Viceroyalty of Peru
The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries; the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal; the creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Río de la Plata reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish Empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century; these movements led to the formation of the modern-day countries of Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Argentina and Venezuela in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.
After the Spanish conquest of Peru, the first Audiencia was constituted by Lope García de Castro, a Spanish colonial administrator who served as a member of the Council of the Indies and of the Audiencias of Panama and Lima. From September 2, 1564, to November 26, 1569, he was interim viceroy of Peru. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, which shortly afterward would be called the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1544, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V named Blasco Núñez Vela Peru's first viceroy, but the viceroyalty was not organized until the arrival of Viceroy Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, who made an extensive tour of inspection of the colony. Francisco de Toledo, "one of the great administrators of human times", established the Inquisition in the viceroyalty and promulgated laws that applied to Indians and Spanish alike, breaking the power of the encomenderos and reducing the old system of mita, he improved the defensibility of the viceroyalty with fortifications, la Armada del Mar del Sur against pirates.
He ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru, promoted economic development from the commercial monopoly and mineral extraction from silver mines in Potosí. The Amazon Basin and some large adjoining regions had been considered Spanish territory since the Treaty of Tordesillas and explorations such as that by Francisco de Orellana, but Portugal fell under Spanish control between 1580 and 1640. During this time, Portuguese territories in Brazil were controlled by the Spanish crown, which did object to the spread of Portuguese settlement into parts of the Amazon Basin that the treaty had awarded to Spain. Still, Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón sent out a third expedition to explore the Amazon River, under Cristóbal de Acuña; some Pacific islands and archipelagoes were visited by Spanish ships in the sixteenth century, but they made no effort to trade with or colonize them. These included New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas Islands by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira.
The first Jesuit reduction to Christianize the indigenous population was founded in 1609, but some areas occupied by Brazilians as bandeirantes extended their activities through much of the basin and adjoining Mato Grosso in the 17th and 18th centuries. These groups had the advantage of remote geography and river access from the mouth of the Amazon, in Portuguese territory. Meanwhile, the Spanish were barred by their laws from enslaving indigenous people, leaving them without a commercial interest deep in the interior of the basin. A famous attack upon a Spanish mission in 1628 resulted in the enslavement of 60,000 indigenous people. In fact, as time passed, they were used as a self-funding occupation force by the Portuguese authorities in what was a low-level war of territorial conquest. In 1617, viceroy Francisco de Borja y Aragón divided the government of Río de la Plata in two, Buenos Aires and Paraguay, both dependencies of the Viceroyalty of Peru, he established the Tribunal del Consulado, a court and administrative body for commercial affairs in the viceroyalty.
Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar, reformed the fiscal system and stopped the interfamily rivalry, bloodying the domain. Other viceroys, such as Fernando Torres, Fernández de Cabrera, Fernández Córdoba expanded the colonial navy and fortified the ports to resist pirate attacks, such as those led by the Englishman Thomas Cavendish. Fernández de Cabrera suppressed an insurrection of the Mapuche Indians. Viceroys had to protect the Pacific coast from English and Dutch pirates, they expanded the naval forces, fortified the ports of Valdivia, Valparaíso, Arica and Callao and constructed city walls in Lima and Trujillo. The famous English privateer Henry Morgan took Chagres and captured and sacked the city of Panama in the early part of 1670. Peruvian forces repelled the attacks by Edward David, Charles Wager and Thomas Colb; the Peace of Utrecht allowed the British to send ships and merchandise to the fair at Portobello. In this period, revolts were common. Around 1656, Pedro Bohórquez crowned himself Inca of the Calchaquí Indians, inciting the indigenous population to
The Otuzco Province is one of twelve provinces of the La Libertad Region in Peru. The capital of this province is the city of Otuzco; the province is divided into ten districts, which are: Otuzco Agallpampa Charat Huaranchal La Cuesta Mache Paranday Salpo Sinsicap Usquil
Chepén is a city of La Libertad Region and capital of the Chepén Province, in Peru. The city is a rice production center with the valleys of Chepén and Jequetepeque, has an active trading with neighboring Guadalupe and San Pedro de Lloc and other towns, it has factories in industrial dyes and primary production. Eduardo Gonzalez Viaña, writer. Ercila Rabínes de Terrones, founder of Ercila Rabínes de Terrones 180 school. Chérrepe, is a beach of Chepén, La Libertad, Perú. La Libertad Region
Department of Lambayeque
Lambayeque is a region in northwestern Peru known for its rich Moche and Chimú historical past. The region's name originates from the ancient pre-Inca civilization of the Lambayeque; the name Lambayeque is a Spanish derivation of the god Yampellec, said to have been worshipped by the first Lambayeque king, Naymlap. The Spanish gave the name to the early people; the territory of the Lambayeque Region is made up of wide plains irrigated by rivers from the Andes. The fertile river valleys produce half of the sugar cane crop of Peru. In addition and the Piura Region provide most of the rice crops consumed in Peru. Increased agricultural harvest is expected with completion of the Olmos Transandino Project; the water supply project will transfer up to 2 billion m3 annually of water from the Huancabamba River in the Cajamarca Region east of Lambayeque. In the smaller scale farming of earlier centuries, the Olmos Carob Tree Forest supported goat herds that fed on carobs; the fine goatskins were tanned to create the fine, leather known as "cordoban" or "cordovan", from the Spanish town of Córdoba, where the process was developed.
Goat fat was used to make soap. There are two small islands off the Pacific coast of the Lambayeque Region: Lobos de Afuera, Lobos de Tierra; the region is bordered by the Piura Region on the north, the Cajamarca Region on the southeast, the La Libertad Region on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west. The region is divided into 3 provinces, which are composed of 38 districts; the provinces, with their capitals in parentheses, are: Chiclayo Ferreñafe Lambayeque Legend tells that in ancient times, a great float of balsa rafts arrived at the beaches of the existing San José cove. Formed by a brilliant cortege of nine foreign warriors, this float was led by a man of great talent and courage, named Naymlap, the mythical founder of the first northwest civilization. Among the descendants of Naylmlap were the Moche and the Chimú, the latter builders of a great civilization forged in Lambayeque before being conquered by the Inca Empire; the Chimú grew to acquire a notable state parallel to the Inca.
The Chimú moved their capital to the northern area. They were great farmers, textile experts and, wonderful goldsmiths, with extraordinary works in gold; the Inca conquest of what today is Lambayeque, lasted four decades. Pachacuti, Tupac Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Cápac, ruled during the process. In the 16th century, the Spaniard leader Francisco Pizarro took his conquistadors across the region on the way to Cajamarca to conclude the defeat of the Inca empire, he was amazed by the gold exposed in utensils. During Colonial times, a rivalry started between the people of the towns of Lambayeque and Santiago de Miraflores de Saña; the reason of the conflict was the opulence in which the latter lived provoking the greed of pirates. A flood in 1720, destroyed Saña and marked the end of a flourishing city; the people of Lambayeque followed Juan Manuel Iturregui as their leader in the struggles for emancipation and independence from Spain. He helped get arms for the cause. Pómac Forest Historical Sanctuary Tucume Pyramids The most famous composer from Lambayeque was Luis Abelardo Nuñez, born in Ferreñafe on 22 November 1926.
His songs are among the most popular ones in Peruvian music. These included the following: "Marinera norteña", Los Troveros Criollos Waltz: "Porqué no volverás?" Waltz: "Embrujo" Sugar Production in Peru Rice Production in Peru Olmos Project Information Chiclayo map Museo Sipan
Department of Amazonas, Peru
Amazonas is a region of northern Peru bordered by Ecuador on the north and west, Cajamarca Region on the west, La Libertad Region on the south, Loreto Region and San Martín Region on the east. Its capital is the city of Chachapoyas. With a landscape of steep river gorges and mountains, Amazonas is the location of Kuelap, a huge stone fortress enclosing more than 400 stone structures, it is one of Peru's major archeological sites. The Amazonas Region consists of regions covered by rainforests and mountain ranges; the rainforest zone predominates and it extends to the north over its oriental slope, up to the border with Ecuador in the summits of the Cordillera del Cóndor. The mountain range zone is located in the southern provinces of the Amazonas Region and it only includes 27.07% of its whole territorial surface. One of the factors that help to give big importance to its geography is not only that the big valleys and plains of its rainforest zone are the closest to the Pacific Ocean, but its connections with the routes of the coast are the lowest.
This is because they use the Paso de Porculla, located at 2,144 m. This is the lowest pass of the whole Peruvian Andes to arrive to the Pan-American road system; the vast and deep Marañón valley which constitutes one of the most important morphologic features of the region. The Marañón valley expands itself from south to north, it reaches its greatest width in the province of Bagua. It narrows when it crosses the Cordillera Oriental in its most violent route towards the east, towards the lowest part of the Amazon, it crosses those wonderful canyons and natural porches called punkus, a Quechua word that means doors. The Utkupampa valley, the real axis of the Amazonas Region is located between 5° and 6° of south latitude and 78° and 79° of west longitude, it is longitudinally developed up to the Marañón River. This zone is the principal center of production and human groups location, it is developed in four pronounced sectors: Vertiente del Marañon, that has important quebradas. Valle Medio that has eleven quebradas in its both borders.
Valle Alto that has seven quebradas. The most important one is Magunchal. Planicie de Bagua and picturesque, located at 550 m. In some places, it mounts up to 900 m. for example in the inhabited point called La Peca. The principal tributaries of the Utkupampa are the Chiriaco, the Nieva, the Santiago and the Cenepa, born in the north zone of the Cordillera del Cóndor; the Cenepa River receives in its trip numerous tributaries like the Comaina. It flowed in the Marañon river, located near Orellana; the Utkupampa valley, born in the high jalcas of the Chachapoyas Province and which runs from southeast to northwest to mix with the waters of the Marañón River, forms the immense plain of Bagua. This plain has a warm climate, which temperature can reach a maximum of 40 °C, being the minimum one 21 °C. Like in the whole high jungle region of Peru –head of mountain-, its water regimen is irregular and sometimes without rains; some of the important places inside this route are the touristic corridor of the Utkupampa and the lake Pumaqucha.
Some excavation of archaeological sites covered over by the rain forest have attested to the presence of humans in the area since ancient times. Most of the Pre-Hispanic cultures that became prosperous in the area are still a mystery due to the lack of research. Deep in the interior, Kuélap's Fortress is an ancient walled city and archeological site in the mountains; the largest stone complex in South America, it is located 3,000 meters above sea level, higher than the site of Machu Picchu. It is located above the Amazon River. A huge construction of military architecture, Kuélap's Fortress includes the ruins of some 450 houses; the Chachapoyas culture developed during the Inca age. The Spanish colonial region's capital, was founded in 1538 by Alonso de Alvarado. During the same year, its first church was built; the Santa Ana, San Lázaro and Señor de Burgos churches were built. In April 1821, the city's inhabitants expelled the Spaniards and ignored their rule, following the steps taken by the San Martín liberating army as Peru gained independence from Spain.
The area of the Amazonas Region was linked to the movement for independence. The cleric Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza was its most outstanding representative, encouraging the patriots of this era and signing the National Act of Independence; the Cordillera del Condor, located in this region, was the scene of the border war between Peru and Ecuador in 1981. The natives of the region received in a jubilant and cordial way the first Spanish who came into Amazonas, they knew about their arrival in Peru by the news. Those people had told Francisco Pizarro that Chachapoyas was an excellent agricultural region where the people possessed a lot of gold and silver; the conquistador did not lose time and formed an expedition of 20 men, putting captain Alonso de Alvarado in charge of it, with the express order to found a Christian city at Chachapoyas. The chroniclers say that, when the Spanish arrived to the region, the Chachapoyas people gave big parties i
Pacasmayo is a city in Northern Peru, in the Pacasmayo province, La Libertad Region. It is located 108 km north of Trujillo city. Panamerican Highway, connects with south the country. Pacasmayo Port, connects to the world by the sea. Pacasmayo beach visited by surfers commonly. Pacasmayo has been inhabited for over 10,000 years by groups of people collecting their food from the sea. Since before anyone can remember, the beaches of "El Lorito", "El Techito" and "La Peña Larga" have provided food sources to populate Pacasmayo. With the available food from the sea and the forests in the arid mountains which provides carob trees and diverse species of animals. By order of Virrey Teodoro de Croix in the year 1775, the Spanish conquistadors founded Pacasmayo. Since that time it became an important landing for the Spanish crown; the year of 1871 began the construction of the Pacasmayo dock or "muelle de Pacasmayo" and the train Pacasmayo-Chilete, which turned into an important Peruvian coastal port. This work of engineering began the golden age of Pacasmayo which lasted until 1967, the year when the railway stopped running.
Since that time, the commercial activity has decreased to the point where now the dock, just as the railway station, are historic monuments. They are evidence of a glorious past; the company “Cementos Pacasmayo SA”, which began in 1959 became the new axis upon which the economy of the city developed. Its presence promoted the development of many economic services such as businesses that transport heavy loads and commercial stores. All depended on this central industry. Since the end of the 20th century, the breakwater area, El Faro, dominated as the “largest, most navigable wave in the world” and has gained popularity among water-sport fans. At that beach, one can practice surfing, windsurfing and paddle-boarding which promotes the growth of foreign visitors who arrive from diverse parts of the world to enjoy these waves. "Posibilidades de aprovechamiento de aguas subterráneas para las tierras de Santa María." Ministerio de Fomento y Obras Públicas. Dirección de Irrigación. Autoridad Nacional del Agua, 01 Apr.
1969. Web. 21 Feb. 2017. Pacasmayo Province La Libertad Region Colegio Italiano Antonio Raimondi Óscar Felipe Ventura
Guayaquil Santiago de Guayaquil is the second largest city in Ecuador, with 2,578,201 people in its metropolitan area. It is the nation's main port; the city is the seat of Guayaquil canton. Guayaquil is located on the west bank of the Guayas River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Guayaquil. Guayaquil was founded on July 25, 1538 with the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil by Spanish conqueror Francisco de Orellana. Before it was founded by the Spaniards, it existed as a native village. In 1687, Guayaquil was attacked and looted by English and French pirates under the command of George d'Hout and Picard and Groniet. Of more than 260 pirates, 35 died and 46 were wounded. In 1709, the English captains Woodes Rogers, Etienne Courtney, William Dampier, along with a crew of 110, looted Guayaquil and demanded ransom. On October 9, 1820 without bloodshed, a group of civilians, supported by soldiers from the "Granaderos de Reserva", a battalion quartered in Guayaquil, overwhelmed the resistance of the Royalist guards and arrested the Spanish authorities.
Guayaquil declared independence from Spain, becoming Provincia Libre de Guayaquil, José Joaquín de Olmedo was named Jefe Civil of Guayaquil. On July 26, 1822, José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar held a meeting in Guayaquil to plan the future of the independent South America. In 1829, the city was invaded by the Peruvian Army. In 1860, the city was the site of the Battle of Guayaquil, the last of a series of military conflicts between the forces of the Provisional Government, led by Gabriel García Moreno and General Juan José Flores, the forces of the Supreme Chief of Guayas, General Guillermo Franco, whose government was recognized as possessing sovereignty over the Ecuadorian territory by Peruvian president Ramón Castilla. In 1896, large portions of the city were destroyed by a major fire. On July 8, 1898, the Guayaquil City Hall "Muy Ilustre Municipalidad de Guayaquil" recognized the anthem written by José Joaquín de Olmedo in 1821, with the music composed by Ana Villamil Ycaza in 1895, as the "Himno al 9 de Octubre" Canción al Nueve de Octubre, most known now as the "Himno a Guayaquil".
Guayaquileños' main sources of income are: formal and informal trade, business and aquaculture. Most commerce consists of small and medium businesses, adding an important informal economy occupation that gives thousands of guayaquileños employment; the Port of Guayaquil is Ecuador's most important commercial port. As the largest city in the country, most industries are located either in the city or its peripheral areas. Ongoing projects seek urban regeneration as a principal objective of the growth of the city's commercial districts, as the increase of capital produces income; these projects in the city driven by the recent mayors have achieved this goal after investing large sums of money. The current municipal administration aims to convert Guayaquil into a place for first-class international tourism and multinational businesses. Guayaquil's current mayor is Jaime Nebot, he began a campaign of construction projects for the city in the early 2000s to attract tourism, that included the "urban regeneration" plan which reconstructed the city's main tourist streets' sidewalks and upgraded the city's chaotic transit system with multiple infrastructure projects.
In August 2006, the city's first rapid transit bus system, opened to provide a quicker, high-capacity service. One of the main projects was called Malecón 2000, the renovation of the waterfront promenade along the Guayas River. Another project was the creation of the Nuevo Parque Histórico, a park in a housing development area, called Entre Ríos because it lies between the Daule and Babahoyo Rivers, in a mangrove wetland area; the park cost the city about 7 million dollars. In 2013, the national government led by Rafael Correa built two pedestrian bridges connecting downtown Guayaquil, Santay Island, the town of Durán, to allow people to make ecotourism trips on a same-day return basis; the two bridges were a big addition to the Guayas River scenery. Guayaquil is the capital of Guayas Province, it is on the Guayas River about 60 kilometres north near the Equator. Guayaquil is facing tsunami and major earthquake threats due to its soil stratigraphy and location near the Gulf of Guayaquil and the south of North-Andean subduction zone.
The city can be damaged by earthquake as its weak and compressible soil stratigraphy is composed of deep soft sediments over hard rocks and deposits in a brackish environment. The city itself is affected by the subduction of the active Ecuadorian margin, an intraplate region where active faults locate; the tsunami threat is caused by the nearby Gulf of Guayaquil, one of the major locations on the Earth where earthquakes tend to happen all the time. It has complex tectonic features such as the Posorja and the Jambeli –two major east-west trending detachment systems.