French Canadians are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Today, people of French heritage make up the majority of native speakers of French in Canada, who in turn account for about 22 per cent of the country's total population; the majority of French Canadians reside in Quebec, where they constitute the majority of the province's population, although French-Canadian and francophone minority communities exist in all other Canadian provinces and territories as well. Besides the Québécois, distinct French speaking ethnic groups in Canada include the Acadians of the Maritime Provinces, the Brayons of New Brunswick, the Métis of the Prairie Provinces, among other smaller groups. During the mid-18th century, Canadian colonists born in French Canada expanded across North America and colonized various regions and towns. Today, French Canadians live across North America. Most French Canadians reside in Quebec, are more referred to as Quebecers or Québécois, although smaller communities exist throughout Canada and in the United States.
Between 1840 and 1930 900,000 French Canadians emigrated to the United States to the New England region. Acadians, who reside in the Maritimes, may be included among the French Canadian group in linguistic contexts, but are considered a separate group from the French Canadians in a cultural sense due to their distinct history, much of which predates the admission of the Maritime Provinces to Canadian Confederation in 1867. French Canadians constitute the second largest ethnic group in Canada, behind those of English ancestry, ahead of those of Scottish and Irish heritage. In total, those whose ethnic origins are French Canadian, French, Québécois and Acadian number up to 11.9 million people or comprising 33.78% of the Canadian population. Not all francophone Canadians are of French-Canadian descent or heritage, as the body of French language speakers in Canada includes significant immigrant communities from other francophone countries such as Haiti, Algeria, Tunisia or Vietnam — and not all French Canadians are francophone, as a significant number of people who have French Canadian ethnic roots are native English speakers.
The French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries. The original use of the term Canada referred to the land area along the St. Lawrence River, divided in three districts, as well as to the Pays d'en Haut, a vast and thinly settled territorial dependence north and west of Montreal which covered the whole of the Great Lakes area. From 1535 to the 1690s, the French word Canadien had referred to the First Nations the French had encountered in the St. Lawrence River valley at Stadacona and Hochelaga. At the end of the 17th century, Canadien became an ethnonym distinguishing the inhabitants of Canada from those of France. After World War I, English-Canadians appropriated the term "Canadian" and French-Canadians identified as Québécois instead. French Canadians living in Canada express their cultural identity using a number of terms; the Ethnic Diversity Survey of the 2006 Canadian census found that French-speaking Canadians identified their ethnicity most as French, French Canadians, Québécois, Acadian.
The latter three were grouped together by Jantzen as "French New World" ancestries because they originate in Canada. Jantzen distinguishes the English Canadian, meaning "someone whose family has been in Canada for multiple generations", the French Canadien, used to refer to descendants of the original settlers of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. "Canadien" was used to refer to the French-speaking residents of New France beginning in the last half of the 17th century. The English-speaking residents who arrived from Great Britain were called "Anglais"; this usage continued until Canadian Confederation in 1867. Confederation united several former British colonies into the Dominion of Canada, from that time forward, the word "Canadian" has been used to describe both English-speaking and French-speaking citizens, wherever they live in the country; those reporting "French New World" ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least four generations in Canada. Fourth generation Canadiens and Québécois showed considerable attachment to their ethno-cultural group, with 70% and 61% reporting a strong sense of belonging.
The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada. Although rooted Canadians express a deep attachment to their ethnic identity, most English-speaking Canadians of British or Canadian ancestry cannot trace their ancestry as far back in Canada as French-speakers; as a result, their identification with their ethnicity is weaker: for example, only 50% of third generation "Canadians" identify as such, bringing down the overall average. The survey report notes that 80% of Canadians whose families had been in Canada for three or more generations reported "Canadian and provincial or regional ethnic identities"; these identities include
Université du Québec à Montréal
The Université du Québec à Montréal is a public university based in Montreal, Canada. It is a French-language university and is the largest constituent element of the Université du Québec system. UQAM was founded on April 9, 1969 by the government of Quebec, through the merger of the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, a fine arts school. Although part of the UQ network, UQAM possesses a relative independence which allows it to print its own diplomas and choose its rector. In 2015, UQAM had a student population of 43,314 in one school, it offers Bachelors and Doctoral degrees. It is one of Montreal's two Francophone universities, along with the Université de Montréal, only 1% of its student population is of Anglophone origin. UQAM was created on April 9, 1969 by the Government of Quebec, following the merger of the École des beaux-arts de Montréal, the collège Sainte-Marie and three colleges. In mid 1970, construction on UQAM's campus began in the Saint-Jacques neighbourhood; the old St. Jacques Cathedral was condemned and the worshipers were moved to the Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes.
The architect of the university, Dimitri Dimakopoulos, chose to respect the plans of John Ostell and Victor Bourgeau by deciding to graft the new construction around the wall of the nave of the church overlooking Saint Catherine Street and highlighting the bell tower and its gateway. These remains are classified as historic monuments by the Quebec government; the new campus of UQAM was inaugurated in September 1979. In November 2006, UQAM underwent a major financial crisis, it was revealed that the former president, Roch Denis, was responsible for the financial mismanagement of the Science Complex and the Ilot Voyageur real estate projects. A recovery plan, required by the Ministry of Education and Leisure, is still in progress, raising significant challenges from groups of employees, students and professors. With the addition of the Télé-université in June 2005, UQAM, with a student population of close to 60,000, was the largest French-speaking university in the world. On 13 January 2012, it was announced that the TELUQ would again become a separate university from UQAM, but would remain in the Université du Québec system.
UQAM's campus was designed by Dimitri Dimakopoulos and is located in downtown Montreal, with most of its buildings in the Quartier Latin neighbourhood near the Berri-UQAM Metro station and the newer Complexe des sciences Pierre-Dansereau near Place des Arts. The University is involved in the troubled Îlot Voyageur project, a 13-storey student residence and intercity bus terminal, but has had to scale back its involvement due to financial problems. In September 2013, the university announced that it had acquired the National Film Board of Canada's former CineRobotheque facility for its communications faculty; the University provides training on its campus in Montreal and its four regional centers: UQAM Lanaudière, UQAM Laval, UQAM Montérégie and UQAM Ouest-de-l'île. A three part virtual exhibition was made to showcase the university's history. Faculté des arts Faculté des sciences de l'éducation Faculté de communication Faculté de science politique et de droit Faculté des sciences École des sciences de la gestion Faculté des sciences humaines École supérieure de mode de Montréal Institut de recherches et d'études féministes Institut des sciences cognitives Institut des sciences de l'environnement Institut d'études internationales de Montréal Institut Santé et société École supérieure de théâtre École des langues École de travail social École des arts visuels et médiatiques Institut du patrimoine International Research Group on Animal LawThe University is represented in Canadian Interuniversity Sport by the UQAM Citadins.
UQAM is part of the Université du Québec network, which has a distance learning component called Télé-université. It offers courses and degrees in computer science, communication, environmental science, management. University of Québec has improved geographical accessibility through multiple campuses spread throughout the province and by offering distance education by Télé-Université. Daniel Langlois, Founder of Softimage, Ex-Centris Francis Beaulac, computer engineering Louise Beaudoin, former Quebec minister of international relations Pierre Bourgault, former leader of the RIN party and Quebec independence activist Pierre Dansereau, pioneer of ecology Anne Fortin, Professor of Accounting Pierre Fortin, Economist Alexandre Gauthier, Software Engineer, co founder of Crusader Technologies and DecisionPoint Software Stevan Harnad, Open Access activist Bernard Landry, former Quebec Prime Minister Léo-Paul Lauzon, left-wing activist and former NDP candidate Gérald Larose, union leader André Éric Létourneau, artist Gilbert Paquette, former Quebec minister of science and technology Régine Robin, well-known novelist Yves Séguin, former Quebec minister of finance Léa Pool, filmmaker Jean-Marc Vallée, filmmaker Jovette Marchessault, writer Marc Parent, Director of the Montreal Police Department Denis Villeneuve, filmmaker Joseph Facal, academic and j
Blade Runner 2049
Blade Runner 2049 is a 2017 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve and written by Hampton Fancher and Michael Green. A sequel to the 1982 film Blade Runner, the film stars Ryan Gosling and Harrison Ford, with Ana de Armas, Sylvia Hoeks, Robin Wright, Jared Leto in supporting roles. Ford and Edward James Olmos reprise their roles from the original film. Set thirty years after the first film, Gosling plays K, a Nexus-9 replicant "blade runner" who uncovers a secret that threatens to destabilize society and the course of civilization. Principal photography took place between July and November 2016 in Budapest, Hungary. Blade Runner 2049 premiered in Los Angeles on October 3, 2017 and was released in the United States in 2D, 3D and IMAX on October 6, 2017; the film was praised by critics for its performances, cinematography, musical score, production design, visual effects, faithfulness to the original film. It is considered by many critics and audiences to be one of the best films of 2017.
Despite positive reviews, the film was a box office disappointment. Blade Runner 2049 received five nominations at the 90th Academy Awards, winning Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects, it received eight nominations at the 71st British Academy Film Awards, including Best Director, winning Best Cinematography and Best Special Visual Effects. In 2049, replicants are slaves. K, a replicant, works for the Los Angeles Police Department as a "blade runner", an officer who hunts and "retires" rogue replicants. At a protein farm, he finds a box buried under a tree; the box contains the remains of a female replicant who died during a caesarean section, demonstrating that replicants can reproduce sexually thought impossible. K's superior, Lt. Joshi, is fearful that this could lead to a war between replicants, she orders K to retire the replicant child to hide the truth. K visits the headquarters of the Wallace Corporation, the successor-in-interest in the manufacturing of replicants to the defunct Tyrell Corporation.
Wallace staff identify the deceased female from DNA archives as Rachael, an experimental replicant designed by Dr. Eldon Tyrell. K learns of Rachael's romantic ties with former blade runner Rick Deckard. Wallace Corporation CEO Niander Wallace wants to discover the secret to replicant reproduction to expand interstellar colonization, he sends his replicant enforcer Luv to steal Rachael's remains from LAPD headquarters and follow K to Rachael's child. At Morton's farm, K sees the date 6-10-21 carved into the tree trunk and recognizes it from a childhood memory of a wooden toy horse; because replicants' memories are artificial, K's holographic AI girlfriend Joi believes this is evidence that K was born, not created. He searches the LAPD records and discovers twins born on that date with identical DNA aside from the sex chromosome, but only the boy is listed as alive. K tracks the child to an orphanage in ruined San Diego, but discovers the records from that year to be missing. K finds the toy horse where he remembers hiding it.
Dr. Ana Stelline, a designer of replicant memories, confirms that the memory of the orphanage is real, leading K to conclude that he is Rachael's son. At LAPD headquarters, K fails a post-traumatic baseline test. Joshi gives K 48 hours to disappear. At Joi's request, K reluctantly transfers her to a mobile emitter, an emanator, so he cannot be traced through her console memory-files, he has the toy horse analyzed, revealing traces of radiation that lead him to the ruins of Las Vegas. He finds Deckard, who reveals that he is the father of Rachael's child and that he scrambled the birth records to protect the child's identity. After killing Joshi, Luv tracks K's LAPD vehicle to Deckard's hiding place in Las Vegas, she destroys Joi and leaves K to die. The replicant freedom movement rescues K; when their leader, informs him that she helped deliver Rachael's daughter, K understands he is not Rachael's child and deduces Stelline is her daughter and that the memory of the toy horse is hers, her having implanted the memory amongst those of every replicant's memories whom she had designed.
To prevent Deckard from leading Wallace to Stelline or the freedom movement, Freysa asks K to kill Deckard for the greater good of all replicants. Luv brings Deckard to Wallace Co. headquarters to meet Niander Wallace. He offers Deckard a clone of Rachael for revealing. Deckard Luv kills the clone; as Luv is transporting Deckard to a ship to take him off-world to be interrogated, K intercepts and kills Luv but is wounded in the fight. He stages Deckard's death to protect him from Wallace and the replicant freedom movement before taking Deckard to Stelline's office and handing him her toy horse; as K lies down motionless on the steps, looking up at the snowing sky, an emotional Deckard enters the building and meets his daughter for the first time. Archival footage and stills of Sean Young from the original film are used to represent both her original character of Rachael and a clone of the character created by Niander Wallace. Young's likeness was digitally superimposed onto Loren Peta, coached by Young on how to recreate her performance from the first film.
The voice of the replicant was created with the use of a sound-alike actress to Young. Young was credited for her work. On March 3, 2011, it was reported that Alcon Entertainment, a production company financed by Warner Bros. was "in final discussions to secure fi
The Genie Awards were given out annually by the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television to recognize the best of Canadian cinema from 1980–2012. They succeeded the Canadian Film Awards. Genie Award candidates were selected from submissions made by the owners of Canadian films or their representatives, based on the criteria laid out in the Genie Rules and Regulations booklet, distributed to Academy members and industry members. Peer-group juries, assembled from volunteer members of the Academy, meet to screen the submissions and select a group of nominees. Academy members vote on these nominations. In 2012, the Academy announced that the Genies would merge with its sister presentation for English-language television, the Gemini Awards, to form a new award presentation known as the Canadian Screen Awards; the Genie Awards were aired by CBC from 1979 to 2003, before moving to CHUM Limited's networks. After CTVglobemedia purchased CHUM Limited, the Genie Awards moved to Canwest Global's E and IFC for 2008.
The last two Genie Awards were broadcast by the CBC. The following is a listing of all Genie Awards ceremonies; the Special Achievement Genie is an award given irregularly to an individual or individuals in recognition of lifetime achievement or an important career milestone. Prix Jutra – Canadian French-language counterpart Canadian Screen Awards Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television
Venice Film Festival
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. The Big Three are internationally acclaimed for giving creators the artistic freedom to express themselves through film. Founded in Venice, Italy, in August 1932, the festival is part of the Venice Biennale, an exhibition of Italian art founded by the Venice City Council on 19 April 1893; the range of work at the Venice Biennale now covers Italian and international art, dance, music and cinema. These works are experienced at separate exhibitions: the International Art Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Music, the International Theatre Festival, the International Architecture Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Dance, the International Kids' Carnival, the annual Venice Film Festival, arguably the best-known of all the events; the festival is held in late August or early September on the island of the Lido in the Venice Lagoon.
Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. The festival continues to be one of the world's most fastest-growing; the 76th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled for 28 August to 7 September 2019. During the 1930s, the government and Italian citizens were interested in film. Of the money Italians spent on cultural or sporting events, most of it went for movies; the majority of films screened in Italy were American, which led to government involvement in the film industry and the yearning to celebrate Italian culture in general. With this in mind, the Venice International Film Festival was created by Giuseppe Volpi, Luciano de Feo, Antonio Maraini in 1932. Volpi, a statesman, wealthy businessman, avid fascist, Benito Mussolini's minister of finance, was appointed president of the Venice Biennale the same year. Maraini served as the festival's secretary general, de Feo headed its executive committee. On the night of 6 August 1932, the festival opened with a screening of the American film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on the terrace of the Excelsior Palace Hotel.
A total of nine countries participated in the festival. No awards were given at the first festival, but an audience referendum was held to determine which films and performances were most praiseworthy; the French film À Nous la Liberté was voted the Film Più Divertente. The Sin of Madelon Claudet was chosen the Film Più Commovente and its star, Helen Hayes, the best actress. Most Original Film was given to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, its leading man, Fredric March, was voted best actor. Despite the success of the first festival, it did not return in 1933. In 1934, the festival was declared to be an annual event, participation grew from nine countries to seventeen; that year the festival gave its first official awards, namely the Mussolini Cup for Best Italian Film, the Mussolini Cup for Best Foreign Film, the Corporations Ministry Cup. Seventeen awards were given: fourteen to films and three to individuals. Five films received; the third installment of the festival in 1935 was headed by its first artistic director, Ottavio Croze, who maintained this position until World War II.
The following year, a jury was added to the festival's governing body. The majority of funds for the festival came from the Ministry of Popular Culture, with other portions from the Biennale and the city of Venice; the year 1936 marked another important development in the festival. A law crafted by the Ministry of Popular Culture made the festival an autonomous entity, separate from the main Venice Biennale; this allowed additional fascist organizations, such as the Department of Cinema and the Fascist National Federation of Entertainment Industries, to take control of the festival. The fifth year of the festival saw the establishment of its permanent home. Designed and completed in 1937, the Palazzo del Cinema was built on the Lido; the Palazzo has since been the site for every Venice Film Festival, with the exception of the three years from 1940 to 1942, when the festival was moved away from Venice for fear of bombing. However, Venice received no damage during that time; the 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the festival itself.
Nazi propaganda movie Heimkehr was presented in 1941 winning an award from the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture. With the advent of the conflict the situation degenerated to such a point that the editions of 1940, 1941 and 1942, subsequently are considered as if they did not happen because they were carried out in places far away from Lido. Additionally, the festival was renamed the Italian-German Film Festival in 1940; the festival carried this title until 1942. The festival resumed full speed after the war. For the first time, the 1946 edition was held in the month of September, in accordance to an agreement with the newly-born Cannes Film Festival, which had just held its first review in the spring of that year. With the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held in the courtyard of the Doge's Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants; the 1947 festival is considered one of the most successful editions in the history of the festival.
In 1963 the winds of change blow during Luigi C
71st Academy Awards
The 71st Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best of 1998 in film and took place on March 21, 1999, at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories; the ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates and directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Actress Whoopi Goldberg hosted the show for the third time, she first hosted the 66th ceremony held in 1994 and had last hosted the 68th ceremony in 1996. Nearly a month earlier in a ceremony held at the Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California on February 27, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Anne Heche. Shakespeare in Love won seven awards including Best Picture. Other winners included Saving Private Ryan with five awards, Life Is Beautiful with three, Affliction, Election Night, Elizabeth and Monsters, The Last Days, The Personals, The Prince of Egypt and What Dreams May Come with one.
The telecast garnered nearly 46 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 71st Academy Awards were announced on February 9, 1999, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Robert Rehme, president of the Academy, the actor Kevin Spacey. Shakespeare in Love earned the most nominations with thirteen; the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 21, 1999. Life Is Beautiful was the second film nominated for Best Picture and Best Foreign Language Film in the same year. Moreover, its seven nominations were the most for a foreign language film, to date. Best Actor winner Roberto Benigni was the second person to direct himself to an acting Oscar win. Laurence Olivier first achieved this feat for his performance in 1948's Hamlet, he became the fourth individual to earn acting, screenwriting nominations for the same film. In addition, Benigni was the third performer to win an Oscar for a non-English speaking role. By virtue of their nominations for portraying Queen Elizabeth I of England, Best Actress nominee Cate Blanchett and Best Supporting Actress winner Judi Dench became the first pair of actresses to earn acting nominations in the same year for portraying the same character in different films.
Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger. Elia Kazan Norman Jewison The following individuals performed musical numbers. Riding on the success of the previous year's ceremony which garnered record-high viewership figures and several Emmys, AMPAS sought changes to the festivities that would help build upon this recent success. In June 1998, Academy president Robert Rehme announced that the show would be held on a Sunday for the first time in history. AMPAS and network ABC hoped to capitalize on the high television ratings and viewership that benefit programs airing on that particular day of the week; the Academy stated that the move to Sunday would ease concerns about traffic gridlock and transportation that are lower on weekends. The following January, Gil Cates was selected as a producer of the telecast, he selected Oscar-winning actress Whoopi Goldberg as host of the 1999 ceremony. Cates explained his decision to bring back Goldberg as host saying, "The audience adores Whoopi and that affection, plus Whoopi's extraordinary talent makes her a terrific host for the show."
In a statement, Goldberg expressed that she was honored and excited to be selected to emcee the telecast commenting, "I am thrilled to escort Oscar into the new millennium. Who would have thought that I would be hosting the last Oscar telecast of the century? It's a huge deal."Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony and its related events. Bill Conti served as musical director for the festivities. In addition to supervising the Best Song nominee performances, choreographer Debbie Allen produced a dance number featuring five dancers from around the world showcasing the nominees for Best Original Dramatic Score. For the first time, the Academy produced its own pre-show. Produced by Dennis Doty, the half-hour program was hosted by actress Geena Davis and CNN reporter Jim Moret. Similar to coverage of red carpet arrivals on networks such as E!, the pre-show featured interviews with nominees and other guests, recaps of nominations and segments highlighting behind-the-scenes preparations for the telecast.
At the time of the nominations announcement on February 9, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees was $302 million with an average of $60.4 million per film. Saving Private Ryan was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $194.2 million in domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by Shakespeare in Love, The Thin Red Line and Life is Beautiful. Of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 36 nominations went to 13 films on the list. Only Saving Private Ryan, The Truman Show, A Civil Action and Primary Colors were nominated for Best Picture, acting or screenwriting; the other top 50 box office hits that earned nominations were Armageddon, A Bug's Life, Patch Adams, The Mask of Zorro, The Prince of Egypt, The Horse Whisperer, What Dreams May Come and Pleasantville. The show received a mixed reception from media publications. Columnist Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly quipped that "Whoopi bombed last night, she knew it—and yet, she took it as a sign of her own