History of Denver
The history of Denver details the history of the City and County of Denver, United States from its founding in 1858 to modern-day. Located on the banks of the South Platte River close to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, Denver was founded in November 1858 as a gold mining town; the gold dried up and the city moved to become a supply hub for new mines in the mountains. Denver grew becoming the new county seat of Arapahoe County and the state capital. Investors from Denver built a rail line from Cheyenne to western Kansas which traveled through Denver, bringing new people and supplies. New roads and improvements to rail and air travel in the early twentieth century made Denver a hub for transportation; until World War II Denver's economy was dependent on the processing and shipping of minerals and ranch products. With war looming, Denver was in a prime location for more federal activity, being situated far from either coast. After the war oil and gas companies fueled a skyscraper boom in the downtown area.
With the combined spending of the energy companies and the federal government, Denver expanded quickly. Denver went from having a small urban core surrounded by rural farms to a booming downtown dotted with skyscrapers and surrounded by growing suburbs; the Denver area, part of the Territory of Kansas, was sparsely settled until the late 1850s. Occasional parties of prospectors came looking for gold moved on. In July 1858, Green Russell and Sam Bates found a small placer deposit near the mouth of Little Dry Creek that yielded about 20 troy ounces of gold, the first significant gold discovery in the Rocky Mountain region. News spread and by autumn, hundreds of men were working along the South Platte River. By spring 1859, tens of thousands of gold seekers arrived and the Pike's Peak Gold Rush was under way. In the following two years, about 100,000 gold seekers flocked to the region. In the summer of 1858 a group from Lawrence, Kansas and established Montana City on the banks of the South Platte River.
This was the first settlement in. The site faded due to poor findings by miners and most of the settlers and some structures moved north to the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek and formed a new settlement named St. Charles; the location was accessible to existing trails and had been the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. In October 1858, five weeks after the founding of St. Charles, the town of Auraria was founded by William Greeneberry Russell and party of fellow settlers from Georgia on the south side of Cherry Creek; the town, named for the gold mining settlement of Auraria, was formed in response to the high cost of land in St. Charles and gave away lots to anyone willing to build and live there. A post office was opened in Auraria in January 1859 serving the 50 cabins, constructed. A short time a third town, called Highland was founded on the west side of the South Platte River. Surrounded by steep bluffs and separated from the other two settlements by the river, it was slow to develop.
In November 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, two of the land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory that had met with the Territorial Governor James W. Denver unpacked their wagons and divided up the supplies. Larimer looked over the Auraria landscape, and was not satisfied with the first area chosen. He moved to a new area where he set up a campfire and four cottonwood poles crossed together, creating the first "Larimer Square" to stake a square-mile claim on the site of the St. Charles claim, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria; the majority of the settlers in St. Charles had returned to Kansas for the winter and left only a small number of people behind to guard their claim, including one of their leaders named Charles Nichols. Larimer and his followers gave the representatives whiskey and the threat of a noose, whereby the St. Charles claim was surrendered; the name of the site was changed to "Denver City" after Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver, in an attempt to ensure that the city would become the county seat of Arapaho County, Kansas.
When Larimer named the city after Denver to curry favor with him, Denver had resigned as governor and no longer had say in naming the capitol. In Denver, in the winter of 1858-1859, Katrina Wolf Murat, assisted by Wapolah, a Sioux, sewed together the first flag of the United States in Colorado. Denver at first was a mining settlement, where gold prospectors panned gold from the sands of nearby Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. Larimer, along with associates in the Denver City Land Company, laid out the roads parallel to the creek and sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. However, the prospectors discovered that the gold deposits in these streams were discouragingly poor and exhausted; when rich gold deposits were discovered in the mountains west of Denver in early 1859 it appeared that Denver City might become a ghost town as prospectors left for more lucrative claims.
However, once the gold rush began there was a great need for materials that couldn't be produced locally, which assured Denver's future as a supply hub for the new mines. Before the gold rush, trading was sparse in the Denver area. Early expeditions into the area, such as the Pike and Long expeditions, had retur
National Register of Historic Places listings in downtown Denver
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Downtown Denver, Colorado. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in downtown Denver, United States. Downtown Denver is defined as being the neighborhoods of Capitol Hill, Central Business District, Civic Center, Five Points, North Capitol Hill, Union Station; the locations of National Register properties and districts may be seen in an online map. There are 303 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Denver, including 1 National Historic Landmark. Downtown Denver includes 144 of these properties and districts, including the National Historic Landmark and 2 that extend into other regions. Another 7 properties in downtown Denver have been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Colorado National Register of Historic Places listings in Denver, Colorado
Ford produced three cars between 1932 and 1934: the Model B, the Model 18, the Model 40. These succeeded the Model A; the Model B had an updated four cylinder and was available from 1932 to 1934. The V8 was available in the Model 18 in 1932, in the Model 40 in 1933 & 1934; the 18 was the first Ford fitted with the flathead V‑8. The company replaced the Model AA truck with the Model BB, available with either the four- or eight-cylinder engine. Rather than just updating the Model A, Ford launched a new vehicle for 1932; the V8 was marketed as the Model 18 in its initial year, but was known as the Ford V‑8. It had the new flathead V8 engine; the Model 18 was the first low-priced, mass-marketed car to have a V8 engine, an important milestone in Automotive industry in the United States. The 221 cu in V8 was rated at 65 hp, but power increased with improvements to the carburetor and ignition in succeeding years; the V8 was more popular than the four-cylinder, a variant of the Model A engine with improvements to balancing and lubrication.
Model B was derived with as few technical changes as possible to keep cost low. Other than the engine, badging on headlamp support bar and hub caps, it was indistinguishable from the V-8, its intention was to be a price leader, as it offered more than the popular Model A, this should have been a winning formula. In fact, the new and only more expensive V-8 stole the show, made it obsolete; the V8 engine was exclusive to Lincoln products, which in 1932 switched to V12 engines only. Although there is a certain visual similarity with the predecessor Model A, the car was new. While the Model A has a simple frame with two straight longitudinal members, the new car got a longer wheelbase, an outward curved, double-dropped chassis. In both models the fuel tank is relocated from the cowl as in Model A and late Model T, where its back formed the dash, to the lower rear of the car, as is typical in modern vehicles. While the V8 was developed from scratch, the B just had an improved four-cylinder Model A engine of 201 cu in displacement producing 50 horsepower.
When Ford introduced the Model A in late 1927, there were several competitors offering four-cylinder cars, among them Chevrolet, Durant, or Willys. That changed within a few years, soon leaving the new Plymouth the sole major make in the Ford's price class with a four. Although sharing a common platform, Model Bs and Model 18s came not only in Standard and Deluxe trim, they were available in a large variety of body styles; some of them, such as the commercial cars described below, were only available as Standards, a few other came only in Deluxe trim. There were two-door roadster, two-door cabriolet, four-door phaeton and four-door sedans, four-door "woodie" station wagon, two-door convertible sedan and sedan deliveries, five-window coupe, a sport coupe, the three-window Deluxe Coupe, pickup; the wooden panels were manufactured at the Ford Iron Mountain Plant in the Michigan Upper Peninsula from Ford owned lumber. One of the more well known and popular models was the two-door Victoria, designed by Edsel Ford.
It was a smaller version of the Lincoln Victoria coupe, built on the Lincoln K-series chassis with a V8 engine. Prices ranged from US$495 for the roadster, $490 for the coupes, $650 for the convertible sedan. Production totals numbered from 12,597 for the roadster to 124,101 for the two-door sedan. Ford sold 298,647 V8-powered 18s in 1932, except for the fact Ford could not keep up with demand, the identical four-cylinder B would have been a sales disaster: dealers switched customers to them from the V8, then sold only 133,539, in part because the V8 cost just US$10 more; the B was discontinued because buyers disliked four-cylinder models in general, because of the huge success of the V8, not for being an inferior car. In fact, it persisted a little longer in Europe, where in many countries the tax system favored smaller-displacement engines. Today, the 1932 Model B, although always a little bit in the shadow of the V8, is a collectible car and people will pay thousands of dollars to restore one to original specification, ironic, as they were once cheap "throwaway" cars popular with hot rodders who would tear them apart and use them as the basis for a "build", why it is so hard to find an unaltered specimen today.
All 1932 Fords—V8-8s and Model Bs—came with black fenders, wire wheels, a rear-mounted spare wheel. Options included single or twin sidemounts, luggage rack, clock and exterior mirrors, choice of leather or Broadcloth interior material. Paints were Pyroxylin lacquer; the B shared frame and most of the trim with the eight-cylinder car. The only technical difference was the use of the reworked Model A engine, thus the designation B. Most body styles were available as Standard or Deluxe variants with either engine offered as an option. Customers could get a Deluxe version of the 1932 Model B in three-window coupe, phaeton and Fordor as well. Standard trim meant black front window frame, black wire wheels, black horn, single tail light, painted dash, position lights integrated in the head lamps, less expensive interiors; when the Model 40 and
Thomas Moran was an American painter and printmaker of the Hudson River School in New York whose work featured the Rocky Mountains. Moran and his family, wife Mary Nimmo Moran and daughter Ruth, took residence in New York where he obtained work as an artist, he was a younger brother of the noted marine artist Edward Moran, with. A talented illustrator and exquisite colorist, Thomas Moran was hired as an illustrator at Scribner's Monthly. During the late 1860s, he was appointed the chief illustrator for the magazine, a position that helped him launch his career as one of the premier painters of the American landscape, in particular, the American West. Moran along with Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Hill, William Keith are sometimes referred to as belonging to the Rocky Mountain School of landscape painters because of all of the Western landscapes made by this group. Thomas Moran began his artistic career as a teenage apprentice to the Philadelphia wood-engraving firm Scattergood & Telfer. Moran spent his free time working on his own watercolors.
By the mid-1850s he was drawing the firm's illustrations for publication rather than carving them. It was that he encountered illustrated books that included examples of the work of British artist J. M. W. Turner, to be a lasting influence on Moran's work, he began studying with local painter James Hamilton. Moran traveled to England in 1862 to see Turner's work. From that point on, he emulated Turner's use of color, his choice of landscapes, was inspired by his explorations in watercolor, a medium for which Turner was well-known. During the 1870s and 1880s, Moran's designs for wood-engraved illustrations appeared in major magazines and gift oriented publications. Although he mastered multiple printing media including wood-engraving and lithography, which he learned from his brothers, he received renown for his paintings in oil and in watercolor; the height of his career coincided with the popularity of chromolithography, which Moran used to make color prints of his works, so that they could be distributed.
He was one of the leaders of the etching revival in the United States and Great Britain. Moran was married to Scottish born an etcher and landscape painter; the couple had a son. His brothers Edward and Peter, as well as his nephews Edward Percy Moran and Jean Leon Gerome Ferris were active as artists, he died in Santa Barbara, California on August 25, 1926. Thomas Moran's vision of the Western landscape was critical to the creation of Yellowstone National Park. In 1871 Dr. Ferdinand Hayden, director of the United States Geological Survey, invited Moran, at the request of American financier Jay Cooke, to join Hayden and his expedition team into the unknown Yellowstone region. Hayden was just about to embark on his arduous journey when he received a letter from Cooke presenting Moran as "an artist of Philadelphia of rare genius". Funded by Cooke, Scribner's Monthly, a new illustrated magazine, Moran agreed to join the survey team of the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 in their exploration of the Yellowstone region.
During forty days in the wilderness area, Moran visually documented over 30 different sites and produced a diary of the expedition's progress and daily activities. His sketches, along with photographs produced by survey member William Henry Jackson, captured the nation's attention and helped inspire Congress to establish the Yellowstone region as the first national park in 1872. Moran's paintings along with Jackson's photographs revealed the scale and splendor of the beautiful Yellowstone region where written or oral descriptions failed, persuading President Grant and the US Congress that Yellowstone was to be preserved. Moran's impact on Yellowstone was great, but Yellowstone had a significant influence on the artist, too, his first national recognition as an artist, as well as his first large financial success, resulted from his connection with Yellowstone. He adopted a new signature: T-Y-M, Thomas "Yellowstone" Moran. Just one year after his introduction to the area, Moran captured the imagination of the American public with his first enormous painting of a far-western natural wonder, The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, which the government purchased in 1872 for $10,000.
For the next two decades, he published his work in various periodicals and created hundreds of large paintings. Several of these, including two versions of The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and Chasm of the Colorado are now on view at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Over the next forty years Moran traveled extensively, he went back to Yellowstone with Jackson in 1892. They were invited by Elwood Mead, the state engineer of Wyoming, in preparation for a "Wyoming Exhibition" at the World's Columbian Exposition. Thousands of tourists were now able to visit the park, arriving by the Northern Pacific Railway, Moran and Jackson were able to take advantage of the tourist facilities, such as a hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs. Moran wrote "After a day at Norris we left for the Grand Canyon where we stayed two days and made a great many photos. I saw so much to sketch that I have determined to return there myself after I have been to the Geyser Basins and the lake and spend a week at work there, it is as glorious in color as and I was carried away by its magnificence.
I think I can paint a better picture of it than the old one after I have made my sketches." Moran sketched many more images of the Canyon on this trip than he had in 1871, including views from the viewpoint named for h
Geography of Denver
The City and County of Denver, Colorado, is located at 39°43'35" North, 104°57'56" West in the Colorado Front Range region. The Southern Rocky Mountains lie to the west of Denver and the High Plains lie to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 401.3 km². 397.2 km² of it is land and 4.1 km² of it is water. The total area is 1.03% water. Adams County, Colorado - north and east Arapahoe County, Colorado - south and east and southeastern enclaves Jefferson County, Colorado - west City of Commerce City - north City of Brighton – north City of Aurora – east City of Glendale – southeastern enclave City of Greenwood Village - south City of Cherry Hills Village - south City of Englewood -south City of Sheridan -south Town of Bow Mar - south City of Littleton - south City of Lakewood -west City of Edgewater -west City of Wheat Ridge -west Town of Mountain View -west Town of Lakeside - west City of Arvada – northwest Berkley CDP - north North Washington CDP - north Denver features a semi-arid climate with low humidity and around 3,100 hours of sunshine per year.
The weather of the city and surrounding area is influenced by the proximity of the Rocky Mountains to the west. The climate, while mild compared to the mountains to the west and the plains further east, can be moderately unpredictable. Measurable amounts of snow have fallen in Denver as late as Memorial Day and as early as Labor Day, though this is rare and hasn't occurred in many years; the average temperature in Denver is 50.4 °F, the average yearly precipitation is 14.30 in. The average window for measurable snowfall is October 17 thru April 27, averaging 53.8 in of seasonal accumulation for 1981−2010. Denver averages 270 clear and cloudy days per year or 3200 hours of sunshine making it one of the sunniest major cities. Denver receives more precipitation than most locations with semi-arid climates, but still features a semi-arid climate due to its high evapotranspiration. Denver's winters are dry and range from mild to moderately cold, although large amounts of snow can fall on the mountains just west of the city, the effects of orographic lift dry out the air passing over the Front Range shadowing the city from precipitation for much of the season.
Additionally, warm chinook winds can be felt as air passing over the mountains heats as it descends, bringing a melting snow cover and surging temperatures. The coldest temperature recorded in Denver was recorded on January 9, 1875 at −29 °F, though the last time Denver recorded a temperature below −20 °F was December 22, 1990. Spring brings with it significant changes as Denver can be affected by air masses on all sides, whether arctic air from the north, which combines with Pacific storm fronts bringing snow to the city. In fact, as reported at Denver International, March is the second snowiest month, averaging 10.7 inches of snow. Additionally, warm air from the Gulf of Mexico can bring the first thunderstorms of the season, continental warm air can bring summer-like warm and dry conditions; the last freeze of the season on average falls on May 6. Starting in mid-July, the monsoon brings tropical moisture into the city and with it come occasional short late-afternoon thunderstorms. However, despite this tropical moisture, humidity levels during the day remain low, lows remain at or above 70 °F.
There are 38 days of 90 °F + highs per year. The average window for temperatures reaching the former threshold is June 4 thru September 7. In the autumn, the tropical monsoon flow dies down and as arctic air begins to approach it can combine with moisture from the Pacific Northwest to bring snowfall to the city – November is Denver's third snowiest month, both the greatest snowfall from a single storm and daily snow depth on record occurred before the Winter Solstice. In general diurnal temperature range is large, averaging between 26.7 and 30.5 °F. Extreme statistics: All-time record high: 105 °F on August 8, 1878, July 20, 2005, June 25−26, 2012. All-time record low: −29 °F on January 9, 1875 Lowest daily maximum: −10 °F on February 3, 1883 Highest daily minimum: 77 °F on July 3, 1881 Highest daily average: 88 °F on June 26, 2012 Lowest daily average: −17 °F on January 11, 1963 Highest 24-hour precipitation: 6.50 in on May 22, 1876. Highest monthly precipitation: 8.57 in during May 1876 Lowest monthly precipitation: none during December 1881.
Highest annual precipitation: 23.31 in during 1967 Lowest annual precipitation: 7.48 in during 2002 Highest 24-hour snowfall: 23.6 in on December 24, 1982 Highest one-storm total: 45.7 in from December 1−6, 1913. Highest daily snow depth: 26 in November 4−5, 1946 Highest monthly snowfall: 57.4 in during December 1913 Highest seasonal snowfall: 118.7 in during 1908−09 Lowest seasonal snowfall: 20.8 in during 1888−89 Denver has 79 neighborhoods that the City and community groups use for planning and administration. Although the City's delineation of the neighborhood boundaries is somewhat arbitrary, the City's definitions of
Genealogy known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members; the results are displayed in charts or written as narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to preserve the past for future generations, a sense of self-satisfaction in accurate storytelling. Amateur genealogists pursue their own ancestry and that of their spouses. Professional genealogists may conduct research for others, publish books on genealogical methods, teach, or produce their own databases, they may work for companies that provide software or produce materials of use to other professionals and to amateurs. Both try to understand not just where and when people lived, but their lifestyles and motivations.
This requires—or leads to—knowledge of antiquated laws, old political boundaries, migration trends, historical socioeconomic or religious conditions. Genealogists sometimes specialize in a particular group. Bloodlines of Salem is an example of a specialized family-history group, it welcomes members who can prove descent from a participant of the Salem Witch Trials or who choose to support the group. Genealogists and family historians join family history societies, where novices can learn from more experienced researchers; such societies serve a specific geographical area. Their members may index records to make them more accessible, engage in advocacy and other efforts to preserve public records and cemeteries; some schools engage students in such projects as a means to reinforce lessons regarding immigration and history. Other benefits include family medical histories with families with serious medical conditions that are hereditary; the terms "genealogy" and "family history" are used synonymously, but some offer a slight difference in definition.
The Society of Genealogists, while using the terms interchangeably, describes genealogy as the "establishment of a Pedigree by extracting evidence, from valid sources, of how one generation is connected to the next" and family history as "a biographical study of a genealogically proven family and of the community and country in which they lived". The term "family history" may be more popular in Europe, "genealogy" more popular in the United States. In communitarian societies, one's identity is defined as much by one's kin network as by individual achievement, the question "Who are you?" would be answered by a description of father and tribe. New Zealand Māori, for example, learn whakapapa to discover. Family history plays a part in the practice of some religious belief systems. For example, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a doctrine of baptism for the dead, which necessitates that members of that faith engage in family history research. In societies such as Australia or the United States, there was by the 20th century growing pride in the pioneers and nation-builders.
Establishing descent from these was, is, important to lineage societies such as the Daughters of the American Revolution and The Mayflower Society. Modern family history explores new sources of status, such as celebrating the resilience of families that survived generations of poverty or slavery, or the success of families in integrating across racial or national boundaries; some family histories emphasize links to celebrity criminals, such as the bushranger Ned Kelly in Australia. The growing interest in family history in the media coupled with easier access to online records has allowed those who are curious to do so to start investigating their ancestry; this curiosity can be strong among those whose family histories were lost or unknown due to, for example, adoption or separation from family as a result of bereavement. In Western societies the focus of genealogy was on the kinship and descent of rulers and nobles arguing or demonstrating the legitimacy of claims to wealth and power; the term overlapped with heraldry, in which the ancestry of royalty was reflected in their coats of arms.
Modern scholars consider many claimed noble ancestries to be fabrications, such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that traced the ancestry of several English kings to the god Woden. Some family trees have been maintained for considerable periods; the family tree of Confucius has been maintained for over 2,500 years and is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest extant family tree. The fifth edition of the Confucius Genealogy was printed in 2009 by the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee. In modern times, genealogy became more widespread, with commoners as well as nobility researching and maintaining their family trees. Genealogy received a boost in the late 1970s with the television broadcast of Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley's account of his family line. With the advent of the Internet, the number of resources readil