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Department of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom)

The Department of Trade and Industry was a United Kingdom government department formed on 19 October 1970. It was replaced with the creation of the Department for Business and Regulatory Reform and the Department for Innovation and Skills on 28 June 2007; the department was first formed on 19 October 1970 with the merger of the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Technology, creating a new cabinet post of Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. The new department took over the Department of Employment's former responsibilities for monopolies and mergers. In January 1974, the department's responsibilities for energy production were transferred to a newly created Department of Energy. On 5 March that year, following a Labour Party victory in the February 1974 general election, the department was split into the Department of Trade, the Department of Industry and the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection. In 1983 the departments of Trade and Industry were reunited; the Department of Energy was re-merged back into the DTI in 1992, but various media-related functions transferred to the Department for National Heritage.

Until it was succeeded in June 2007 the DTI continued to set the energy policy of the United Kingdom. After the 2005 general election the DTI was renamed to the Department for Productivity and Industry, but the name reverted to Department of Trade and Industry less than a week after widespread derision, including some from the Confederation of British Industry; the DTI had a wide range of responsibilities. There were nine main areas covered by the DTI: Company Law Trade Business Growth Innovation Employment Law Regional Economic Development Energy Science Consumer Law. From 1999 to 2005 it led the national E-Commerce Awards with InterForum, a not for profit membership organisation that helped British businesses to trade electronically; this aimed to encourage Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to develop their business through the use of E-Commerce technologies. It had responsibility for investigating misconduct by company directors, in which role Private Eye lampooned it as "the Department of Timidity and Inaction".

Avanti Energy in the United Kingdom Restricted Enforcement Unit United Kingdom budget Business Link – set up by the DTI in 1993 UK Trade & Investment – set up in 1999 Special Representative for International Trade and Investment Department of Trade and Industry DTI Website Archived on 6 June 2007 Friends of the Action Group DTI e-commerce awards Enterprise Initiative

Claude Carter

Claude Pagdett Carter, sometimes known as Claude Paget Carter was a South African cricketer who played in 10 Tests from 1912 to 1924. Shortly after leaving the Durban Boys' Model School at the age of 16, Carter began playing first-class cricket for Natal, played for them from 1898 to 1923, except for a season with Transvaal in 1910-11, he toured England with the South African teams of 1912 and 1924. He was South Africa's leading bowler in the series against Australia in South Africa in 1921-22, when he took 15 wickets at an average of 21.93. He played Lancashire League cricket for Lowerhouse in 1925 and 1926, represented Cornwall in the Minor Counties Championship in 1930 and 1935. Claude Carter at CricketArchive Claude Carter at ESPNcricinfo Obituary in Wisden

Dennis Eckersley

Dennis Lee Eckersley, nicknamed "Eck", is an American former professional baseball pitcher. Between 1975 and 1998, he pitched in Major League Baseball for the Cleveland Indians, Boston Red Sox, Chicago Cubs, Oakland Athletics, St. Louis Cardinals. Eckersley had success as a starter, but gained his greatest fame as a closer, becoming the first of two pitchers in MLB history to have both a 20-win season and a 50-save season in a career, he is the pitcher who gave up a dramatic walk-off home run to the injured Kirk Gibson in Game 1 of the 1988 World Series. Eckersley was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, he works with New England Sports Network as a part-time color commentator for Red Sox broadcasts, is a game analyst for Turner Sports for their Sunday MLB Games and MLB Post Season coverage on TBS. Eckersley grew up in Fremont, rooting for both the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics. Two of his boyhood heroes were the Giants' Willie Mays and Juan Marichal, he adopted Marichal's high leg kick pitching delivery.

He was a quarterback at Washington High School in Fremont, California until his senior year, when he gave up football to protect his throwing arm from injury. He won 29 games as a pitcher at Washington, throwing a 90 miles per a screwball; the Cleveland Indians selected Eckersley in the third round of the 1972 MLB draft. He made his MLB debut on April 12, 1975, he was the American League Rookie Pitcher of the Year in 1975, compiling a 13–7 win-loss record and 2.60 Earned run average. His unstyled, long hair and live fastball made him an instant and identifiable fan favorite. Eckersley pitched reliably over three seasons with the Indians. On May 30, 1977, Eckersley no-hit the California Angels 1-0 at Cleveland Stadium, he struck out 12 batters and only allowed two to reach base, Tony Solaita on a walk in the first inning and Bobby Bonds on a third strike, a wild pitch. He earned his first All-Star Game selection that year and finished the season with a 14-13 win-loss record; the Indians traded Eckersley and Fred Kendall to the Boston Red Sox for Rick Wise, Mike Paxton, Bo Díaz, Ted Cox on March 30, 1978.

Over the next two seasons, Eckersley won a career-high 20 games in 1978 and 17 games in 1979, with a 2.99 ERA in each year. However, during the remainder of his tenure with Boston, from 1980 to 1984, Eckersley pitched poorly, his fastball had lost some steam. He developed a great slider. On May 25, 1984, the Red Sox traded Eckersley with Mike Brumley to the Chicago Cubs for Bill Buckner, one of several mid-season deals that helped the Cubs to their first postseason appearance since 1945. Eckersley gave up 5 runs in 5.1 innings, taking the loss, in his sole start for the Cubs in their NL Championship Series with the San Diego Padres. Eckersley remained with the Cubs in 1985. Eckersley's performance deteriorated in 1986, when he posted a 6–11 record with a 4.57 ERA. After the season, he checked himself into a rehabilitation clinic to treat alcoholism. Eckersley noted in Pluto's book that he realized the problem he had after family members videotaped him while drunk and played the tape back for him the next day.

During his Hall of Fame speech he recalled that time in his life, saying "I was spiraling out of control personally. I knew. With the grace of God, I got sober and I saved my life." Eckersley was traded again on April 3, 1987 to the Oakland Athletics, where manager Tony La Russa intended to use him as a set-up pitcher or long reliever. Indeed, Eckersley started two games with the A's before an injury to then-closer Jay Howell opened the door for Eckersley to move into the closer's role, he saved 16 games in 1987 and established himself as a dominant closer in 1988 by recording a league-leading 45 saves. Eckersley recorded 4 saves against the Red Sox in the regular season, he dominated once more by recording saves in all four games as the A's swept the Red Sox in the 1988 ALCS. but he found himself on the wrong end of Kirk Gibson's 1988 World Series home run as the A's lost to the Dodgers in 5 games. In the 1989 World Series he secured the victory in Game Two, earned the save in the final game of the Series, as the A's swept the San Francisco Giants in four games.

Eckersley was the most dominant closer in the game from 1988 to 1992, finishing first in the A. L. in saves twice, second two other times, third once. He saved 220 games during the five years and never posted an ERA higher than 2.96. He gave up five earned runs in the entire 1990 season, resulting in a microscopic 0.61 ERA. Eckersley's control, which had always been above average when he was not otherwise pitching well, became his trademark. In his 1990 season, Eckersley became the first relief pitcher in baseball history to have more saves than baserunners allowed. In a statistical anomaly, he had the same WHIP and ERA: both were 0.614. He was the American League's Most Valuable Player and Cy Young Award winner in 1992, a season in which he posted 51 saves. Only two relievers had accomplished the double feat: Rollie Fingers in 1981 and Willie Hernández in 1984. Since Eckersley, one other reliever, Éric Gagné, has won Cy Young honors (Gagné won the N


In subcultural and fictional uses, a mundane is a person who does not belong to a particular group, according to the members of that group. The term first came into use in science fiction fandom to refer, sometimes deprecatingly, to non-fans. Mundane came from the Latin mundus, meaning ordinary and worldly as opposed to spiritual, has been in use in English since the 15th century; some western cultural examples: In science fiction fandom, some fans classify all non-fans as "mundanes." In historical reenactment groups such as the Society for Creative Anachronism: some participants classify all non-participants as "mundanes". One's "mundane" name is the legal name one goes by in the outside world. Further, "Mundanes," sometimes shortened to just "'danes", is a term for normal everyday clothes, as opposed to those dressed in historical garb. In the science fiction television series Babylon 5, telepathic humans classify all non-telepathic humans as "mundanes"; the classification is employed but not by telepathic characters who have telepath-supremacist ideologies, was deliberately chosen to mirror the classification in science fiction fandom.

In fantasy literature the term is sometimes used to apply to non-magical people or the non-magical society. It is used in Bill Willingham's comic book series Fables. In Cassandra Clare's book series The Mortal Instruments and The Infernal Devices, humans who were not Shadowhunters nor Downworlders were referred to as "mundanes". In furry fandom, it is used to describe non-furries, or "humans". In Vampire lifestyle circles the word "mundane" means "non sanguinarian", although some consider it derogatory. In text-based online role-playing games, the term is used to refer to the player as opposed to their character shortened to "mun". Mundane science fiction is science fiction that does not make use of interstellar travel or other common tropes of the genre. Within the scope of the software communities of free and open-source software some proponents of the respective movements classify those that do not know enough about their views as "mundanes", signifying their normalcy, their lack of being beyond the regular users of computers.

Muggle Populism Reactionary Reform movement Revival movement Underground culture

List of ring galaxies

This is a list of ring galaxies. A ring galaxy, as the name suggests, is a disc or spiral galaxy with its galactic disc structured or distorted into a ring or torus-like appearance. Hoag's Object, discovered by Art Hoag in 1950, is the prototypical example of a ring galaxy. Ring galaxies are theorized to be formed through multiple possible situations- 1. Bar instability – a phenomenon where the rotational velocity of the bar in a barred spiral galaxy increases to the point of spiral spin-out. Under typical conditions, gravitational density waves would favor the creation of spiral arms; when bar instability occurs, these density waves are instead migrated out into a ring-structure by the pressure and gravitational influence of the byronic and dark matter furiously orbiting about the bar. This migration forces the stars and dust found within the former arms into a torus-like region, forming a ring, igniting star formation. 2. Galactic collisions- another observed way that ring galaxies can form is through the process of two or more galaxies colliding.

The cartwheel galaxy, galaxy pair AM 2026-424, Arp 147 are all examples of ring galaxies believed to be formed from this process. In pass-through galactic collisions, an smaller galaxy will pass through the disc of an larger spiral, causing an outward push of the arms, as if dropping a rock into a pond of still water. In side-swipe and head-on collisions, the appearance of a perfect ring are less with chaotic and warped appearances dominating. 3. Intergalactic medium accretion- this method has been inferred through the existence of Hoags object, along with UV observations of several other large and ultra-large super spiral galaxies and current formation theories of spiral galaxies. UV-light observations show several cases of faint, ring-like and spiral structures of hot young stars that have formed along the network of cooled inflowing gas, extending far from the visible luminous galactic disc. If conditions are favorable, a ring can form in the place of a spiral structure. Since some spiral galaxies are theorized to have formed from massive clouds of intergalactic gas collapsing and rotationally forming into a disc structure, one could assume that a ring disc could form in place of a spiral disc if, as mentioned before, conditions are favorable.

This holds true for protogalaxies, or galaxies just throughout to be forming, old galaxies that has migrated into a section of space with a higher gas content than its previous locations. List of galaxies Polar-ring galaxy

Leadiant Biosciences

Leadiant Biosciences known as Sigma-Tau Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite, was founded in 1957 by research chemist Claudio Cavazza. In 2018 Leadiant Biosciences has come under fire for creating a monopoly for CDCA and unnecessarily increasing the price by a factor of 335. Construction began in 1964 of an industrial facility in Pomezia equipped with state-of-the-art automatic production machinery to provide steady employment for 64 people; the choice of Pomezia for its headquarters created one of the first industrialization and urban development initiatives in an area of Central-southern Italy, devoted to agriculture. With the creation and launch of the Rekord B12 vitamin complex in September 1966 – an antiasthenic medicine that soon spread within the field of restorative infantile therapies – Sigma-Tau definitively asserted itself as a pharmaceutical manufacturer in Italy and abroad. From the 1970s onwards, Sigma-Tau focused on experimenting with new medicines for rare diseases – a commitment that in 1984 would cause it to become the fourth largest pharmaceutical company in the world and assignee in the United States of an Orphan Drug Designation, subsequently receiving another seven.

With the discovery in the 1970s of Carnitine deficiency syndromes. An illness with a fatal outcome, Sigma-Tau focused the investigative efforts of its laboratories on research into a molecule capable of opposing the disease; this was to bring about the creation of L-carnitine, one of the few Italian pharmaceutical products received outside Italy, and, recognized by the United States in 1984 for its value as a life saving medicine. The chemical and biologic pharmacology study of carnitine, a substance of natural origin, enabled greater understanding of its efficacy in correcting the biochemical and metabolic defects at the base of numerous other pathologies. Fondazione Sigma-Tau was created in 1986 as a charitable organization with the aim of developing research, promoting scientific and cultural progress and the safeguarding of the results of scientific investigation; the Sigma-Tau Group achieved a corporate turnover of 697 million euro in 2013, employs a workforce of 1,919 and possesses a portfolio of more than 100 products marketed in Italy and abroad, with regards to the following therapeutic areas: Cardiometabolic disorders and Rheumatologic diseases, Broncho-Pneumology, Oncology, Gastroenterology, Dermatology and Gynecology, Malaria and Rare Diseases.

The Group is a leader in the nutraceutics industry and produces supplements of high scientific interest. Its product range includes high-end dermocosmetics lines, as well as oral and personal care products. Since 1998 it has filed 297 patents confirming itself, among the national Italian owned, as a major player in the registration of new molecules or important technological innovations; the Sigma-Tau Group has headquarters in Pomezia, subsidiaries in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, UK, with production plant in Italy as well as in Spain and US. The ability to expand its presence on the international stage through the activation of collaborative research with numerous scientific institutions in America and Asia, is the key to Sigma-Tau’s future. Since the pioneering studies conducted by its founder Claudio Cavazza, Sigma-Tau has always proved to be a groundbreaker in the discovery of drugs for rare and orphan diseases: for instance, Carnitine for the treatment of primary or secondary “specific deficiencies” was the second product to obtain the designation as “orphan drug” by the US FDA.

Leveraging this background, the company has confirmed its commitment to developing drugs with orphan indications over the years and has acquired Enzon’s “speciality pharma” portfolio. With eight products for the treatment of rare and neglected diseases, today Sigma-Tau is a pharmaceutic player acting in the forefront in the treatment of Rare Diseases; the goal of its created Global Rare Disease Business Unit is to contribute to the progresses in the knowledge and treatment of Rare Diseases. Sigma-Tau in collaboration with the non-profit organization Medicines for Malaria Venture has developed a new medicine for the treatment of malaria a fixed combination consisting of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine, judged to be one of the most effective antimalaria medicines available and the best combination containing artemisinin; the registration dossier was presented on July 3, 2009 in Europe and approved in 2011. The new drug has obtained the registration in Cambodia and Tanzania and is started in Burkina Faso and other key African endemic countries.

Sigma-Tau is the main element of a group in which other companies operate, in accordance with the prospects of the corporate development plan. Avantgarde - PomeziaFounded in 1982 and active both in the pharmaceutical market and that of consumer products sold in pharmacies. Avantgarde has developed its business within the dermatological and paediatric sectors. Biosint - SermonetaIncorporated in 1979 as part of the Sigma-Tau Group, Biosint is a world-leading producer of L-Carnitine derived by chemical synthesis; the company manufactures and distributes active pharmaceutical ingredients, lactic ferments and nutraceutical products obtained by chemical synthesis and fermentation. Its operations are carried out in full compliance with current good manufacturing practices, at establishments approved by FDA and main domestic and international Regulatory Authorities. Biofutura - MilanBiofutura was founded in 2001 with the objective of developing pharmace