The Denver Broncos are a professional American football franchise based in Denver, Colorado. The Broncos compete as a member club of the National Football League's American Football Conference West division; the team began play in 1960 as a charter member of the American Football League and joined the NFL as part of the merger in 1970. The Broncos are owned by the Pat Bowlen trust and play home games at Empower Field at Mile High. Prior to that, they played at Mile High Stadium from 1960 to 2000; the Broncos were competitive during their 10-year run in the AFL and their first seven years in the NFL. They did not have a winning season until 1973. In 1977, four years they qualified for the playoffs for the first time in franchise history and advanced to Super Bowl XII. Since 1975, the Broncos have become one of the NFL's most successful teams, having suffered only seven losing seasons, they have won eight AFC Championships, three Super Bowl championships, share the NFL record for most Super Bowl losses.
Thirteen players who have played for Denver are enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame: John Elway, Floyd Little, Shannon Sharpe, Gary Zimmerman, Willie Brown, Tony Dorsett, Jerry Rice, Andre Reed, Terrell Davis, Brian Dawkins, Ty Law, Champ Bailey and Steve Atwater, along with late club owner Pat Bowlen. The Denver Broncos were founded on August 14, 1959, when Minor League Baseball owner Bob Howsam was awarded an American Football League charter franchise; the Broncos won the first-ever AFL game over the Boston Patriots 13–10, on September 9, 1960. On August 5, 1967, they became the first-ever AFL team to defeat an NFL team, with a 13–7 win over the Detroit Lions in a preseason game. However, the Broncos were not successful in the 1960s, compiling a record of 39–97–4 during their ten-season run in the AFL. Denver came close to losing its franchise in 1965, until a local ownership group took control and rebuilt the team; the team's first superstar, "Franchise" Floyd Little, was instrumental in keeping the team in Denver, due to his signing in 1967 as well as his Pro Bowl efforts on and off the field.
The Broncos were the only original AFL team that never played in the title game, as well as the only original AFL team never to have a winning season while a member of the AFL during the upstart league's 10-year history. In 1972, the Broncos hired former Stanford University coach John Ralston as their head coach. In 1973, he was the UPI's AFC Coach of the Year, after Denver achieved its first winning season at 7–5–2. In five seasons with the Broncos, Ralston guided the team to winning seasons three times. Though Ralston finished the 1976 season with a 9–5 record, the team, as was the case in Ralston's previous winning seasons, still missed the playoffs. Following the season, several prominent players publicly voiced their discontent with Ralston, which soon led to his resignation. Red Miller, a long-time assistant coach was hired and along with the Orange Crush Defense and aging quarterback Craig Morton, took the Broncos to what was a record-setting 12–2 regular season record and their first playoff appearance in 1977, first Super Bowl XII, in which they were defeated by the Dallas Cowboys, 27–10.
In 1981, Broncos' owner Gerald Phipps, who had purchased the team in May 1961 from the original owner Bob Howsam, sold the team to Canadian financier Edgar Kaiser Jr. grandson of shipbuilding industrialist Henry J. Kaiser. In 1984, the team was purchased by Pat Bowlen, who placed team ownership into a family trust sometime before 2004 and remained in day-to-day control until his battle with Alzheimer's disease forced him to cede the team to Joe Ellis in 2014. Dan Reeves became the youngest head coach in the NFL when he joined the Broncos in 1981 as vice president and head coach. Quarterback John Elway, who played college football at Stanford, arrived in 1983 via a trade. Drafted by the Baltimore Colts as the first pick of the draft, Elway proclaimed that he would shun football in favor of baseball, unless he was traded to a selected list of other teams, which included the Broncos. Prior to Elway, the Broncos had over 24 different starting quarterbacks in its 23 seasons to that point. Reeves and Elway guided the Broncos to six post-season appearances, five AFC West divisional titles, three AFC championships and three Super Bowl appearances during their 12-year span together.
The Broncos lost Super Bowl XXI to the New York Giants, 39–20. The last year of the Reeves-Elway era were marked by feuding, due to Reeves taking on play-calling duties after ousting Elway's favorite offensive coordinator Mike Shanahan after the 1991 season, as well as Reeves drafting quarterback Tommy Maddox out of UCLA instead of going with a wide receiver to help Elway. Reeves was fired after the 1992 season and replaced by his protégé and friend Wade Phillips, serving as the Broncos' defensive coordinator. Phillips was fired after a mediocre 1994 season, in which management felt he lost control of the team. In 1995, Mike Shanahan, who had served under Reeves as the Broncos' offensive coordinator, returne
Iredalea subtropicalis is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Drilliidae. The length of an adult shell varies between 6 mm; the narrow, fusiform shell is truncated anteriorly. The aperture measures one-third the length of the shell; the shell contains 9 whorls. The whorls are flatly rounded and with an impressed suture; the smooth protoconch is sinusigera in the exposed portion of its lower lip concave. The aperture is narrow oblong, truncated in front; the outer lip is smooth within. The anal sinus is separated from the body whorl by a thick callous ridge. Columella smooth within; the siphonal canal is wide. Sculpture: The shell shows regular low axial ridges, about 15 on the body whorl constricted at their upper ends near the suture; the ridges extend on to the base of the shell. The entire surface of shell is shining; the colour of the protoconch is dark yellow. The shell is white, with a faint brown band, dark in patches, along the lower edge of the whorls, but not reaching the outer lip, where, at its anterior end, two narrow brown bands are faintly indicated.
This species occurs in the demersal zone of the Pacific Ocean off Queensland, New Zealand, Easter Island and the Kermadec Islands. Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295 "Iredalea subtropicalis". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019
The Museum of Natural History in Görlitz, Germany is a natural history museum with focus on zoology and geology. Since 2009, the museum has been part of the Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung with headquarters in Frankfurt/Main; the main field of research is soil biology. In the years 2006 to 2017 the number of visitors was between 25,000 and 34,000, in the year of the 3rd Saxon State Exhibition 2011 it was 47,000. In 1811 the Ornithological Society of Görlitz was founded on the initiative of the cloth merchant Johann Gottlieb Kretzschmar and the actuary Giese; the Ornithological Society zu Görlitz was founded in 1823 as the Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Görlitz. In the years 1858 to 1860, the Görlitz Society established its own museum on the centrally located Marienplatz on the former city moat area on the initiative of the physician and pharmacist W. J. Kleefeld and the Economic Commission Councillor Georg von Möllendorff, it was ceremoniously opened by Möllendorff on 26 October 1860.
After the reconstruction of the museum building, President Walther Freise was able to reopen the collections in 1902. In 2008, the museum was accepted into the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz scientific community. Since 1 January 2009 it has belonged together with the Naturmuseum Senckenberg in Frankfurt am Main and the Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden to the network of the Senckenberg Nature Research Society. Reinhard Peck was appointed the first museum director of the Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 1885. After him the botanist Hugo von Rabenau became museum director. After Freise's death in 1921, the biology teacher Oskar Herr took over the museum's management as a part-time member due to a shortage of money. From 1959 to 1995 Wolfram Dunger managed the Görlitz Natural History Museum. In 1995 he handed over the management of the museum to Willi Xylander. In 1819 the first preparations of 181 native land and water birds, 50 exotic birds and a collection of nests and eggs formed the "cabinet" of the Ornithological Society.
In 1827 the collection was extended by 150 North American bird species. In 1837 the coin collection was stolen and in the same year the mineral cabinets were opened. In 1846, three spacious rooms were rented per year for 50 Thalers on the first floor of Petersstraße 3 to house the collection. In the same year, visitors could marvel at the collections on two mornings of the week. To protect the collections from unauthorised persons, a padlock was attached to the "Kabineths-Thüre" in 1850. In 1858 the Society for Nature Research received a collection of African plants from Johann Christian Breutel from Herrnhut. In the following year the collection of the entomologist and botanist August Kelch from Ratibor was bought for 200 thalers. In 1860 the pharmacist Reinhard Peck was appointed curator. During his tenure, the collections experienced a significant upswing; the ornithologist and president of the Society Julius von Zittwitz was committed to the expansion of the collections and prepared 1500 birds for the Society himself.
Museum director Hugo von Rabenau acquired the Central Asian herbarium of Sintenis and the extensive Schwarzsche Käf collection. In 1914, the museum received a gorilla from Cameroon as a gift from Hans Schäfer, a member of the society. In the same year, Bruno Hecker's egg collection was donated to the society; the bird collection of Robert von Loebenstein, one of the most important private bird collections in Upper Lusatia, was donated to the Society in 1930. However, it no longer found a place in the premises of the museum and was therefore housed in the former Vogtshof; as of 2014, the collections contain around 6.5 million insects, millipedes, mussels, plants and thousands of minerals and fossils. The objects in the collection are the subject of scientific research by more than 40 museum researchers; the museum has a special scientific library with 151,000 media units. In addition to specialist literature for the research work of scientists, it offers understandable literature from the fields of natural sciences and the history of the region and can be used by the public.
The museum displays its exhibits on 1200 m² of exhibition space: Dioramas designed close to nature show specially prepared habitats of Upper Lusatia with their typical plants and animals - from the pine heaths in the north to the Zittau mountains in the south. The geology exhibition shows the eventful history of the region: volcanoes and coal forests, but the Ice Age shaped the landscape, as the finds of Mammut and Auerochse prove. The edaphone of the soil is shown on a 30-fold enlarged column of soil. In the rainforest and savannah exhibitions and small, well-known and unknown inhabitants are presented: from the beak to the finger animal, from the harpy to the ostrich, from the gorilla to the tiger. A vivarium with 70 living animal species from the rainforests and native regions in 12 elaborately designed landscape basins on an area of 100 m² completes the other permanent exhibitions. Visitors are offered regular show feedings. Rarities such as the black freshwater stingray from Brazil, Madagascan tomato frogs or the Senegal flounderfish, a "living fossil", can be seen.
But native species like grass snake or the eurasian harvest mouse are represented. In add