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Dentin

Dentin or dentine is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth. It is covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp. By volume, 45% of dentin consists of the mineral hydroxylapatite, 33% is organic material, 22% is water. Yellow in appearance, it affects the color of a tooth due to the translucency of enamel. Dentin, less mineralized and less brittle than enamel, is necessary for the support of enamel. Dentin rates 3 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. There are two main characteristics which distinguish dentin from enamel: firstly, dentin forms throughout life. Dentinal sclerosis/transparent dentin-sclerosis of primary dentin is regressive alteration in tooth characterized by calcification of dentinal tubules, it can occur as a result of injury to dentin by caries or abrasion, or as part of the normal aging process. The formation of dentin, known as dentinogenesis, begins prior to the formation of enamel and is initiated by the odontoblasts of the pulp.

Dentin is derived from the dental papilla of the tooth germ. After apposition of predentin and maturation into dentin, the cell bodies of the odontoblasts remain in the pulp inside the tooth, along its outer wall. Unlike enamel, dentin continues to form throughout life and can be initiated in response to stimuli, such as tooth decay or attrition. Unlike enamel, dentine may be stained for histological study. Dentine consists of microscopic channels, called dentinal tubules, which radiate outward through the dentine from the pulp to the exterior cementum or enamel border; the dentinal tubules extend from the dentinoenamel junction in the crown area, or dentinocemental junction in the root area, to the outer wall of the pulp. From the outer surface of the dentine to the area nearest the pulp, these tubules follow an S-shaped path; the diameter and density of the tubules are greatest near the pulp. Tapering from the inner to the outermost surface, they have a diameter of 2.5 μm near the pulp, 1.2 μm in the middle of the dentin, 0.9 μm at the dentino-enamel junction.

Their density is 59,000 to 76,000 per square millimeter near the pulp, whereas the density is only half as much near the enamel. Within the tubules, there is an odontoblast process, an extension of an odontoblast, dentinal fluid, which contains a mixture of albumin, transferrin and proteoglycans. In addition, there are branching canalicular systems; these branches have been categorized by size, with major being 500-1000 nm in diameter, fine being 300-700 nm, micro being less than 300 nm. The major branches are the terminal ends of the tubules. About every 1-2 μm, there are fine; the microtubules diverge at 90 degree angles. The dentinal tubules contain the cytoplasmic extensions of odontoblasts that once formed the dentin and maintain it; the cell bodies of the odontoblasts are aligned along the inner aspect of dentin against a layer of predentin where they form the peripheral boundary of the dental pulp. Because of dentinal tubules, dentin has a degree of permeability, which can increase the sensation of pain and the rate of tooth decay.

The strongest held theory of dentinal hypersensitivity suggests that it is due to changes in the dentinal fluid associated with the processes, a type of hydrodynamic mechanism. Dentin is a bone-like matrix, porous and yellow-hued material, it is made up, by weight, of 72% inorganic materials, 20% organic materials, 8% water. Because it is softer than enamel, it decays more and is subject to severe cavities if not properly treated, but due to its elastic properties, it is good support for enamel, its flexibility prevents the brittle enamel fracturing. In areas where both primary and secondary mineralization have occurred with complete crystalline fusion, these appear as lighter rounded areas on a stained section of dentin and are considered globular dentin. In contrast, the darker arc-like areas in a stained section of dentin are considered interglobular dentin. In these areas, only primary mineralization has occurred within the predentin, the globules of dentin do not fuse completely. Thus, interglobular dentin is less mineralized than globular dentin.

Interglobular dentin is evident in coronal dentin, near the dentinoenamel junction, in certain dental anomalies, such as in dentinogenesis imperfecta. The different regions in dentin can be recognized due to their structural differences; the outermost layer, known as the mantle dentin layer, is found in the crown of the tooth, can be identified by the presence of various characteristics: collagen fibres here are found perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction. In the root of the tooth there are two morphologically distinguishable outer layers: the hyaline layer on the periphery of dentin and the granular layer of Tomes beneath this; the granular layer has a dark, granular appearance which occurs due to the branching and looping back of dentinal tubules in this region. This appearance, specific to root dentin, is due to differences in the rates of formation of coronal and root de

Club Fulgencio Yegros

Club Fulgencio Yegros is a Paraguayan association football club based in the city of Ñemby in the Central Department. It was founded on 14 May 1924 and plays in the División Intermedia, Paraguay's second tier; this is referred to as El Prócer. In the 2016 División Intermedia season, the club's debut season in the mentioned league, Fulgencio Yegros commences with much success in the championship after achieving first position on the table after the first several matches. To appear in this section a player must have either:Played at least 125 games for the club. Set a club record or won an individual award while at the club. Been part of a national team squad at any time. Played in the first division of any other football association. Played in a continental and/or intercontinental competition. Soccerway Profile

Finnish-Russian University Cooperation in Telecommunication

The Finnish-Russian University Cooperation in Telecommunication is an independent Open Innovation Association developing ICT R&D ecosystem of Russia and Finland. In the beginning association was oriented on technologies of Nokia corporation. Association is known for its educational and R&D activities focused on improvement of the innovation ecosystem of Russia and Finland, competitiveness of the graduate students and development of cooperation between universities and industrial research groups. History of FRUCT Association started in 2007 when Sergey Balandin, Eugeny Krouk and Jarkko Paavola agreed to create joint work group to increase relevance and quality of students' research by involving IT and ICT experts from academia and industry to supervision of the projects. From the beginning FRUCT attracted attention of the regional media; the first seminar of the work group was held in St. Petersburg in May 2007, where the group was reorganized into the independent informal open innovations community.

FRUCT Association is voluntary community that combines R&D forces of its members using Open Innovations principles to create critical mass of competences and world-class competitive results. Nowadays more than twenty teams from universities of Russia, Finland and Denmark, Research Institute of RAS, Nokia Siemens Networks have joined FRUCT Association; the Association is managed by companies FRUCT LLC and FRUCT Oy. FRUCT Association is an official partner of IEEE Communications Society and a member of European Connected Health Alliance. FRUCT Association is an incubator of competences and new businesses developed in research cooperation of universities and industry; the main aim of FRUCT projects is gradual establishment of cooperation and long-term partnership between the member teams. FRUCT Association involves in research process undergraduates and PhD students, helps in formation of research communities in IT and ICT areas and promotes prestige of research career among young people. In most of FRUCT projects undergraduates and PhD students are the main developers, who solve problems with help and supervision of academia and industrial experts.

The set of activities is targeted to create the complete innovation cycle for competence and business development. The cycle starts by identification of the most promising research topics based on public information about long-term research vision and priorities of industrial leaders. Depending on the problem scale and long-team importance of the topic, FRUCT creates working group or project team to address it; each group and project team is formed as a distributed R&D consortium with clear definition of member roles. The teams solve technological tasks based on own vision and industrial requests. Administratively project team members belong to regional FRUCT laboratories. FRUCT laboratories are organized at regional FRUCT universities. Most of the laboratory members are official employees of universities, which most of time working for FRUCT projects. After the required level of competences is gained the team either organizes innovation startup or start large research project by using regional and cross-border grants.

Ideas of FRUCT projects can be originated by industrial experts. In this case the project initiator takes obligation to be the project supervisor. Undergraduate and PhD students can propose topics of new projects. Student proposals commented by FRUCT advisory board; the preference is given to proposals that have large R&D potential and project targeted in development of practical applications and innovative software-hardware solutions. For approved proposals FRUCT appoints scientific advisors. Accepted FRUCT projects can apply for support to cover part of direct implementation expenses, e.g. traveling to conferences, purchases of hardware, etc. The best students are recommended to take part in various contests and scholarship programs, etc; the project progress should be presented twice a year at FRUCT conferences. Project progress update consists of a report in form of conference paper and training or demo when applicable; as a result of each project at least one paper should be published in the proceedings of an international conference or journal.

FRUCT conference has its own proceedings and the best papers from them are recommended for IEEE and journals publication. In addition, for papers accepted to publication in the recommended conferences, the main student author can apply for a grant to cover related travel expenses; such travel grants are provided by e.g. Nokia Corporation. Actualization and renewal of education is the key priority of FRUCT association. Association organizes open free of charge conferences and special courses; the main FRUCT conferences are organized twice a year - in the last week of April and second week of November. The conference program consists of technological trainings, lectures of world-class IT and ICT experts, reports of FRUCT teams and demos of developed solutions; the conference length is 5 days, including days for trainings and developer contests. Accepted conference papers are published in proceedings, which are available for free download at FRUCT site. FRUCT organizes free-of-charge summer schools.

Main topics of the schools are chosen accordingly with the industrial trends and regional FRUCT teams priorities. FRUCT cooperates and is a partner in many international educational programs such as PERCCOM. Active academic exchange between as

Abby Portner

Abigail Portner is a visual artist, music video director and musician in the bands Rings and Hex Message and solo under the name Drawlings. She works in Portland, Oregon. Abby Portner's work is connected to her friends and to her brother David Portner's band Animal Collective, she started to make tour posters when they were still in High School together in Baltimore, Maryland. She moved to New York City to attend Parsons School for Design, but continued to make record covers and still designs shirts, tour posters and merchandise for the band. For Animal Collective's album Merriweather Post Pavilion, she contributed a music video for the song In the Flowers. In the summer of 2010 she built a live set for two Animal Collective shows in Prospect Park in New York City that contained large scale paintings and sculptures of jellyfish, tiki men, moving sharks and shooting water; the work was handmade by Portner in small parts with the help of friends in a working space in Bushwick, New York City, put together on stage.

Besides drawing for Animal Collective, Portner worked on a wide range of visual art projects, including Tattoo designing and Cartoons. In the end of 2008 she designed skateboards for the Ohio-based brand Alien Workshop. In mid-2010 Portner worked as a guest artist for the animated series The Velvet Mouse Show. In early 2010, The Fader Magazine featured Portner in the 65th issue with some artwork and a portrait. In addition, an interview and a slideshow with the artist's work was posted on the magazine's website. According to herself, the inspiration for her imagery comes from sources like old photos of her childhood, children's magazines and Disney World, she points out the motif of playfulness as the main theme of her work. Accordingly, recurrent themes in her drawings are animals, masked children and Halloween. In addition to this "childlike" approach Portner adds a dark and eerie undertone to her figures: In 2014, she directed music video for "If You Were Still Around" song by John Cale. Portner joined Nina Mehta and Kate Rosko of the New York-based band First Nation in June 2006 as a drummer, shortly after Melissa Livaudis of Telepathe left the band.

With Mehta and Rosko she started to write new material as well as playing shows around New York City and at the Midi Festival in France in August 2006. After changing the band's name to Rings, they recorded the full length Black Habit in March 2008 at Rove Studios in Kentucky along with Kristin Anna Valtysdottir who produced the record; as the drummer of Rings and Among Natives, another musical project of hers, Portner was one of 77 drummers participating in the art project 77 Boadrum in Summer 2007. A year she was part of the follow-up 88 Boadrum. In the meantime, Portner had joined the four-piece jam band Hex Message. In the summer of 2008 Portner started her solo music project Drawlings: Since she played solo shows in New York City and Los Angeles and opened for artists like Animal Collective, Deakin, Kría Brekkan, Foot Village and Angel Deradoorian, with her fellow Rings members joining her sometimes on stage. In May 2011 Portner will play All Tomorrow's Parties curated by Animal Collective in Minehaed, along with Big Boi, Beach House, Atlas Sound, Gang Gang Dance and Paw Tracks bands like Ariel Pink's Haunted Graffiti and Black Dice.

The only Drawlings release so far is the solo song Wolfie's Christmas on a 7-inch named Be Good to Earth This Season released on Paw Tracks in the end of 2008. In an interview in 2010 Portner announced that she plans on recording a Drawlings full-length in the following winter with her brother David Portner to release it on Paw Tracks in early 2011: " I have a name for the record and the album art realized. I just need to get the songs down."

Selah Jepleting Busienei

Selah Jepleting Busienei is a Kenyan female middle-distance runner who runs in the 1500 metres. She holds a personal best of 4:06.28 minutes for that event. Born in Uasin Gishu County, she made her first major appearance at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, reaching the 1500 m final, she was a finalist at that year's African Championships. She closed the year with a win at the Shoe4Africa 5km; the following year she was selected for Kenya's distance medley relay team at the 2015 IAAF World Relays and she helped set an African and Commonwealth record for the event at 10:43.35 minutes for the silver medal behind the American women. Individual success followed at the 2015 Military World Games, where she claimed 1500 m gold and placed fifth in the 800 m, her winning time in the 1500 m of 4:07.58 minutes was a personal best. Busienei returned at continental level for the 2016 African Championships in Athletics and placed eighth again for the second time running. 800 metres – 2:01.17 min 1500 metres – 4:06.28 min 3000 metres – 8:42.01 min Distance medley relay – 10:43.35 min All information from All-Athletics profile.

Selah Jepleting Busienei at World Athletics

East Andean antbird

The East Andean antbird is a species of bird in the family Thamnophilidae. It is found at high levels in humid highland forests near bamboo, is endemic to the western slope of the Eastern Andes and the Upper Magdalena Valley in Caquetá and Huila in Colombia; this 15 cm bird is found at high elevations of about 1,500-2,500 m. It was considered conspecific with the Klages's antbird, the Santa Marta antbird, the streak-headed antbird and together called the long-tailed antbird; the East Andean antbird was described by the English zoologist Philip Sclater in 1855 and given the binomial name Formicivora caudata. South American Classification Committee. "Proposal to South American Classification Committee – Split Drymophila caudata into four species". Retrieved December 8, 2012