasted until 1907, ending with the near destruction of the Herero people. "The war against the Herero and Nama was the first in which German imperialism resorted to methods of genocide...." 80,000 Herero lived in German South West Africa at the beginning of Germany’s colonial rule over the area, while after their revolt was defeated, they numbered 15,000.
In a period of four years 65,000 Herero people perished. Samuel Maharero, the Supreme Chief of the Herero, led his people in a large-scale uprising on January 12, 1904, against the Germans; the Herero, surprising the Germans with their uprising, had initial success. German General Lothar von Trotha took over as leader in May 1904. In August 1904, he devised a plan to annihilate the Herero nation; the plan was to surround the area where the Herero were, leaving but one route for them to escape, into the desert. The Herero battled the Germans, the losses were minor, it was when the majority had escaped through the only passage made available by the Germans, had been systematically prevented from approaching watering holes, that starvation began to take its toll. It was that the Herero uprising changed from war, to genocide. Lothar von Trotha called the conflict a “race war.” He declared in the German press that “no war may be conducted humanely against non-humans” and issued an “annihilation order”: …The Herero are no longer German subjects.
They have murdered and stolen, they have cut off the ears and other body parts of wounded soldiers, now out of captain will receive 1000 Ma