Deportivo Alavés, S. A. D. Usually abbreviated to Alavés, is a Spanish football club based in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Founded on January 23rd, 1921 as Sport Friends Club, it plays in the highest football category of The Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional, La Liga, since the 2016–17 season, it is recognized as the least successful team in the Basque Country following Athletic Club of Bilbao and Real Sociedad de Futbol of San Sebastián. Its biggest success was in 2001 when, in the year of its debut in European competition, it was one of the finalists in the 2001 UEFA Cup Final against Liverpool, being defeated 5–4 by golden goal. In 2017, the club reached the final of the Copa del Rey; the team's home kit is blue shorts and white socks. It holds home matches at the 19,840-seater Mendizorrotza Stadium and uses other facilities located in Ibaia dedicated to training. Founded in 1921 the initial name of the club was Sport Friends, but on January 23, 1921 the name was changed to the current one.
Alavés was the first club to win promotion from the Segunda División to La Liga in 1929–30, a stint which would last three years. In its first season in Primera División Alavés finished 8th from 10 teams, just 1 point away from being relegated. In 1953–54 the club would reach the top league again for a two-year spell. With Roman Galarraga as a coach, the club reached long-awaited promotion to Segunda División in the 1973-74 season. In June 1983, after having avoided the relegation in the previous season, Alavés went down to Segunda División B, where remained until the 1985-86 campaign. After years of facing disappearance which lasted well into the 1990s, Alavés achieved a promotion back into the Segunda División in 1994–95 after two consecutive years of winning their group in Segunda División B – created as the new third level in 1977 – but failing in the promotion play-offs. After winning the Segunda División in 1997–98, Alavés returned to the top level after a 42-year hiatus. Following their return season in which they escaped relegation by a single point, they achieved two wins against Barcelona in the following campaign and would qualify for the UEFA Cup for the first time upon finishing sixth.
As well as concluding the domestic campaign in tenth position, in 2000–01 the Basque club reached the final of the UEFA Cup after beating Internazionale, Rayo Vallecano and 1. FC Kaiserslautern, the latter in a crushing 9–2 aggregate victory; the final ended in a 4–5 loss against Liverpool, Alavés losing to an "own-golden goal" after taking the match to extra time. The match featured two red cards and two disallowed goals in extra time in addition to the nine goals which did count, has been described by some observers as one of the greatest showpiece games in the competition's history. Alavés ended 2001–02 in seventh position and qualified for the UEFA Cup for a second time, although the European campaign of 2002–03 was far less successful than two years earlier, with an opening win over Ankaragücü followed by a defeat to another Turkish Süper Lig side, Beşiktaş. On 26 January 2003, the club celebrated their 100th win in La Liga after defeating Real Valladolid 3–1. Although Alavés were relegated after 2002–03, they regained top flight status two years later.
In this time, Alavés was bought by Ukrainian–American businessman Dmitry Pietrman, several clashes followed with the club's coaches and fans alike. The top-division return only lasted one season as the club went through three head coaches and finished in 18th position, one point from safety. Piterman departed in 2007. After two years of battling against relegation to the third level, Alavés succumbed in 2008–09. A subsequent black period in Segunda B lasted four years until Alavés was bought by José Antonio Querejeta and were promoted again to the second division in 2013 as overall champions of the third tier, providing an opportunity to sort out its economic difficulties. Three years on 29 May 2016, Alavés was promoted to La Liga as second tier champions after beating Numancia 2–0 to overtake Leganés on the final day. On 10 September 2016, Alavés got their first win of their return season in La Liga by defeating defending La Liga champions Barcelona 2–1 at the Camp Nou. On 7 February 2017, Alavés qualified for the 2017 Copa del Rey Final after eliminating Celta de Vigo in the semi-finals of the competition.
This was the first time in their history that the club had qualified for the final of the national cup, their previous best being the semi-finals in 1998 and 2004. Their opponents in the final would be Barcelona, coincidentally the two clubs met in the league directly after their cup semi-finals. Barcelona won the final, held at the Estadio Vicente Calderón with a 3–1 scoreline, meaning there would be no return to European competition for Alavés. In the La Liga that season Alavés finished 9th with 13 draws and 11 losses. 15 seasons in La Liga 37 seasons in Segunda División 12 seasons in Segunda División B 22 seasons in Tercera División 3 seasons in Divisiones Regionales As of 14 February 2020Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: F
Src kinase family is a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that includes nine members: Src, Yes and Fgr, forming the SrcA subfamily, Hck and Lyn in the SrcB subfamily, Frk in its own subfamily. Frk has homologs in invertebrates such as flies and worms, Src homologs exist in organisms as diverse as unicellular choanoflagellates, but the SrcA and SrcB subfamilies are specific to vertebrates. Src family kinases contain six conserved domains: a N-terminal myristoylated segment, a SH2 domain, a SH3 domain, a linker region, a tyrosine kinase domain, C-terminal tail. Src family kinases interact with many cellular cytosolic and membrane proteins, modifying these proteins by phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. A number of substrates have been discovered for these enzymes. Deregulation, including constitutive activation or over expression, may contribute to the progression of cellular transformation and oncogenic activity. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
A bottle wall is a wall made out of glass or plastic bottles and binding material. This is a building construction style which uses glass bottles as masonry units and binds them using adobe, cement, clay, mortar or any other joint compound; this results in an intriguing stained-glass like wall. An alternative is to make the bottle wall from glass jugs filled with ink and set them up by supporting them between 2 windows. Although bottle walls can be constructed in many different ways, they are made on a foundation, set into a trench in the earth to add stability to the wall; the trench is filled with a rubble of pea gravel and filled in with cement. Rebar can be set into the foundation to add structural integrity. Bottle walls range one bottle to two bottles thick. Primitive mixture, such as cob or adobe can be used as mortar to bind the bottles, it is thickly spread on the previous layer of bottles followed by the next layer, pressed into the mixture. Two fingers of separation are used as a means of spacing although any kind of spacing can be achieved.
Bottles can be duct taped together to create a window-type effect. Two similar size bottles can be taped together with the openings allowing a light passageway; this traps air and creates a small amount of insulation. Filling glass with liquid that will be subjected to freezing and thawing is not a good idea, but is useful if the glass is protected from temperature extremes; when the bottles are filled with a liquid, or other dark material, the wall can function as a thermal mass, absorbing solar radiation during the day and radiating it back into the space at night, thus dampening diurnal temperature swings. This may be a pleasant feature for colder climates - but can turn a room into an oven in hotter climates. A typical mortar mix is 3:1 mason sand to a pozzalan cement mix. Other mixtures could be made from mortar and clay, cob, sand or cement. Bottle walls are versatile and could be bonded with pretty much anything that can endure its given climate; the use of empty vessels in construction dates back at least to ancient Rome, where many structures used empty amphorae embedded in concrete.
This was not done for aesthetic reasons, but to lighten the load of upper levels of structures, to reduce concrete usage. This technique was used for example in the Circus of Maxentius, it is believed that the first bottle house was constructed in 1902 by William F. Peck in Tonopah, Nevada; the house was built using 10,000 bottles of J. Hostetter's Stomach Bitters which consisted of various herbs in a solution of 47% alcohol; the Peck house was demolished in the early 1980s. Around 1905, Tom Kelly built his house in Rhyolite, using 51,000 beer bottles masoned with adobe. Kelly chose bottles. Most of the bottles were Busch beer bottles collected from the 50 bars in this Gold Rush town. Rhyolite became a ghost town by 1920. In 1925, Paramount Pictures had it restored for use in a movie, it became a museum, but tourism was slow, causing it to close. From 1936-1954, Lewis Murphy hosted tourists. From 1954-1969, Tommy Thompson occupied the house, he tried to make repairs to the house with concrete which, when mixed with the desert heat, caused many bottles to crack.
Knott's Berry Farm in Buena Park, has a bottle house, made from over 3,000 whiskey bottles, that it uses as an "Indian Trader" store today. The house is a remake of the Rhyolite Bottle House replicated from photos taken by Walter Knott in the early 1950s. Another famous bottle house site was built by the self-taught senior citizen Tressa "Grandma " Prisbrey. Located in Simi Valley, Bottle Village is lauded by art scholars, The State of California, The National Register of Historic Places and in exhibitions, as a major artistic achievement. Beginning construction in 1956 at age 60, working until 1981, Tressa "Grandma" Prisbrey transformed her 1/3 acre lot into Bottle Village, an otherworld of shrines, wishing wells, random constructions, plus 15 life size structures all made from found objects placed in mortar; the name "Bottle Village" comes from the structures themselves - made of tens of thousands of bottles unearthed via daily visits to the dump. The Washington Court Bottle House in Ohio was made with 9,963 bottles of all colors.
The builder was a bottle collector and, to display his collection, he had them built into this house, on display at Meyer's Modern Tourist Court. In Alexandria, there is a bottle-house gift shop that still stands today; the bottle house was constructed by Drew Bridges. There are about 3,000 bottles used as masonry units with railroad ties used as the framing structure; the Kaleva Bottle House in Kaleva, was built by John J. Makinen, Sr. using over 60,000 bottles laid on their sides with the bottoms toward the exterior. The bottles were from his company, The Northwestern Bottling Works; the house was completed in 1941. The building was purchased by the Kaleva Historical Museum in 1981 and is listed on the National Register of Historical Places. Boston Hills Pet Memorial Park in Boston, has a bottle wall from 1942, it is part of a small building used for storage. The Wimberley Bottle House in Wimberley, was constructed using over 9,000 soda bottles, it was built in the early 1960s as part of a pioneer town, a simulated Old West town set to be a tourist attraction/theme park.
The house was modeled after Knott's Berry Farm bottlehouse in Cal