New Orleans Saints
The New Orleans Saints are a professional American football team based in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Saints compete in the National Football League as a member of the league's National Football Conference South division; the team was founded by John W. Mecom Jr. David Dixon, the city of New Orleans on November 1, 1966; the Saints began play in Tulane Stadium in 1967. The name "Saints" is an allusion to November 1 being All Saints Day in the Catholic faith. New Orleans has a large Catholic population, the spiritual "When the Saints Go Marching In" is associated with New Orleans and is sung by fans at games; the franchise was founded on November 1, 1966. The team's primary colors are old gold and black, they played their home games in Tulane Stadium through the 1974 NFL season. The following year, they moved to the new Louisiana Superdome. For most of their first 20 years, the Saints were competitive, only getting to.500 twice. In 1987, they finished 12–3—their first-ever winning season—and qualified for the NFL playoffs for the first time in franchise history, but lost to the Minnesota Vikings 44–10.
The next season in 1988 ended with a 10 -- 6 record. Following the 2000 regular season, the Saints defeated the defending Super Bowl champion St. Louis Rams 31–28 to notch their first-ever playoff win. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated much of the Gulf Coast region; the Superdome was used as temporary shelter for displaced residents. The stadium suffered damage from the hurricane; the Saints were forced to play their first scheduled home game against the New York Giants at Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey. During the season, it was rumored that Saints' owner Tom Benson might deem the Superdome unusable and seek to void his contract and relocate the team to San Antonio, where he had business interests. However, the Superdome was repaired and renovated in time for the 2006 season at an estimated cost of US$185 million; the New Orleans Saints' first post-Katrina home game was an charged Monday Night Football game versus their division rival, the Atlanta Falcons. The Saints, under rookie head coach Sean Payton and new quarterback Drew Brees, defeated the Falcons 23–3, went on to notch the second playoff win in franchise history.
The 2009 season was a historic one for the Saints. Winning a franchise-record 13 games, they qualified for Super Bowl XLIV and defeated the AFC champion Indianapolis Colts 31–17. To date, it is the only Super Bowl championship that they have won, as it is the only Super Bowl the Saints have appeared in, they join the New York Jets and Tampa Bay Buccaneers as the only three NFL teams to win their lone Super Bowl appearance. In 52 seasons, the Saints' record was 371–446–5 overall, 362–435–5 in the regular season and 9–11 in the playoffs. First the brainchild of local sports entrepreneur Dave Dixon, who built the Louisiana Superdome and founded the USFL, the Saints were secretly born in a backroom deal brought about by U. S. Congressman Hale Boggs, U. S. Senator Russell Long, NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle; the NFL needed congressional approval of the proposed AFL–NFL merger. Dixon and a local civic group had been seeking an NFL franchise for over five years and had hosted record crowds for NFL exhibition games.
To seal the merger, Rozelle arrived in New Orleans within a week, announced on November 1, 1966, that the NFL had awarded the city of New Orleans an NFL franchise. The team was named for the great jazz song most identified with New Orleans – "When the Saints Go Marching In", it was no coincidence that the franchise's official birth was announced on November 1, the Catholic All Saints' Day; when the deal was reached a week earlier, Dixon suggested to Rozelle that the announcement be delayed until then. Dixon told an interviewer that he cleared the name with New Orleans' Archbishop Philip M. Hannan: "He thought it would be a good idea, he had an idea the team was going to need all the help it could get."Boggs' Congressional committee in turn approved the NFL merger. John W. Mecom Jr. a young oilman from Houston, became the team's first majority stockholder. The team's colors and gold, symbolized both Mecom's and New Orleans' strong ties to the oil industry. Trumpeter Al Hirt was part owner of the team, his rendition of "When the Saints Go Marching In" was made the official fight song.
The inaugural game in 1967 on September 17 started with a 94-yard opening kickoff return for a touchdown by John Gilliam, but the Saints lost that game 27–13 to the Los Angeles Rams at Tulane Stadium, with over 80,000 in attendance. It was one of the few highlights of a 3–11 season, which set an NFL record for most wins by an expansion team. For most of their first 20 years, the Saints were the definition of NFL futility, they did not finish as high as second in their division until 1979. The 1979 and 1983 teams were the only ones to finish at.500 until 1987. One of the franchise's early bright moments came on November 8, 1970, when Tom Dempsey kicked an NFL record-breaking 63-yard field goal at Tulane Stadium to defeat the Detroit Lions 19–17 in the final seconds of the game. Dempsey's record was not broken until 2013 by Matt Prater of the Denver Broncos, who kicked one yard far
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
A touchdown is a scoring play in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, a team scores a touchdown by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone. To score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. In all gridiron codes, the touchdown is scored the instant the ball touches or "breaks" the plane of the goal line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone; this particular requirement of the touchdown is the exact opposite of the prerequisite to score most sports in which points are scored by moving a ball or equivalent object into a goal where the whole of the relevant object must cross the whole of the goal line for a score to be awarded. The play is dead and the touchdown scores the moment the ball touches plane in possession of a player, or the moment the ball comes into possession of an offensive player in the end zone; the slightest part of the ball touching or being directly over the goal line is sufficient for a touchdown to score.
However, only the ball counts, not a player's foot, or any other part of the body. Touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes "breaking the plane" as well. Touchdowns are scored by the offense by running or passing the ball; the former is called a rushing touchdown, in the latter, the quarterback throws a touchdown pass or passing touchdown to the receiver, who makes a touchdown reception. However, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, or on a return after a missed or blocked field goal attempt or blocked punt. In short, any play in which a player carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. In the NFL, a touchdown may be awarded by the referee as a penalty for a "palpably unfair act," such as a player coming off the bench during a play and tackling the runner, who would otherwise have scored.
A touchdown is worth six points. The scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion. Afterwards, the team that scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team, if there is any time left. Unlike a try scored in rugby, contrary to the event's name, the ball does not need to touch the ground when the player and the ball are inside the end zone; the term touchdown is a holdover from gridiron's early days when the ball was required to be touched to the ground as in rugby, as rugby and gridiron were still similar sports at this point. This rule was changed to the modern-day iteration in 1889; when the first uniform rules for American football were enacted by the newly formed Intercollegiate Football Association following the 1876 Rugby season, a touchdown counted for 1⁄4 of a kicked goal and allowed the offense the chance to kick for goal by placekick or dropkick from a spot along a line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through the point where the ball was touched down, or through a process known as a "punt-out", where the attacking team would kick the ball from the point where it was touched down to a teammate.
If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, or resume play as normal. The governing rule at the time read: "A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns. In 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field. Two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, a touchdown counted as four points. A goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to be touched to the ground was removed. A touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, the goal after touchdown added another point. In 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points. The end zone was added. Before the addition of the end zone, forward passes caught beyond the goal line resulted in a loss of possession and a touchback; the increase from five points to six did not come until much in Canada, the touchdown remained only five points there until 1956. In addition, the score continued to be called a try in Canada until the second half of the twentieth century; the ability to score a touchdown on the point-after attempt was added to NCAA football in 1958, high school football in 1969, the CFL in 1975 and the NFL in 1994. The short-lived World Football League, a professional American football league that operated in 1974 and 1975, gave touchdowns a 7-point value. American football scoring Conversion Touchdown celebration Touchdown Jesus Touchdown pass Conversion
2008 NFL season
The 2008 NFL season was the 89th regular season of the National Football League, themed with the slogan "Believe in Now." Super Bowl XLIII, the league's championship game, was at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida, on February 1, 2009, with the Pittsburgh Steelers coming out victorious over the Arizona Cardinals 27–23 and winning their NFL-record sixth Vince Lombardi Trophy. Conversely, the Detroit Lions became the first NFL team with a winless season since the strike-shortened 1982 NFL season, finishing their season 0–16. For the first time since the NFL expanded to the sixteen game season in 1978, three teams won two or fewer games: the Lions, the Kansas City Chiefs and the St. Louis Rams. Two teams won two or fewer games in 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985, 1992 and 2001; the regular season began on September 4 with the defending Super Bowl champion New York Giants defeating the Washington Redskins 16–7, concluded with the 2009 Pro Bowl on February 8, 2009, in Honolulu. The following rule changes were passed at the league's annual owners’ meeting in Palm Beach, during the week of March 31: One defensive player will be allowed to wear a radio similar to the one worn by the quarterback to communicate with the coaching staff on the field.
The "force-out" rule on catches made near the sidelines has been eliminated. A receiver now must come down with both feet in bounds for a pass to be ruled complete. However, if a receiver is wrapped up in mid-air by a defender and carried out of bounds before both feet touch the ground, the official can still rule the play a completion; the 5-yard incidental grabbing of the face mask penalty has been eliminated. Teams that win the opening coin toss now have the option to defer the decision until the start of the second half, the same as in college and Canadian football. Field goal attempts that bounce off the goal post are now reviewable under instant replay; this change followed a decision during the previous season during a Browns-Ravens game when Phil Dawson’s game-tying field goal hit an upright and the curved support behind the crossbar, again went over the crossbar to land in front of the goal post. Legal forward hand offs that touch the ground and attempted snaps when the ball hits the ground before the quarterback touches it are now considered fumbles.
Gerald Austin and Larry Nemmers retired. Carl Cheffers and Alberto Riveron were promoted to referee; this was the third season under the league's current television contracts with its American broadcast partners. CBS Sports and Fox Sports televised Sunday afternoon NFC away games, respectively. For primetime games, NBC broadcast ESPN airs Monday Night Football; the NFL Network's Run to the Playoffs broadcast seven Thursday and one Saturday late season night games, although there were negotiations to move those games to ESPN Classic. This was the last NFL season to be broadcast over the air in analog television in the United States. Border stations in Canada and Mexico will continue to broadcast in analog. NBC broadcast Super Bowl XLIII, their first Super Bowl since Super Bowl XXXII at the end of the 1997 season. ESPN reduced the on-air roles of sideline reporters Michele Tafoya and Suzy Kolber during the Monday Night Football telecast. Emmitt Smith has been replaced on Sunday NFL Countdown by Cris Carter, who came over from HBO.
Meanwhile, NBC's Football Night in America reunited Dan Patrick with Keith Olbermann on television for the first time since 1997 when they co-hosted SportsCenter. The in-house NFL Network saw Bryant Gumbel resign as their play-by-play announcer after two seasons on the network's Run to the Playoffs package after critics described his play-by-play calling as "lackluster." New York Giants radio announcer Bob Papa took his place. Additionally, NFL Films-produced Inside the NFL changed premium cable homes from Time Warner's HBO after three decades to CBS’ Showtime. Changed: James Brown as host and Phil Simms as one of the analysts. Cris Collinsworth is staying, but Dan Marino has been dropped as a studio analyst, the aforementioned Cris Carter moved to ESPN. Taking their place is Warren Sapp. On December 4, the NFL Network broadcast its game between the Oakland Raiders and the San Diego Chargers to theaters in New York City and Los Angeles using state of the art 3-D technology; the viewings, which were limited to NFL and consumer electronics executives, served as a test for future use of 3D in NFL television games.
Because of a technical glitch, the first half was not shown. On radio, Westwood One separated from its longtime corporate sister, CBS Radio and the Sports USA Radio Network, another syndicator, has been sold along with parent company Jones Radio Networks to the Triton Media Group.. This led to the former "NFL on Westwood One" giving way in 2011 to "NFL on Dial Global". On Internet television, both NFL.com and NBCSports.com carried complete live games of NBC Sunday Night Football for the first time ever. NFL.com continued its live coverage of Thursday and Saturday Night Football, which began in 2007, however for the first time the complete game rather than live look-i
A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is termed a senior coach. Other coaches are subordinate to the head coach in offensive positions or defensive positions, proceeding down into individualized position coaches. Head coaches in American football have different responsibilities depending on what level of the sport they are coaching; the head coach has a much more complete hold on the intricacies of the team. He may have to perform the duties of a offensive coordinator. High school head coaches have to do more work off the field than on, it is important that head coaches in high school hire a competent and proactive coaching staff because when the head coach is pulled away from practice he must be confident that his team is in good hands with his other coaches and staff.
One of the most difficult issues that head coaches must deal with off of the field is the parent, although many coaches do not allow parental interactions in many cases. He must be able to handle any issues that parents may have with the way that the head coach is running the program, all along while staying professional and not being demeaning. Furthermore, a high school's head football coach serves as his school's Athletic Coordinator or Director, which adds further responsibilities to his job. In some jurisdictions, a high school head coach must have a paying job within the school always as a teacher. One of the major features of head coaching in college football is the high turnover rate for jobs. With few exceptions college coaches routinely change jobs staying at a school for more than a decade; some coaches have been known to leave a school and return to the program after a period of time. Many head coaches at the college level have a paid staff and as such are more free to concentrate on the overall aspect of the team rather than dealing with the nuances of training regimens and such.
Unlike head coaches at other levels, college coaching staffs are responsible for the composition and development of players on the team. The ability to recruit and develop top players plays a major role in success at this level. A college coach acts as the face of a team, at an age when many young players do not wish to be hounded by media, they are called upon to discuss off-the-field incidents such as rule infractions or player antics. Sometimes, the coach becomes a celebrity in e.g. Lou Holtz. At the end of the year there are numerous college football coach of the year awards given out; the awards all go to the same coach but there are some discrepancies. Major annual coaching honors include the Home Depot Coach of the Year, The Liberty Mutual Coach of the Year Award, the Associated Press College Football Coach of the Year Award, The Paul'Bear' Bryant Award. At the professional level, coaches may work for millions of dollars a year. Since he or she does not have to travel the country recruiting high school players, the head coach at the pro level has much more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are coordinated with staff paid more than at the college level.
They report to the General Manager. Head coaching, due to the lack of job security and long hours, is a stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels and firings are common, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Many factors are part of National Football League coaches' contracts; these involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest revenue sport, topping the Major League Baseball's $7 billion. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick is in the number one spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list. Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams"/owners, are NFL demanded provisions in the coaches employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as lockouts or television contract negotiations.
The average salary for a head coach in the National Football League is $6.45 million a year. In association football, a head coach has the same responsibilities as in any other sport. A head coach has an option to pick his own coaching staff. In some countries there is a position of senior coach who acts as the first assistant of the head coach or runs a junior squad in the club. In the absence of a head coach, a senior coach temporarily fulfills his role as interim. There is the UEFA Convention on the Mutual Recognition of Coaching Qualifications that has three levels: Pro, A, B. In Australian rules football the head coach or senior coach is responsible for development and implementing an appropriate training program to the players so that they ensure they perform on game day; the senior coach in AFL has to be responsible for the rotations and team line up for the games. A senior coach in AFL is not the only coach involved in making the team operate, in AFL teams there are up to five different coaches that all have different responsibilities, for example, there is a forward and defence coach, these coaches focus on the particular positions on the grou
Nebraska Cornhuskers football
The Nebraska Cornhuskers football team represents the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Among the 128 Division I-FBS teams, Nebraska is one of ten football programs to win 800 or more games. Nebraska has more victories against Power Five opponents than any other program, as well as the fifth most victories all-time, behind only Michigan, Ohio State and Alabama. Two of Nebraska's national championship-winning teams, the 1971 and 1995 teams, are listed by many as the best college football teams of all time. Nebraska claims 46 conference championships and five national championships: 1970, 1971, 1994, 1995, 1997; the titles in the 1990s marked the first time that a team won three national championships in four seasons since Notre Dame in 1946–49, one of only three instances a team has won back-to-back consensus national titles. Nebraska has won nine other national championships, they are the only school with five or more national championships to not have a loss in any of their title seasons. Nebraska has had five undefeated seasons in which they were not national champions: 1902, 1903, 1913, 1914, 1915.
Between 1912 and 1916, the Cornhuskers played 34 consecutive games without suffering a loss. Famous Cornhuskers include Heisman Trophy winners Johnny Rodgers, Mike Rozier, Eric Crouch. Rodgers was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and was voted the Nebraska "Player of the Century" in 1999. Rozier, who holds the all-time NCAA record for yards per carry, was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2006. Other Cornhusker players and coaches who are Hall of Famers include: Forrest Behm, Bob Brown, Guy Chamberlin, Sam Francis, Tommie Frazier, Rich Glover, Wayne Meylan, Bobby Reynolds, Dave Rimington, George Sauer, Will Shields, Clarence Swanson, Ed Weir, Grant Wistrom, coaches Gomer Jones, Pete Elliott, Francis Schmidt, Dana X. Bible, Bob Devaney, Biff Jones, Tom Osborne, Eddie N. Robinson and Fielding H. Yost. Since June 11, 2010 the University of Nebraska has been a member of the Big Ten Conference affiliated with the Big 12, they are grouped in the Big Ten West Division, along with Illinois, Minnesota, Northwestern and Wisconsin.
Nebraska football began its history as the "Old Gold Knights,", changed to "Bugeaters" in 1892. "Cornhuskers" first appeared in an 1893 school newspaper headline stating "We Have Met The Cornhuskers And They Are Ours," after a 20–18 upset victory over Iowa. "Cornhuskers," in this instance, was used to derogatorily refer to Iowa. In 1899, Nebraska State Journal writer Cy Sherman, who would help create college football's AP Poll, became the first person to refer to Nebraska as the Cornhuskers. Nebraska's first game was a 10–0 victory over the Omaha YMCA on Thanksgiving Day, November 27, 1890; the program got off to a strong start, suffering only one sub-.500 season in its first 28 years of competition. Prior to a one-win season in 1899 in A Edwin Branch's only year as head coach, Nebraska compiled a 40–18–3 record. George Flippin was the first African-American athlete at Nebraska and only the fifth black athlete at any predominantly white university; because of Flippin's presence on the roster, Missouri refused to play a scheduled game with Nebraska in 1892.
The result was a 1–0 forfeit, technically, the first-ever conference win for Nebraska. Nebraska's fourth coach, Frank Crawford was the school's first paid football coach. Eddie N. Robinson and Fielding H. Yost, the program's sixth and seventh head coaches, were the earliest Nebraska coaches to be inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. Walter C. Booth was Nebraska's ninth head coach, had the second-best record during this era among multi-year coaches, his 1902 team went undefeated and unscored upon. Despite at one point leading his team on a 24-game winning streak, Booth was bested by Ewald O. Stiehm, who won the MVIAA conference title in all five of his seasons and posted a school-record 34-game unbeaten streak. His.913 winning percentage remains the highest in school history. The Cornhuskers were a strong candidate play in the first-ever Rose Bowl Game after the 1915 season, but the university's athletic board voted to turn down any such invitation. Stiehm left NU after the 1915 season when the university turned down his demand that he be paid an annual salary of $4,250 to serve as football coach, basketball coach, athletic director.
When the United States became involved in World War I, many young men went off to war, depleting the ranks of football teams nationwide. In addition, travel was restricted, causing the cancellation of numerous scheduled games; the Spanish flu pandemic further complicated the 1918 college football season. William G. Kline led Nebraska through the stunted 1918 season. Veteran head coach Henry Schulte took over for the next two seasons, but managed to maintain a winning record as the program recovered from the war and its aftermath. Although Schulte stepped down as head football coach after 1920, he remained at Nebraska in a variety of coaching roles through 1938. By the end of the post-war slump, Nebraska had been led by 15 head coaches over 31 years. However, a period of relative stability followed as Nebraska was able to once again be successful, this time with less turnover. Fred Dawson arrived at Nebraska after stints at Columbia and Virginia. During the entire three-year tenure of Knute Rockne's famed Four Horsemen, Notre Dame lost only two games.
History of the San Diego Chargers
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Chargers played in San Diego, California as the San Diego Chargers from 1961 to 2017 before relocating back to Los Angeles where the team played their inaugural 1960. The Chargers franchise relocated from Los Angeles to San Diego in 1961; the Chargers' first home game in San Diego was at Balboa Stadium against the Oakland Raiders on September 17, 1961. Their last game as a San Diego-based club was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego on January 1, 2017 against the Kansas City Chiefs, who defeated the host Chargers, 30–13; the Chargers played in four of the first five AFL national championship games -- winning once. In the early years, the wide receiver, Lance Alworth made 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his career of eleven AFL and NFL seasons, he made a record at ninety-six consecutive games with a reception. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the Chargers reached the AFL championship game four times and won it once.
In 1959, the team began as the "Los Angeles Chargers" when they entered the American Football League, joining seven other teams: the Denver Broncos, Dallas Texans, Oakland Raiders, New York Titans, Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills, Boston Patriots. The Chargers' first owner was Barron Hilton, the son of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotels corporation. Lamar Hunt, instrumental in organizing the AFL, said that he had asked Gene Mako for a suggestion for somebody to start a team in Los Angeles and he recommended Hilton. Hunt said that he visited Hilton for less than an hour and Hilton agreed to start a team. Barron Hilton held a contest to find a name for his team; the prize was a trip to Mexico. A man from Hollywood named Gerald Courtney won. Conrad Hilton said, "I liked because they were yelling "charge" and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games". Hunt said he thought Hilton picked the team name from the first batch of letters as publicity for his new charge account business Carte Blanche.
The team's first general manager was a former University of Notre Dame football coach. The team's first head coach was Sid Gillman from the Los Angeles Rams, his strength lay in offense innovation and he was honoured in the Hall of Fame. Gillman signed a contract with the team for three years; when Frank Leahy resigned due to poor health, Gillman became the general manager in addition to his coaching role. The Chargers planned to play at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Chargers were to host the first AFL national championship game at the Los Angeles Coliseum in 1961. However, as its attendance for home games was falling below 10,000 league and ABC television officials fearing that showing empty seats in the 100,000+ seat Coliseum might jeopardize the entire league persuaded the Chargers to give up the advantage and move the game to Houston. In December 1960, reports surfaced that Chargers were considering relocation offers from San Diego and Seattle.
Greg Gregston of the San Diego Union reported that the Chargers "have learned in one season that Los Angeles has been saturated beyond sensible proportions with sports." In January 1961, the team announced the move to Balboa Stadium in San Diego. Hilton was reported to have lost $900,000 in the first season. San Diego would spend $250,000 to increase stadium seating from 22,000 to 30,000; the Junior Chamber Commerce reported. Seating was increased more in May 1961 with upper deck bring the total capacity to 34,000. By Detroit native George Pernicano had become a minor shareholder in the team. In the 1961 season, their first in San Diego, the team's defense made forty-nine pass interceptions; the term, "Fearsome Foursome" described the 1961 Chargers' defensive players' lineup. The anchoring players were Ernie Ladd; the "Fearsome Foursome" phrase was used by other NFL teams. In 1961, the Chargers lost the championship to Houston by ten points to three with 29,556 patrons attending the game at Balboa Stadium.
In 1962, the team won four games and lost ten, including eight of the final nine games of the season. This was due to injuries. In the 1963 season, eight Charger players scored in the final week. Paul Lowe rushed over 183 yards, scoring 2 touchdowns on 17 carries. In the championship game, the Chargers beat Denver 58 points to 20 and became the AFL West champions; the season ended a week late due to a postponement of games after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963; the Chargers won the 1963 AFL title when they defeated the Boston Patriots 51 points to 10. Spectators numbering 30,127 attended the game at Balboa Stadium. Keith Lincoln's effort made up 349 yards of the total offense. In 1964, the Chargers played the New York Jets resulting in 17 points each. 50,222 spectators attended the game at New York. The game earned $46,828 in entrance fees. On Thanksgiving Day, Buffalo defeated the Chargers 27-24 at Balboa Stadium; the attendance was 34,865 spectators. The Chargers won their fourth AFL West title by defeating the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 spectators at Balboa Stadium.
Lance Alworth left the game with a knee injury, the fullback, Keith Lincoln was sidelined in the first quarter with a fractured rib. At the 1964 championship game in Buffalo, the Chargers were beaten 20-7; the AFL teams signed a five-year tel