Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing. While a denim predecessor known as dungaree has been produced in India for hundreds of years, denim itself was first produced in the French city of Nîmes under the name “sergé de Nîmes”; the most common denim is indigo denim, in which the warp thread is dyed, while the weft thread is left white. As a result of the warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the textile is dominated by the blue warp threads and the other side is dominated by the white weft threads; this causes blue jeans to be white on the inside. The indigo dyeing process, in which the core of the warp threads remains white, creates denim's signature fading characteristics; the name "denim" derives from French sergé de Nîmes, meaning'serge from Nîmes'. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue jeans, although "jean" denoted a different lighter, cotton fabric; the contemporary use of the word "jeans" comes from the French word for Italy: Gênes.
Denim has been used in the United States since the mid-19th century. Denim gained popularity in 1873 when Jacob W. Davis, a tailor from Nevada, manufactured the first pair of rivet-reinforced denim pants. At this time, clothes for Western labourers, such as teamsters and miners, were not durable, his concept for making reinforced jeans was inspired when a customer requested a pair of durable and strong pants for her husband to chop wood. When Davis was about to finish making the denim jeans, he saw some copper rivets lying on a table and used the rivets to fasten the pockets. Soon, the popularity of denim jeans began to spread and Davis was overwhelmed with requests, he soon sold 200 pairs to workers in need of heavy work clothing. Because of the production capacity in his small shop, Davis was struggling to keep up with the demand, he wrote a proposal to dry goods wholesaler Levi Strauss & Co., supplying Davis with bolts of denim fabric. Davis's proposal was to patent the design of the rivet-reinforced denim pant, with Davis listed as inventor, in exchange for certain rights of manufacture.
Levi Strauss & Co. was so impressed by the possibilities for profit in the manufacture of the garment that they hired Davis to be in charge of the mass production in San Francisco. Throughout the 20th century denim was used for cheap durable uniforms like those issued to staff of the French national railways. In the postwar years, Royal Air Force overalls for dirty work were named "denims." These were a one-piece garment, with long legs and sleeves, buttoned from throat to crotch, in an olive drab denim fabric. All denim is created through the same process: Cotton is harvested by hand or machine. A cotton gin separates the cotton fiber from the seeds; the cotton fiber is spun into yarn. The yarn is dyed; the dyed yarn is woven on a shuttle projectile loom. The woven product is sanforized. Most denim yarn is composed of cotton; some denim yarn may use an elastic component such as spandex for up to 3% of the content to allow the final woven product to stretch. Such a small amount of spandex enables a stretching capacity of about 15%.
Denim was dyed with indigo dye extracted from plants from the Indigofera family. In South Asia, indigo dye was extracted from the fermented leaves of Indigofera tinctoria. In Europe, use of Isatis tinctoria, or woad, can be traced back to the 8th century BC, although it was replaced by Indigofera tinctoria as the superior dye product. However, most denim today is dyed with synthetic indigo dye. In all cases, the yarn undergoes a repeated sequence of dipping and oxidation — the more dips, the stronger the color of the indigo. Prior to 1915, cotton yarns were dyed using a skein dyeing process, in which individual skeins of yarn were dipped into dye baths. Rope dyeing machines were developed in 1915, slasher or sheet dyeing machines were developed in the 1970s. In rope dyeing, continuous yarns are gathered together into long ropes or groups of yarns – after these bundles are dyed, they must be re-beamed for weaving. In sheet dyeing, parallel yarns are laid out as a sheet, in the same order in which they will be woven.
Rope dyeing eliminates this possibility, because color variations can be evenly distributed across the warp during beaming. Denim fabric dyeing is divided into two categories: sulfur dyeing. Indigo dyeing shades similar to it. Sulfur dyeing produces speciality black colors and other colors, such as red, purple, rust and green. Most denim made today is made on a shuttleless Sulzer looms that produces bolts of fabric 60 inches or wider, but some denim is still woven on the traditional shuttle loom, which produces a bolt 30 inches wide. Shuttle-loom-woven denim is recognizable by its selvedge, the edge of a fabric created as a continuous cross-yarn reverses direction at the edge side of the shuttle loom; the selvedge is traditionally accentuated with warp threads of one or more contrasting colors, which can serve as an identifying mark. Although quality denim can be made on either loom, selvedge denim has come to be associated with premium products since final production that showcases the selvedge requires greater care of assemblage.
The thickness of denim can vary with a yard of
Catechin-7-O-glucoside is a flavan-3-ol glycoside formed from catechin. Catechin-7-O-glucoside can be isolated from the hemolymph of the European pine sawfly, it occurs in large quantities in cowpea as the dominant flavan-3-ol monomer, accounts for up to 70% of cowpea proanthocyanidins. It can be produced by biotransformation of -catechin by cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. Catechin-7-O-glucoside can be found in Paeoniae Radix, the crude drug made from roots of the Chinese peony, in the red knotweed, in the stem barks of the Nepali hog plum, in the Korean plum yew and in Huanarpo Macho. -Catechin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside is found in the bark of Rhaphiolepis umbellata. It is found in the red bean, in barley and malt. -Catechin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside is found in rhubarb. This compound has an antioxidant activity leading to a cytoprotective effect
BKMA Yerevan, meaning Central Sport Club of the Army Yerevan, is an Armenian football club based in Yerevan. Their current home stadium is the main training pitch of Vagharshapat Football Academy. During the days of the Soviet rule in Armenia, the Central Sport Club of the Army Yerevan was founded in 1947 in Yerevan, it was known with its Russian abbreviation as CSKA Yerevan. After the independence of Armenia in 1991, the BKMA made their professional debut in domestic football competitions in the 1994 Armenian First League where they finished 3rd. In the 1995–96 Armenian First League season they finished 2nd behind FC Arabkir, to get the opportunity to face Aragats Gyumri in the promotion play-off match in which they beat the Armenian Premier League side and were promoted for the following season. Halfway through the 1997 season, BKMA were folded and all their remaining matches were awarded 3–0 to their opponents, resulting in the 12th and last position and relegation; the club has been inactive since.
This is a list of electoral divisions and wards in the ceremonial county of Lancashire in North West England. All changes since the re-organisation of local government following the passing of the Local Government Act 1972 are shown; the number of councillors elected for each electoral division or ward is shown in brackets. Electoral Divisions from 1 April 1974 to 7 May 1981: Electoral Divisions from 7 May 1981 to 5 May 2005: Electoral Divisions from 5 May 2005 to present: † minor boundary changes in 2009 Wards from 1 April 1974 to 3 May 1979: Wards from 3 May 1979 to 1 May 1997: Wards from 1 May 1997 to 10 June 2004: Wards from 10 June 2004 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 1 May 1997: Wards from 1 May 1997 to 1 May 2003: Wards from 1 May 2003 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 2 May 1991: Wards from 2 May 1991 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 1 May 2003: Wards from 1 May 2003 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 3 May 1979: Wards from 3 May 1979 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 3 May 1979: Wards from 3 May 1979 to 1 May 2003: Wards from 1 May 2003 to 7 May 2015: Wards from 7 May 2015 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 3 May 1990: Wards from 3 May 1990 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: † minor boundary changes in 2007 Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 1 May 2003: Wards from 1 May 2003 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 7 May 1987: Wards from 7 May 1987 to 1 May 2003: Wards from 1 May 2003 to 7 May 2015: Wards from 7 May 2015 to present: Wards from 1 April 1974 to 6 May 1976: Wards from 6 May 1976 to 2 May 2002: Wards from 2 May 2002 to present: † minor boundary changes in 2007 Wards from 1 April 1974 to 3 May 1979: Wards from 3 May 1979 to 1 May 2003: Wards from 1 May 2003 to 7 May 2015: Wards from 7 May 2015 to present: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Lancashire
Sporting Club Toulon is a football club from Toulon, which plays in the French third division. The club was founded in 1944 and played under that name until the 1999–2000 season when they were administratively reformed as Sporting Toulon Var. In 2016 Sporting Toulon Var became Sporting Club Toulon once again. Sporting Club Toulon was founded in 1944 after a merge between Sporting Club du Temple and Jeunesse Sportive Toulonnaise during the Vichy France regime. After World War II it joined the French second division and left for only one season in 1946–1947. After eleven years in the second division, the club reached the highest division in France in 1959, after finishing third in the second division, but was relegated the year after. Toulon has never won the French Cup, but has reached the semi-final on two occasions: in 1963 and 1984. Semi-finalists in 1963, Toulon was eliminated by Olympique Lyonnais; the following year, they finished fourth and were promoted again to the first division, without success.
Relegated to the French 3rd division during 1980–1981 season, Toulon was growing stronger in the 1980s. Thanks to the effectiveness of Christian Dalger as a forward, the talent of the leader Alain Bénédet or the experience of Rolland Courbis in defence, Toulon was again promoted to the first division in 1983, finishing first in Group B, before Stade de Reims, thanks to a victory away to Grenoble. During the 1983–1984 season, Toulon stayed in Division 1 thanks to the 21 goals of Delio Onnis, top scorer in the league that season; the club again were defeated by AS Monaco. The following season saw Toulon shining and beating Paris Saint-Germain 5–1. Still third after 31 matches played, they were defeated three times in a row – including another defeat against AS Monaco at home, 1–0, in front of 18,000 spectators at Stade Mayol, which remains the best performance for the club until now; this demoted them to 5th place, but still put them in contention for qualification to European competition, going into the last game of the season.
But a last defeat at home against FC Nantes Atlantique meant the club finished in 6th position, outside the European places. In 1988, the Toulon team including Bernard Casoni, Bernard Pardo and David Ginola, with former player Rolland Courbis as coach, finished 5th in the league but failed to qualify for a European competition due to a weak UEFA coefficient at this time. After several years of uncertainty, the club was relegated in 1993 to the Championnat National – the third level of French football – due to financial problems; the 1995–1996 season saw Toulon winning the title in National and promotion to Ligue 2. During the 16th final of the French Cup, they eliminated Girondins de Bordeaux where Zinedine Zidane was playing before being beaten on penalties by Montpellier HSC in the next round. Improvements lasted only two years and in 1998, Sporting Club Toulon were relegated back to the Championnat National due to poor results administratively in CFA2 and did not finish the championship because of liquidation.
After financial difficulties which led the club to be expelled from the Championship in the 1998–1999 season and to turn amateur, the club was reborn under the name "Sporting Toulon Var", gaining three promotions in four seasons to reach the third division. Candidate to access the 2nd division in 2006–2007, they have been relegated in 2007 to the French 4th division. In 2011, DNCG excluded the club from all national competitions and the club will start again in Division d'Honneur in 2011–2012. A new manager Mohamed Sadani was appointed at the beginning of the 2013–14 season, after several years struggling in Division d'Honneur, the club won the championship and gained promotion to CFA 2, 5th national level. In February 2016, the club announced a merger with SC Toulon-Le Las, of the CFA; the new club would take the historic name Sporting Club Toulon and play in CFA, with the reserves in CFA2. In 2019 the club won promotion from National 2 as champion of their group. Ligue 2 Winners: 1983 Championnat National Winners: 1996 Coupe de France Semi-finalists: 1963, 1984 Coupe Gambardella Runners-up: 1966 As of 10 August 2019.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Harumi Fujita is a Japanese composer and sound effects designer best known in the video game community for her work at Capcom. Mad Crasher Ghosts'n Goblins – with Ayako Mori Bionic Commando Makai Island Ide Yosuke Meijin no Jissen Mahjong – with Manami Matsumae Tiger Road – with Tamayo Kawamoto 1943 Kai – with many others Titan Warriors – unreleased Strider Final Fight - "Character Select" and "All Rounds Clear" Willow Gargoyle's Quest – with Yoko Shimomura Chip'n Dale: Rescue Rangers Mega Man 3 – "Needle Man", "Gemini Man" and part of "Staff Roll" Skyblazer Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon S: Kondo wa Puzzle de Oshioki yo! Panic in Nakayoshi World Tottemo! Lucky Man – with Yasuaki Fujita Pulstar Todd McFarlane's Spawn: The Video Game Zenkoku Juudan Ultra Shinri Game Fuuun Gokuu Ninden Punky Skunk – with Yasuaki Fujita Tomba! Blazing Star – with Seisuke Ito Hellnight - with various others Magical Tetris Challenge Spidersaurs