Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of medium to large trees deciduous, though a few subtropical species are evergreen; the genus is widespread across much of Europe and North America. The tree's common English name, "ash", traces back to the Old English æsc which relates to the Proto-Indo-European for the tree, while the generic name originated in Latin from a Proto-Indo-European word for birch. Both words are used to mean "spear" in their respective languages as the wood is good for shafts; the leaves are opposite, pinnately compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara. Most Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants but gender in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees. With age, ash may change their sexual function from predominantly male and hermaphrodite towards femaleness.
Rowans or mountain ashes have leaves and buds superficially similar to those of true ashes, but belong to the unrelated genus Sorbus in the rose family. Species arranged into sections supported by phylogenetic analysis. Section DipetalaeFraxinus anomala Torr. Ex S. Watson – singleleaf ash Fraxinus dipetala Hook. & Arn. – California ash or two-petal ash Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. – blue ash Fraxinus trifoliataSection FraxinusFraxinus angustifolia Vahl – narrow-leafed ash Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. Oxycarpa – Caucasian ash Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. Syriaca Fraxinus excelsior L. – European ash Fraxinus holotricha Koehne Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr. – Manchurian ash Fraxinus nigra Marshall – black ash Fraxinus pallisiae Wilmott – Pallis' ash Fraxinus sogdiana BgeSection Melioides sensu latoFraxinus chiisanensis Fraxinus cuspidata Torr. – fragrant ash Fraxinus platypoda Fraxinus spaethiana Lingelsh. – Späth's ashSection Melioides sensu strictoFraxinus albicans Buckley – Texas ash Fraxinus americana L. – white ash or American ash Fraxinus berlandieriana DC.
– Mexican ash Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. – Carolina ash Fraxinus latifolia Benth. – Oregon ash Fraxinus papillosa Lingelsh. – Chihuahua ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall – green ash Fraxinus profunda Bush – pumpkin ash Fraxinus uhdei Lingelsh. – Shamel ash or tropical ash Fraxinus velutina Torr. – velvet ash or Arizona ashSection OrnusFraxinus apertisquamifera Fraxinus baroniana Fraxinus bungeana DC. – Bunge's ash Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. – Chinese ash or Korean ash Fraxinus floribunda Wall. – Himalayan manna ash Fraxinus griffithii C. B. Clarke – Griffith's ash Fraxinus japonica – Japanese ash Fraxinus lanuginosa – Japanese ash Fraxinus longicuspis Fraxinus malacophylla Fraxinus micrantha Lingelsh. Fraxinus ornus L. – manna ash or flowering ash Fraxinus paxiana Lingelsh. Fraxinus sieboldiana Blume – Japanese flowering ashSection PaucifloraeFraxinus dubia Fraxinus gooddingii – Goodding's ash Fraxinus greggii A. Gray – Gregg's ash Fraxinus purpusii Fraxinus rufescensSection SciadanthusFraxinus dimorpha Fraxinus hubeiensis Ch'u & Shang & Su – 湖北梣 hu bei qin Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Wall.
Ex DC. – Afghan ash North American native ash tree species are a critical food source for North American frogs, as their fallen leaves are suitable for tadpoles to feed upon in ponds, large puddles, other water bodies. Lack of tannins in the American ash makes their leaves a good food source for the frogs, but reduces its resistance to the ash borer. Species with higher leaf tannin levels are taking the place of native ash, thanks to their greater resistance to the ash borer, they produce much less suitable food for the tadpoles, resulting in poor survival rates and small frog sizes. Ash species native to North America provide important habit and food for various other creatures native to North America, such as a long-horn beetle, avian species, mammalian species. Ash is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; the emerald ash borer is a wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from eastern Asia via solid wood packing material in the late 1980s to early 1990s.
It has killed tens of millions of trees in 22 states in the United States and adjacent Ontario and Quebec in Canada. It threatens some seven billion ash trees in North America. Research is being conducted to determine if three native Asian wasps that are natural predators of EAB could be used as a biological control for the management of EAB populations in the United States; the public is being cautioned not to transport unfinished wood products, such as firewood, to slow the spread of this insect pest. The European ash, Fraxinus excelsior, has been affected by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback in a large number of trees since the mid-1990s in eastern and northern Europe; the disease has infected about 90% of Denmark's ash trees. At the end of October 2012 in the UK, the Food and Environment Research Agency reported that ash dieback had been discovered in mature woodland in Suffolk. In 2016, the ash tree was reported as in danger of extinction in Europe. Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense and strong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.
Gordon Bennett Trophy (aeroplanes)
The Gordon Bennett Aviation Trophy was an international airplane racing trophy awarded by James Gordon Bennett Jr. the American owner and publisher of the New York Herald newspaper. The trophy is one of three Gordon Bennett awards: Bennett was the sponsor of an automobile race and a ballooning competition; the terms of the trophy competition were the same as those of the Schneider Trophy: each race was hosted by the nation which had won the preceding race, the trophy would be won outright by the nation whose team won the race three times in succession. Accordingly, after Joseph Sadi-Lecointe's victory in 1920 the Trophy became the permanent possession of the Aéro-Club de France. Following the success of the Gordon Bennett balloon competition, which had become the most important competition for the sport, Gordon Bennett announced a competition for powered aircraft in December 1908, commissioning a trophy from André Auroc, the sculptor who had created the trophies for both the balloon and automobile competitions.
Formulation of the competition rules was entrusted to the Aéro-Club de France. It was decided; the 1909 competition was held as part of the Grande Semaine d'Aviation held at Reims in France, consisted of 2 laps of a 10 km circuit. Like the subsequent competitions, it was not a direct race, but a time trial, with competitors taking off separately; as aircraft became faster and their engines more reliable, the distance to be covered was increased each year. The last competition was held in 1920 in the French communes of Étampes. Unlike those held before the First World War which were over short courses marked by pylons, the competition was held between two points 50 km apart because of the growing speed of aircraft. Joseph Sadi-Lecointe won in a time of 1 hour, 6 minutes and 17.2 seconds, while fellow French aviator Bernard de Roumanet finished second in a time of 1 hour, 39 minutes and 6.9 seconds. The 1914 race was to have been held at Reims between 19 September and 28 September, but was cancelled due to the outbreak of the First World War.
There was no contest in 1919. The selection trial for the French team was held on the first day of the Grande Semaine d'Aviation. Hampered by gusty winds and rain which turned the grass flying-field to glutinous mud, many of the twenty entrants were unable to take off and none managed to complete the necessary two laps. Eugène Lefebvre, flying Wright biplane put up the best performance, it was decided that the third place would be given on the basis of performance in the speed competition to be held that afternoon, was taken by Hubert Latham. The Wrights themselves had passed on an invitation to compete at Reims, though it seemed awkward since the Gordon Bennett Trophy was crowned with a large replica of a Wright Flyer; the Aero Club of America, which had sponsored the Scientific American trophy won by Curtiss a year earlier, turned to him. His aircraft was not as well developed as the Wright machines and while it was more maneuverable than the European aircraft, it was not nearly as fast. Despite this disadvantage, Curtiss won in 50.4 seconds.
Blériot finished second place with a time of 15 minutes and 56.2 seconds, 5.8 seconds more than Curtiss. The 1910 competition was held at the Belmont Park racetrack in New York as the culminating event of a week-long aviation meet; the 5 km course marked out. Alfred Leblanc, captain of the French team, described it as a death-trap because of the obstacles which would hinder any pilot trying to make an emergency landing, a tight turn less than 30 m from one of the grandstands was christened "Dead Man's Corner" by the press. However, the race proceeded as planned. Contestants were permitted to start at any time during a seven-hour period on the day of the race. Claude Grahame-White was first to take off at 8:42, flying a Blériot XI powered by a 100 hp Gnome Double Omega and completing his first lap in 3 minutes 15 seconds, he was followed by Alec Ogilvie flying a Wright Model R at 9:08 and Alfred Leblanc at 9:20. Leblanc, the chief pilot for the Blériot company, was flying a 100 hp Blériot XI differing from Grahame-White's, with a different propeller and a reduced wingspan.
Leblanc's aircraft was faster: after four laps his time was 1 minute 20 seconds better than Grahame-White's and he completed his nineteenth lap after 52 minutes 49.6 seconds in the air, Grahame -White having completed the 20 lap course in 1 hour 1 minute 4.47 seconds. However half-way round the last lap Leblanc's engine stopped, either through fuel shortage or the breakage of a fuel line, he had to make a forced landing, colliding with a telegraph pole but escaping serious injury. Meanwhile, Alec Ogilvie had been forced to land by engine problems after 13 laps after a delay of 54 minutes he took off again and completed the course in a total time of 2h 26m 36.6s, good enough to gain him third place. Walter Brookins, flying the Wright "Baby Grand", was about to take off when Leblanc crashed, decided to fly to the scene of the accident to see if he could help; however shortly after takeoff a connecting rod broke and his aircraft was wrecked in the subsequent forced landing. Brooking was unhurt.
Hubert Latham took off at 10:59, but his attempt was plagued by engine failures, he spent about four hours on the ground making repairs completing the course in 5h 48m 53s, an average speed of 28.6 km/h. Shortly before the latest permitted takeoff time John Drexel and John Moisant, both flying Blériot
Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus Carya. The genus includes 17 to 19 species. Five or six species are native to China and India, as many as 12 are native to the United States, four are found in Mexico, two to four are from Canada. A number of hickory species are used for products like edible nuts or wood. Hickories are deciduous trees with large nuts. Hickory flowers are small, yellow-green catkins produced in spring, they are self-incompatible. The fruit is a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm long and 1.5–3 cm diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk, which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, thin in a few, notably the pecan. Beaked hickory is a species classified as Carya sinensis, but now adjudged in the monotypic genus Annamocarya. In the APG system, genus Carya has been moved to the order Fagales. AsiaCarya sect. Sinocarya – Asian hickories Carya dabieshanensis M. C. Liu – Dabie Shan hickory Carya cathayensis Sarg. – Chinese hickory Carya hunanensis W.
C. Cheng & R. H. Chang – Hunan hickory Carya kweichowensis Kuang & A. M. Lu – Guizhou hickory Carya poilanei Leroy - Poilane's hickory Carya tonkinensis Lecomte – Vietnamese hickoryNorth AmericaCarya sect. Carya – typical hickories Carya floridana Sarg. – scrub hickory Carya glabra Sweet – pignut hickory, sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, broom hickory Carya laciniosa K. Koch – shellbark hickory, shagbark hickory, bigleaf shagbark hickory, big shellbark, bottom shellbark, thick shellbark, western shellbark Carya myristiciformis Nutt. – nutmeg hickory, swamp hickory, bitter water hickory Carya ovalis Sarg. – red hickory, spicebark hickory, sweet pignut hickory Carya ovata K. Koch – shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. ovata – northern shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. australis – Southern shagbark hickory, Carolina hickory Carya pallida Engl. & Graebn. – sand hickory Carya texana Buckley – black hickory Carya tomentosa Nutt. – mockernut hickory †Carya washingtonensis - Manchester extinct Miocene Carya sect.
Apocarya – pecans Carya aquatica Nutt. – bitter pecan or water hickory Carya cordiformis K. Koch – bitternut hickory Carya illinoinensis K. Koch – pecan Carya palmeri W. E. Manning – Mexican hickory Hickory is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; these include: Luna moth Brown-tail Coleophora case-bearers, C. laticornella and C. ostryae Regal moths, whose caterpillars are known as hickory horn-devils Walnut sphinx The bride Hickory tussock moth The hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera uses the hickory tree as a food source. Phylloxeridae are related to aphids and have a complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls form around the developing insects. Phylloxera galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls for the protein content or because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels; the pecan gall curculio is a true weevil species found feeding on galls of the hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera.
The banded hickory borer is found on hickories. Some fruits are difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts and walnuts in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes. Hickory wood is hard, stiff and shock resistant. There are woods that are stronger than hickory and woods that are harder, but the combination of strength, toughness and stiffness found in hickory wood is not found in any other commercial wood, it is used for tool handles, wheel spokes, drumsticks, lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts, the bottom of skis, walking sticks, for punitive use as a switch, as a cane-like hickory stick in schools and use by parents. Paddles are made from hickory; this property of hickory wood has left a trace in some Native American languages: in Ojibwe, hickory is called mitigwaabaak, a compound of mitigwaab "bow" and the final -aakw "hardwood tree". Baseball bats were made of hickory, but are now more made of ash. Hickory is replacing ash. Hickory was extensively used for the construction of early aircraft.
Hickory is highly prized for wood-burning stoves and chimineas because of its high energy content. Hickory wood is a preferred type for smoking cured meats. In the Southern United States, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory is sometimes used for wood flooring due to its durability in resisting character. Hickory wood is not noted for rot resistance. A bark extract from shagbark hickory is used in an edible syrup similar
A spinner is an aircraft component, a streamlined fairing fitted over a propeller hub or at the centre of a turbofan engine. Spinners both make the aircraft overall more streamlined, reducing aerodynamic drag and smooth the airflow so that it enters the air intakes more efficiently. Spinners fulfill an aesthetic role on some aircraft designs. Piston-powered aircraft have spinners of one of two basic designs; the large spinner fits over the propeller, while the smaller skull cap style is directly attached to the propeller and just covers the propeller mounting bolts. The spinner may be constructed from aluminium or fibreglass. Softer grades of aluminium are used to reduce the tendency to crack in service. Early fibreglass spinners introduced as kits for the homebuilt aircraft market in the early 1990s developed a poor reputation for cracking. More recent models have resolved these problems and they now function as well as aluminium ones do; the normal method of installation of a large spinner on a light aircraft involves installing a circular spinner back plate over the engine driveshaft the propeller, followed by a spinner front plate.
The spinner dome is mounted over this assembly and secured with screws to the back and front plates. Small plates are fitted behind the propeller to fill in the spinner dome cutouts and are secured to the backplate again with screws; some spinner designs do not incorporate the front plate, although these are not suitable for higher-powered engines. The loss of a spinner in flight has caused damage to aircraft as well as accidents. If the spinner becomes detached damage to the engine cowling can result, along with a high degree of vibration that results in the need for an immediate engine shut-down and a forced landing. In cases where the spinner has departed the aircraft it impacts the airframe or the windshield, with catastrophic results; because of their role as a rotating component and the risk of cracking and failure due to engine vibration, spinners require regular inspection of the back plate as well as the spinner dome itself. The first spinners were fitted to aircraft in the early 1910s.
Originally to reduce drag caused by the large-diameter rotary engines of that era, were prominent on World War I-era aircraft, like the Morane-Saulnier N French monoplane fighter, for the Central Powers, Robert Thelen's Albatros D. I through D. V series of fighter designs. In some cases spinners were found to block airflow to the engine, causing overheating, a problem solved by careful aerodynamic design. Development of airscrew spinners - Flight, November 1940
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes. A monoplane has inherently the highest efficiency and lowest drag of any wing configuration and is the simplest to build. However, during the early years of flight, these advantages were offset by its greater weight and lower manoeuvrability, making it rare until the 1930s. Since the monoplane has been the most common form for a fixed-wing aircraft; the inherent efficiency of the monoplane can best be realized in the unbraced cantilever wing, which carries all structural forces internally. By contrast, a braced wing has additional drag from the exposed bracing struts or wires, lowering aerodynamic efficiency. On the other hand, the braced wing can be made much lighter; this in turn means that for a wing of a given size, bracing allows it to fly slower with a lower-powered engine, while a heavy cantilever wing needs a more powerful engine and can fly faster.
Besides the general variations in wing configuration such as tail position and use of bracing, the main distinction between types of monoplane is how high up the wings are mounted in relation to the fuselage. A low wing is one, located on or near the base of the fuselage. Placing the wing low down allows good visibility upwards and frees up the central fuselage from the wing spar carry-through. By reducing pendulum stability, it makes the aircraft more manoeuvrable, as on the Spitfire. A feature of the low wing position is its significant ground effect, giving the plane a tendency to float further before landing. Conversely, this ground effect permits shorter takeoffs. A mid wing is mounted midway up the fuselage; the carry-through spar structure can reduce the useful fuselage volume near its centre of gravity, where space is in most demand. A shoulder wing is a configuration whereby the wing is mounted near the top of the fuselage but not on the top, it is so called because it sits on the "shoulder" of the fuselage, rather than on the pilot's shoulder.
Shoulder-wings and high-wings share some characteristics, namely: they support a pendulous fuselage which requires no wing dihedral for stability. Compared to a low-wing, shoulder-wing and high-wing configurations give increased propeller clearance on multi-engined aircraft. On a large aircraft, there is little practical difference between a high wing. On a light aircraft, the shoulder-wing may need to be swept forward to maintain correct center of gravity. Examples of light aircraft with shoulder wings include the ARV Super2, the Bölkow Junior, Saab Safari and the Barber Snark. A high wing has its upper surface above the top of the fuselage, it shares many advantages and disadvantages with the shoulder wing, but on a light aircraft, the high wing has poorer upwards visibility. On light aircraft such as the Cessna 152, the wing is located on top of the pilot's cabin, so that the centre of lift broadly coincides with the centre of gravity. A parasol wing aircraft is a biplane without the lower pair of wings.
The parasol wing is not directly attached to the fuselage, but is held above it, supported either by cabane struts or by a single pylon. Additional bracing may be provided by struts extending from the fuselage sides; some early gliders had a parasol wing mounted on a pylon. The parasol wing was popular only during the interwar transition years between biplanes and monoplanes. Compared to a biplane, a parasol wing has lower drag. Although the first successful aircraft were biplanes, the first attempts at heavier-than-air flying machines were monoplanes, many pioneers continued to develop monoplane designs. For example, the first aeroplane to be put into production was the 1907 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, while the Blériot XI flew across the English Channel in 1909. Throughout 1909–1910, Hubert Latham set multiple altitude records in his Antoinette IV monoplane reaching 1,384 m; the equivalent German language term is Eindecker, as in the mid-wing Fokker Eindecker fighter of 1915 which for a time dominated the skies in what became known as the "Fokker scourge".
The German military Idflieg aircraft designation system prior to 1918 prefixed monoplane type designations with an E, until the approval of the Fokker D. VIII fighter from its former "E. V" designation. However, the success of the Fokker was short-lived, World War I was dominated by biplanes. Towards the end of the war, the parasol monoplane became popular and successful designs were produced into the 1920s. Nonetheless few monoplane types were built between 1914 and the late 1920s, compared with the number of biplanes; the reasons for this were practical. With the low engine powers and airspeeds available, the wings of a monoplane needed to be large in order to create enough lift while a biplane could have two smaller wings and so be made smaller and lighter. Towards the end of the First World War, the inherent high drag of the biplane was beginning to restrict performance. Engines were not yet powerful enough to make the heavy cantilever-wing monoplane viable, the braced parasol wing became popular on fighter aircraft, alth
Most tulipwood is the pinkish yellowish wood yielded from the tulip tree, found on the Eastern side of North America and in some parts of China. In the United States, it is known as tulip poplar or yellow poplar though the tree is not related to the poplars. In fact, the reference to poplar is a result of the tree's height; the wood is light, around 490 kg per cubic meter, but strong and is used in many applications, including furniture and moldings. It can be stained easily and is used as a low-cost alternative to walnut and cherry in furniture and doors. Brazilian tulipwood is a different species. A classic high-quality wood, it is dense with a lovely figure, it is used for small turned items. Available only in small sizes, it is used in the solid for luxury furniture. Like other woods with a pronounced figure it is rather subject to fashion. In the nineteenth century Brazilian tulipwood was thought to be the product of the brazilian rosewood Physocalymma scaberrimum, but in the twentieth century it became clear it was yielded by a species of Dalbergia.
At some point it was misidentified as Dalbergia frutescens, a misidentification which can still be found in books aimed at the woodworker. For some decades it has been known to be yielded by Dalbergia decipularis, a species restricted to a small area in Western-Brazil, but both Dalbergia fructescens and Dalbergia decipularis are named. Dalbergia cearensis kingwood or violetwood, is named tulipwood and Dalbergia oliveri the burmese rosewood is sometimes called "burma tulipwood"; the cheap and pale wood from the tuliptree Liriodendron tulipifera is known as American tulipwood or poplar and American whitewood, canary whitewood and canary wood, it is used. There exists the "australian tulipwood", "tulipwood trees" the common name of Harpullia, Harpullia pendula and Harpullia arborea or Harpullia hillii and Harpullia alata etc. Certain varieties of Harpullia were prized for their dark coloured timber; the one most known to horticulture is Harpullia pendula, planted as a street tree along the east coast of Australia.
Drypetes acuminata and Drypetes deplanchei are from Australia. Exists the tuliptrees, Thespesia populnea and Thespesia acutiloba, Spathodea campanulata, Stenocarpus sinuatus, Licaria guianensis, Dicypellium caryophyllatum and Hibiscus elatus, these trees resp, their wood is occasionally named tulipwood
Sous Lieutenant Eugène Gilbert was a World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories. He had been a famous pioneer pre-war racing pilot, flying in many countries throughout Europe. Gilbert was born on 19 July 1889 in France, his mother, Henriette Françoise Gilbert was the daughter of a public works contractor. He became interested in flight in his teens and attempted to build his own version of a flying machine around 1909; the effort appears to have been unsuccessful. That same year he entered the Bleriot flight school in Étampes, gaining his pilot's license on 24 September 1910In 1911 Gilbert was called up for military service and with only eight flying lessons made a corporal-aviator, he was forced to leave the army after six months of service following a serious accident during a maneuver, launched himself at once in sporting competitions where he distinguished himself, flying a Bleriot XI. In the 1911 Paris to Madrid air race, Gilbert flew across the Pyrenees and was attacked by an angry mother eagle defending her young and nest.
In 1912 Gilbert organized an aviation festival with Dr. Antoine Dorel, president of the Automobile Club d'Auvergne; the newspaper Airline Journal reported that flying over Brioude, Gilbert was shot at by an eighty-three year old farmer who took him for "Baret Lou", a demonic bird of prey that casts a curse on crops. Gilbert responded by dropping pamphlets for an advertising campaign "Our future is in the Air" organized by the Michelin firm to promote the military use of aviation; these the farmer interpreted to be feathers of the bird raining down. On 24 April 1913 Gilbert made a record nonstop cross-country flight of 826 km from Villacoublay, France, to Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, in 8 hours 23 minutes. In June 1914 he won the International Michelin Cup completing a 2,970 km circuit of France in 39h 35m including stoppages. By 1915, Gilbert was in uniform as a combat pilot with Escadrille MS23. Like fellow French pre-war pilot Adolphe Pegoud, Gilbert was one of the first pilots to become an ace, an aviator who has shot down five or more enemy aircraft.
On 27 June 1915 Gilbert was interned after force landing his Morane-Saulnier fighter in Switzerland after bombing the zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshafen. He succeeded in escaping from captivity and returning to France, he was killed on 17 May 1918 when test-flying a new aircraft at Villacoublay