Richard Bird (computer scientist)
Richard Simpson Bird is a Supernumerary Fellow of Computation at Lincoln College, Oxford and former director of the Oxford University Computing Laboratory. Bird's research interests lie in algorithm design and functional programming, he is known as a regular contributor to the Journal of Functional Programming and the author of Introduction to Functional Programming using Haskell and other books, his name is associated with the Bird-Meertens Formalism, a calculus for deriving programs from specifications in a functional programming style. Bird was at the University of Reading. Laboratory home page Richard S. Bird at DBLP Bibliography Server
Ian Robert Horrocks is a Professor of Computer Science at the University of Oxford in the UK and a Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. His research focuses on knowledge representation and reasoning ontology languages, description logic and optimised tableaux decision procedures. Horrocks completed his Bachelor of Science, Master of Science and PhD degrees in the School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester. After several years as a lecturer, senior lecturer, reader Professor in Manchester, Horrocks moved to the University of Oxford in 2008, his work on tableau reasoning for expressive description logics has formed the basis of most description logic reasoning systems in use today, including Racer, FaCT++, HermiT and Pellet. Horrocks was jointly responsible for development of the OIL and DAML+OIL ontology languages, he played a central role in the development of the Web Ontology Language; these languages and associated tools have been used by Open Biomedical Ontologies Consortium, the National Cancer Institute in America, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Wide Web Consortium and a range of major corporations and government agencies.
His research is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Horrocks is the current Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Web Semantics and has served as program chair for the International Semantic Web Conference. Horrocks was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2011 and won the Roger Needham Award of the British Computer Society in 2005
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Sir Nigel Richard Shadbolt is Principal of Jesus College and Professorial Research Fellow in the Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford. He is Chairman of the Open Data Institute, he is a Visiting Professor in the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. Shadbolt is policy expert and commentator, his research focuses on understanding how intelligent behaviour is embodied and emerges in humans, machines and, most on the Web, has made contributions to the fields of Psychology, Cognitive science, Computational neuroscience, Artificial Intelligence, Computer science and the emerging field of Web science. Shadbolt was born in London but raised in the Derbyshire village of Ashford-in-the-Water, living a "bucolic existence" until he went to university, he studied for an undergraduate degree in psychology at Newcastle University. His PhD was from the Department of Artificial Intelligence at the University of Edinburgh, his thesis resulted in a framework for understanding how human dialogue is organised and was supervised by Barry Richards and Henry S. Thompson.
Shadbolt's research has been in Artificial Intelligence since the late 1970s working on a broad range of topics - from natural language understanding and robotics through to expert systems, computational neuroscience, memory through to the semantic web and linked data. He writes on the wider implications of his research. One example is the book he co-authored with Kieron O'Hara that examines privacy and trust in the Digital Age – The Spy in the Coffee Machine, his most recent research is on the topic of social machines – understanding the emergent problem solving that arises from a combination of humans and data at web scale. The SOCIAM project on social machines is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. In 1983, Shadbolt joined the Department of Psychology. From 2000 to 2015 he was Professor of Artificial Intelligence in the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. From 2000 to 2007, he led and directed the Advanced Knowledge Technologies Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration.
It produced a broad range of Semantic Web research, including how diverse information could be harvested and integrated and how semantics could help computers systems recommend content. In 2006 Shadbolt was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, he was its President in its 50th jubilee year. That same year, Nigel Shadbolt, Tim Berners-Lee, Wendy Hall and Daniel Weitzner, founded the Web Science Research Initiative, to promote the discipline of Web Science and foster research collaboration between the University of Southampton and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 2007 to 2011 Shadbolt was Deputy Head of the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton, from 2011 to 2014 he was Head of the Web and Internet Science Group, the first research group dedicated to the study of Web science and Internet science, within ECS, comprising 140 staff, researchers and PhD students, his Semantic Web research led to the formation of Garlik. In 2008, Garlik was awarded Technology Pioneer status by the Davos World Economic Forum and won the UK BT Flagship IT Award.
Experian acquired Garlik in November 2011. In June 2009 he was appointed together with Tim Berners-Lee as Information Advisor to the UK Government; the two led a team to develop data.gov.uk, a single point of access for UK non-personal Governmental public data. In May 2010 he was appointed by the UK Coalition Government to the Public Sector Transparency Board responsible for setting open data standards across the public sector and developing the legal Right to Data. In December 2012, Shadbolt and Tim Berners-Lee formally launched the Open Data Institute; the ODI focuses on incubating and nurturing new businesses wanting to harness open data and promoting standards. In 2013, Shadbolt and Tim Berners-Lee joined the board of advisors of tech startup State.com, creating a network of structured opinions on the semantic web. On 1 August 2015 he was appointed Principal of Jesus College, Oxford and a Professorial Research Fellow in the Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, he was interviewed by Jim Al-Khalili on The Life Scientific on BBC Radio 4 in April 2015.
In 2016, he delivered the Hinton Lecture of the Royal Academy of Engineering, entitled "Engineering the Future of Data". Shadbolt is married to Bev Saunders, a designer, has two children. Shadbolt and Hampson, The Digital Ape, Scribe Publications, London, UK ISBN 978-1911344629
Samson Abramsky FRS, FRSE is a computer scientist who holds the Christopher Strachey Professorship at the Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford. He has made contributions to the areas of domain theory, the lazy lambda calculus, strictness analysis, concurrency theory, interaction categories, geometry of interaction, game semantics and quantum computing. Abramsky was educated at Hasmonean Grammar School for Boys, Hendon and at King's College and Queen Mary, University of London; as of 2016 Abramsky is a Fellow of Wolfson College and Christopher Strachey Professor of Computing at Oxford University Department of Computer Science. He has been a Fellow of the Royal Society since 2004, his research includes the development of game semantics, domain theory in logical form, categorical quantum mechanics. His earlier positions include: Programmer, GEC Computers Limited, 1976–1978 Lecturer, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, QMUL, 1980–1983 Lecturer, 1983–1988, Reader, 1988–1990, professor, 1990–1995, Department of Computing, Imperial College London Professor of Theoretical Computer Science, University of Edinburgh, 1996–2000Abramsky has played a leading role in the development of game semantics, its applications to the semantics of programming languages.
Other notable contributions include his work on domain theory in logical form, the lazy lambda calculus, strictness analysis, concurrency theory, interaction categories, geometry of interaction. He has been working on high-level methods for quantum computation and information. Samson Abramsky co-edited 6 Volumes Handbook of Logic in Computer Science with Dov Gabbay and T. S. E. Maibaum. 1992. Volume 1: Background: Mathematical Structures. 1992. Volume 2: Background: Computational Structures. 1995. Volume 3: Semantic Structures. 1995. Volume 4: Semantic Modelling. 2001. Volume 5: Logic and Algebraic Methods. Volume 6 Logical methods in computer science. Samson Abramsky published over two hundred publications and his h-index was 49 as of January 2015. 1986. Strictness analysis for higher-order functions.. Science of Computer Programming. 1990. The Lazy Lambda Calculus. Research Topics in Functional Programming. 1993. Computational Interpretations of Linear logic. In Theoretical Computer Science 111 1994. Domain Theory.. in Handbook of Logic in Computer Science 3.
1996. Interaction categories and the foundations of typed concurrent programming.. NATO ASI SERIES F COMPUTER AND SYSTEMS SCIENCES 152 1997. Specifying interaction categories.. Category Theory and Computer Science 2002. Geometry of interaction and linear combinatory algebras.. Mathematical Structures in Computer Science 12 2003. Sequentiality vs. concurrency in games and logic. Mathematical Structures in Computer Science 13 Some of the recent works of Samson Abramsky include: 2013. Robust Constraint Satisfaction and Local Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics.. IJCAI 2013 2012. Logical Bell Inequalities.. In Physical Review A. Vol. 85. No. ARTN 062114 2010. Introduction to categories and categorical logic.. In New Structures for Physics. Springer. Abramsky is a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a Member of Academia Europaea, he is a member of the Editorial Boards of the North Holland Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, of the Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science.
He was General Chair of LiCS 2000–2003, is a member of the LiCS Organizing Committee. He was elected Fellow of ACM For contributions to domains in logical form, game semantics, categorical quantum mechanics, contextual semantics, he was awarded the BCS Lovelace Medal in 2013 He was awarded an EPSRC Senior Research Fellowship in 2007 His paper "Domain theory in Logical Form" won the LiCS Test-of-Time award for 1987. The award was presented at LiCS 2007, he was awarded an EPSRC Senior Research Fellowship on Foundational Structures and Methods for Quantum Informatics in 2007. Fellow of the Royal Society Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Abramsky's nomination for the Royal Society reads
Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate and communicate digital information. A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the practice of designing software systems, its fields can be divided into practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory is abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming itself involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful and accessible; the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity before the development of sophisticated computing equipment. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner, he may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry when he released his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine, he started developing this machine in 1834, "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer".
"A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" making it infinitely programmable. In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, considered to be the first computer program. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, making all kinds of punched card equipment and was in the calculator business to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit; when the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.
As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City; the renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world; the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s; the world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962.
Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights. Although many believed it was impossible that computers themselves could be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it became accepted among the greater academic population, it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM 704 and the IBM 709 computers, which were used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, you would have to start the whole process over again". During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was much in its developmental stages, such issues were commonplace. Time has seen significant improvements in the effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base.
Computers were quite costly, some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is