Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng rose to power and led China through a series of far-reaching market-economy reforms, which earned him the reputation as the "Architect of Modern China." Born into an educated land-owning family in Sichuan province, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he became a follower of Marxism–Leninism. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923. Upon returning to China, Deng joined the party organization in Shanghai, becoming a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions. In 1931, he was demoted within the party due to his support of Mao Zedong, but was promoted again during the 1935 Zunyi Conference. By late 1930s, Deng was considered a "revolutionary veteran" because he participated in the Long March. Following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Deng worked in Tibet as well as in southwest China to consolidate Communist control.
As the party's Secretary-general in the 1950s, Deng presided over the Anti-Rightist Campaign launched by Mao and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward. However, his economic policies caused him to fall out of favor with Mao Zedong and he was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution. Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng and became the new paramount leader of China in December 1978. Inheriting a country beset with social conflict, disenchantment with the Communist Party and institutional disorder resulting from the chaotic policies of the Mao era, Deng began to bring the country back to order. From 1977 to early 1979, he resumed the College Entrance Examination in China, interrupted by the Cultural Revolution for ten years, initiated the historic Reform and Opening-up of China, started a one-month Sino-Vietnamese War. In August 1980, he started China's political reforms by setting term limits for officials and proposing a systematic revision of China's third Constitution, made during the Cultural Revolution.
In the 1980s, Deng supported the family planning policy to cope with China's overpopulation crisis, helped establish China's nine-year compulsory education, launched the 863 Program for science and technology, revived China's political reforms which ended and failed during the June Fourth Incident in 1989. While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary, some called him "the architect" of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise, dubbed the "socialism with Chinese characteristics", he opened China to foreign investment and the global market, policies that are credited with developing China into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for several generations and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions. Deng was the Time Person of the Year in 1978 and 1985, the third Chinese leader and the fourth time for a communist leader to be selected, he was criticized for ordering the crackdown on the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, but was praised for his reaffirmation of the reform program in his Southern Tour of 1992 as well as the reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese control in 1997.
Deng's ancestors can be traced back to Jiaying county, Guangdong, a prominent ancestral area for the Hakka people, had been settled in Sichuan for several generations. Deng's daughter Deng Rong wrote in the book My father Deng Xiaoping that his ancestry was but not Hakka. Sichuan was the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong during the Ming dynasty but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan again. Deng was born on 22 August 1904 at Sichuan. Deng's father, Deng Wenming, was a middle-level landowner and had studied at the University of Law and Political Science in Chengdu, he was locally prominent. His mother, surnamed Dan, died early in Deng's life, leaving Deng, his three brothers and three sisters. At the age of five Deng was sent to a traditional Chinese-style private primary school, followed by a more modern primary school at the age of seven. Deng's first wife, one of his schoolmates from Moscow, died aged 24 a few days after giving birth to Deng's first child, a baby girl who died.
His second wife, Jin Weiying, left him after Deng came under political attack in 1933. His third wife Zhuo Lin was the daughter of an industrialist in Yunnan, she became a member of the Communist Party in 1938, married Deng a year in front of Mao's cave dwelling in Yan'an. They had five children: two sons; when Deng first attended school, his tutor objected to his having the given name "Xiānshèng", calling him "Xīxián", which includes the characters "to aspire to" and "goodness", with overtones of wisdom. In the summer of 1919, Deng graduated from the Chongqing School, he and 80 schoolmates travelled by ship to France to participate in the Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement, a work-study program in which 4,001 Chinese would participate by 1927. Deng, the youngest of all the Chinese students in the group, had just turned 15. Wu Yuzhang, the local leader of the Movement in Chongqing, enrolled Deng and his paternal uncle, Deng Shaosheng, in the pr
Kim Bobo is an American religious and workers' rights activist, executive director of Interfaith Worker Justice, which she founded in 1996. She has taught groups for community organizing at the Midwest Academy. After working on organizing to combat world hunger, Bobo got involved with labor issues. In 1991 she founded the Chicago Interfaith Committee on Worker Issues. Leading efforts for a living wage, she is quoted in national newspapers and broadcast media as an expert on worker justice issues, she has written books and articles on wage issues and community organizing. Born in Cincinnati and raised a conservative evangelical, Bobo graduated from Barnard College in New York City with a bachelor's degree in religion, she received a master's degree in economics from the New School for Social Research in New York. Bobo was married to Stephen Coats, has twin sons. In 1976, Bobo became director of organizing for Bread for the World, a Christian organization that works to relieve and combat hunger. During this time, she wrote her first book, Lives Matter: A Handbook for Christian Organizing.
Bobo left Bread for the World in 1986 and became an instructor at the Midwest Academy, a community organizing training institute in Chicago, Illinois. While at the Midwest Academy and her colleagues co-authored Organizing for Social Change, a fundamental text in community-based organizing. In 1989, Bobo became involved with a strike by coal miners at Pittston Coal. Attempting to organize religious leaders to support the workers, she was startled to find that no religious organizations had labor liaisons, she started an informal network of religious leaders to share information about campaigns for worker justice that year. In 1991, Bobo founded the Chicago Interfaith Committee on Worker Issues, it was an all-volunteer group led by four influential Chicago religious leaders. In 1996, using a $5,000 inheritance from her grandmother, Bobo launched the National Interfaith Committee for Worker Justice; the organization was run out of her home. By 1998, the organization had 29 affiliates throughout the country.
The group changed its name to Interfaith Worker Justice in 2005, by which time it had grown to 59 local affiliates and a full-time staff of 10. IWJ has been active on a number of worker's rights and worker justice issues, it has developed 20 workers centers around the country, programs such as “Labor in the Pulpits” and “Seminary Summer,” which "places seminary and rabbinical students with unions for summer internships." In 2012, when Walmart was celebrating its 50th anniversary, she called on the corporation to ensure a living wage for its employees. Bobo continued her social justice work as the Executive Director for the Virginia Interfaith Center for Public Policy, where one accomplishment was to publicize the findings of "The High Cost of Being Poor in Virginia," a report released in October 2016 by the Virginia Interfaith Center for Public Policy and the Coalition on Human Needs. With the help of Rev. David Gortner, of the Virginia Theological Seminary she co-founded a private living wage program in Alexandria, Virginia.
The program offers certification and recognition to businesses that pay their workers a wage in line with living costs of the city. Bobo was selected for the 2012 Pacem in Freedom Award; the award commemorates Pope John XXIII’s 1963 encyclical letter, Pacem in terris, which means "Peace on Earth". Bobo joins previous award recipients including Martin Luther King Jr.. Mother Teresa, Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Wage Theft in America: Why Millions of Working Americans Are Not Getting Paid - And What We Can Do About It; the New Press. 2008. Available at www.iwj.org or www.wagetheft.org Lives Matter: A Handbook for Christian Organizing. Lanham, Md.: Sheed and Ward, 1986. ISBN 0-934134-87-1 Bobo, Kim, et al. Organizing for Social Change. 2d ed. Washington, D. C.: Seven Locks Press, 2001. ISBN 0-929765-41-9 "Do Catholics Still Care About Labor?" America. August 29, 2005. "Laboring for Justice: What's Happening in the Religion-and-Labor Movement?" Sojourners. July 30, 2005. "Religion-Labor Partnerships: Alive and Growing in the New Millennium," WorkingUSA.
6:4. "Interfaith Worker Justice: Organizational Profile." Marguerite Casey Foundation. Seattle: May 2005. Jones, Arthur. "Religion, Labor Tap New Energy as Allies. June 4, 1999. Interfaith Worker Justice Web site Wage Theft in America Kim Bobo, "A New Vision for the Department of Labor", Dollars & Sense magazine, January/February 2009
The National Parents Organization is a 501 not-for-profit charitable and educational organization in the United States that promotes shared parenting. The organization focuses on family court reform and public education with the goal to make shared parenting the general norm in every state; the stated mission of the organization is to improves the lives of children and strengthen society by protecting every child's right to the love and care of both parents after separation or divorce and to seek better lives for children through family court reform that establishes equal rights and responsibilities for fathers and mothers. The organization was founded in Massachusetts in 1998 with the name Foundation for Fathers and Families; the founders were John Cristofano, Phil Clendenning and John Maguire. The name was shortened to Fathers and Families. In 2013 the name was changed to the National Parents Organization in order to reflect the organizations belief in gender neutral shared parenting and parental equality, as opposed to seeking any special rights for fathers.
The National Parents Organization seeks to reform laws both at the state and the national level to encourage shared parenting. Most of the family court reform work is done by local affiliates on a state-by-state basis. In Kentucky, the National Parents Organization was instrumental in the 2018 passage of HB528, the nation's first presumption that shared parenting is in the best interest of the child. In Virginia, the local affiliate led the successful campaign for House Bill 1351, requiring courts to consider shared custody arrangements along with sole custody. In 2016, the NPO affiliate in Missouri helped pass a law stating that judges may not give custody preference to a parent because of gender, age or financial status. In Utah, the National Parents Organization was a catalyst for House Bill 35, which encourages family courts to more award physical custody after a divorce or separation; the bill passed in 2015. The organization has advocated for and helped pass military parent child custody legislation in several states, ad has introduced legislation protecting men and children against paternity fraud.
Members have served on state child support guidelines revision committees.. The organization promotes and disseminates scientific research on how children are effected by shared parenting versus other custody arrangements, it has published a Shared Parenting National Report Card, which gave each state a grade of A to F on the degree to which they promote shared parenting after divorce or separation. The highest grade, just a B, was received by Alaska and Minnesota; the lowest grade of an F was received by Rhode Island. In Ohio, the local chapter evaluated and compared the court guidelines that each county uses to determine parenting time when parents cannot agree; each county received a grade of A with A given to guidelines with the most equal time. Most counties received a D, but two counties and Tuscarawas, received an A, while one county, Van Wert, received an F; the media attention generated interest and discussions among judges and court officials, with some counties revising their guidelines.
Through conferences and media, the National Parents Organization does public education on the benefits of shared parenting, based on scientific research from across the globe. Members works to raise awareness about the problems with parental alienation. Together with the International Council on Shared Parenting, the National Parents Organization sponsored the Third International Conference on Shared Parenting, held in Boston in May 2017; the theme of the conference was Shared Parenting Research: A Watershed in Understanding Children’s Best Interest? The conference had presentations by scientists in the field of optimal post-divorce parenting arrangements; the organization engages social and national media to raise awareness about the family court system, shared parenting and parental alienation, with coverage by many both minor and major media outlets.. For example, in 2018 the co-chair of the Virginia chapter wrote an Op-Ed on comparing the growing uproar to children being separated from their parents at the border with the forced child-parent separations imposed by our family courts.
The organization is headquartered in Massachusetts. There are 16 state affiliates in California, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia; the National Parents Organization homepage National Parents Organization of Florida