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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain. Depressants are occasionally referred to as "downers" as they lower the level of arousal when taken. Stimulants or "uppers" increase mental and/or physical function, hence the opposite drug class of depressants is stimulants, not antidepressants. Depressants are used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances. Alcohol is a prominent depressant. Alcohol can be and is more to be a large problem among teenagers and young adults; when depressants are used, effects include ataxia, pain relief, sedation or somnolence, cognitive/memory impairment, as well as in some instances euphoria, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure or heart rate, respiratory depression, anticonvulsant effects, similar effects of General Anaesthesia and/or death at high doses. Cannabis may sometimes be considered a depressant. THC may slow brain function to a small degree, while reducing reaction to stimuli.

Cannabis may treat insomnia and muscle spasms similar to other depressive drugs. Other depressants can include a number of opiates. Depressants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include facilitation of GABA, inhibition of glutamatergic or monoaminergic activity. Other examples are chemicals; the most prominent of these being bromides and channel blockers. Depressants are used medicinally to relieve the following symptoms: Anxiety Generalized anxiety Social anxiety Panic attacks Insomnia Obsessive–compulsive disorder Seizures Convulsions Depression An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains alcohol, an anesthetic, used as a psychoactive drug for several millennia. Ethanol is the oldest recreational drug still used by humans. Ethanol can cause alcohol intoxication. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes for taxation and regulation of production: beers and spirits, they are consumed in most countries around the world.

More than 100 countries have laws regulating their production and consumption. The most common way to measure intoxication for legal or medical purposes is through blood alcohol content, it is expressed as a percentage of alcohol in the blood in units of mass of alcohol per volume of blood, or mass of alcohol per mass of blood, depending on the country. For instance, in North America a blood alcohol content of "0.10" or more 0.10 g/dL means that there are 0.10 g of alcohol for every dL of blood. Barbiturates are effective in relieving the conditions, they are commonly used for unapproved purposes, are physically addictive, have serious potential for overdose. In the late 1950s, when many thought that the social cost of barbiturates was beginning to outweigh the medical benefits, a serious search began for a replacement drug. Most people still using barbiturates today do so in the prevention of seizures or in mild form for relief from the symptoms of migraines. A benzodiazepine is a drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

The first such drug, was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam since 1963. Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid at the GABAA receptor, resulting in sedative, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant properties; these properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, agitation, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures. Benzodiazepines are categorized as intermediate -, or long-acting. Short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines are preferred for the treatment of insomnia. In general, benzodiazepines are safe and effective in the short term, although cognitive impairments and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occur. A minority react reverse and contrary to what would be expected. For example, a state of panic may worsen following intake of a benzodiazepine. Long-term use is controversial due to concerns about adverse psychological and physical effects, increased questioning of effectiveness, because benzodiazepines are prone to cause tolerance, physical dependence, upon cessation of use after long-term use, a withdrawal syndrome.

Due to adverse effects associated with the long-term use of benzodiazepines, withdrawal from benzodiazepines, in general, leads to improved physical and mental health. The elderly are at an increased risk of suffering from both short- and long-term adverse effects. There is controversy concerning the safety of benzodiazepines in pregnancy. While they are not major teratogens, uncertainty remains as to whether they cause cleft palate in a small number of babies and whether neurobehavioural effects occur as a result of prenatal exposure.

E. R. Jackman

Edwin Russell Jackman was an American agricultural expert from Oregon. He helped form the Oregon Wheat League. In 1964, he joined Reub Long to write The Oregon Desert, still a popular book forty years after its original publication. Jackman's professional papers and photograph collection are maintained in the Oregon State University archives. Jackman was born on February 1894 in Stillwater, Minnesota, he grew up on his father's 185-acre potato and livestock farm in Flathead County, Montana. From 1913 to 1917, he attended Montana State College in Bozeman, he served as an Agricultural Extension Agent in Blaine County, Montana before entering the United States Army in the fall of 1917. He was stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma where he served as a First Lieutenant in the Field Artillery. Following World War I, Jackman attended Oregon Agricultural College, he majored in Agronomy, receiving a Bachelor of Science in 1921. After he graduated from Oregon Agricultural College, Jackman was appointed the state's Agricultural Extension Agent for Wasco County, Oregon.

As an extension agent, he worked for Oregon State University as part of the United States Department of Agriculture's Federal Cooperative Extension Service (now known as the Cooperative State Research and Extension Service. In this capacity, he was responsible for advising local farmers and ranchers on modern agricultural techniques, land use, recommended conservation practices. In 1926, he resigned to enter commercial business, but returned to the Extension Service in 1929. From 1929 until 1953, he served as a farm crop specialist. Jackman helped organize the Oregon Seed Growers' League, serving as the organization's secretary for many years, he played a leading role in creating the Oregon Wheat League, subsequently copied across the United States. As president of the Pacific Northwest chapter of the American Society of Range Management, Jackman started a Youth Range Camp program in 1950; the camp is now a well established annual event. He was a member of Epsilon Sigma Phi. In 1949, Jackman was awarded the fraternity's Western States Certificate of Recognition.

In 1956, he received the United States Department of Agriculture's Superior Service Award for his success in promoting grassland agriculture and for helping to develop Oregon's multimillion-dollar seed industry. In 1957, the Oregon Farm Bureau Federation recognized Jackman with their Distinguished Service to Oregon Agriculture award. After he retired from the Extension Service, Jackman wrote four books. In 1962, he wrote Gold and Cattle Country along with Herman Oliver. In 1964, he joined Reub Long to write The Oregon Desert, which remains an popular work over forty years after it original publication; the book highlights Eastern Oregon history, high desert geology, rural culture, native folklore. It is filled with Reub Long's humorous stories; as of 2003, the book was in its fourteenth printing. In 1967, Jackman co-authored two other books. First, he worked with Charles Simpson to produce Blazing Forest Trails Jackman joined John Scharff to write Steens Mountain in Oregon's High Desert Country.

Like The Oregon Desert, his Steens Mountain book is still available decades after its original publication. Jackman died in Portland, Oregon on May 12, 1967, his legacy includes the E. R. Jackman Foundation, created in his honor to support Oregon State University's College of Agricultural Sciences. Oregon State University sponsors the E. R. Jackman Internship Support Program, which provides financial assistance to undergraduate students enrolled in the University's College of Agricultural Sciences; the Oregon State University library holds Jackman's professional papers and photograph collection. The Edwin Russell Jackman Papers include personal papers and other archival materials; these files contain articles written for Oregon State University publications, national publications, specialized trade journals. It has tapes of radio and television talks, Jackman's speech notes, the manuscripts for his four books; the university maintains the Edwin Russell Jackman Photographic Collection. The photographs cover a wide range of agricultural subjects, Pacific Northwest geographical and geological features, Oregon state parks, rural towns as well as photographs of farmers and ranchers at work.

It includes a number of photographs of Reub Long, his Fort Rock ranch, his collection of Native American artifacts. Jackman used many of the photographs in his books. Summaries of Jackman's papers and photograph collection are available on-line through the Oregon State University library archives and records management program; the best known building on the Oregon State Fairgrounds is named in honor of Reub Long. The Jackman-Long Building was opened in 1976, it is a 48,000 square feet exposition center that houses the Oregon State Fair and Exposition Center’s main office. Oregon State University library archives - Edwin Russell Jackman Papers Oregon State University Extension Service


Belgooly is a village in County Cork, located 4.6 kilometres to the north-east of Kinsale. In 2016 it had a population of 826; the Belgooly Flour Mill, a ruinous building within the village, is entered in the initial Record of Protected Structures. Other, more ancient monuments, included on the Record of Monuments and Places for County Cork, include a reputed holy well site west of the village, a standing stone to the south in Mitchelstown East townland. On 26 August 1941 a Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 88 crashed close to Belgooly, after being shot down by 615 Squadron of the RAF; the village has a small shop with post-office, Belgooly GAA club facilities, Roman Catholic church, is home to the Huntsman and Coleman's public houses. The village is located within the study area of the Cork Area Strategic Plan and the lands that surround the village are within the designated Cork County Council "Rural Housing Control Zone"; as a result, there has been recent residential housing development in Belgooly. On the Kinsale side of the town is a statue named "His Master's Voice".

Belgooly hosts an annual agricultural steam rally. The main road through the village is the R600, which links the village with the city of Cork to the north and Kinsale to the south; the R611, which links Belgooly with Carrigaline extends eastwards from the village. The village is served by a public bus service, route 226, which travels from Kinsale via Belgooly and Cork Airport to Cork city centre; the River Stick flows on the western edge of the village and joins the Belgooly River which flows in the tidal Belgooly Estuary to the south of the village, before running to Oysterhaven Bay. - Local information website

The Popularity Papers

The Popularity Papers is a middle grade book series written and illustrated by Amy Ignatow. The first book of the series was published in 2010. To date, six sequels have been published. Book one: Research for the Social Improvement and General Betterment of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Book two: The Long-Distance Dispatch Between Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Book three: Words of Wisdom from Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Book four: The Rocky Road Trip of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Book five: The Awesomely Awful Melodies of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Book six: Love and Other Fiascos with Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Book seven: The Less-Than-Hidden Secrets and Final Revelations of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang Two fifth-grade friends, Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang, want to learn how to be popular before entering middle school; the first book of the series is their journal, documenting their misadventures to become more popular, as well as their family and school life.

Sequels continue the story of Lydia and Julie and their friends and families, as they progress into middle school. The first novel in the series, Research for the Social Improvement and General Betterment of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang, was published on April 1st, 2010. After receiving positive reviews, Ignatow completed the second edition of the series The Long-Distance Dispatch Between Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang, published on March 1st, 2011; the third novel in the series was published only seven months entitled Words of Wisdom from Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang. On April 1st, 2012, The Rocky Road Trip of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang was published, the only sequel released in 2012; the 5th edition of the series was published on March 5th, 2013, The Awesomely Awful Melodies of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang. The final two novels in The Popularity Papers series were called Love and Other Fiascos with Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang and The Less-Than-Hidden Secrets and Final Revelations of Lydia Goldblatt and Julie Graham-Chang, respectively.

The story is told in a journal format and drawn by the two main characters. The books are hand-drawn, with each of the two main protagonists having a different writing and drawing style. In interviews with the news media, Ignatow has shown that she only uses writing and drawing implements that are available to children, such as crayons and colored pencils. Similar to many other fictional and satirical children's novels, The Popularity Papers is written in a journal or diary format, illustrating the events of the protagonists as they seek to resolve their quest of determining the causation of popularity. In this way, the author of such a novel is able to relate the content in a much more familiar and friendly setting to the children whom are targeted as the primary reading demographic. There are many examples of formatted children's novels that have seen commercial success, such as the well known Diary of a Wimpy Kid amongst many others. On top of relating to youth experiences in school, the format of The Popularity Papers assists young readers in comprehending the storyline and providing visual aid to complement any struggles.

The viability of the journal-type format in children's books has proven to be a successful concept, seen notably by the Diary of a Wimpy Kid series, on the New York Times' bestseller list for over 10 years and earned author Jeff Kinney a spot on Time's most influential people. One of the many perennial themes in literature is bildungsroman, a story set during, or about, the coming of age of the protagonist; the Popularity Papers, as a novel about two middle school girls qualifies as such. In their many expeditions to determine the essence of popularity in junior high and Lydia have a multitude of complex subjects and adult concepts foisted upon them, which lead them to "growing up," or at least to begin realizing what the adult world has in store for them. Among the most prominent and complicated for the two girls are romance when a young Norwegian boy confesses his love, friendship, which they soon discover can be fragile, their endeavors lead to plenty of comical events, as well, such as when their effort to obtain phones from their parents ends poorly.

This realization that their budding independence might conflict with their parents is yet another instance where the girls begin to comprehend that their world is changing as they continue to grow up, a crucial tenet of a bildungsroman storyline. The first book in The Popularity Papers series was selected as a top-ten title for 2011 by the American Library Association's Rainbow Project, it was a 2010 Gold Award winner by the National Parenting Publications Association and selected by the Chicago Public Library as one of the 2011 "Best of the Best" books. The first book's review in the New York Times 2010 summer reading issue called the author "hugely talented". Publishers Weekly noted that the plot was "predictable", but stated that "Readers will devour this hilarious, heartfelt debut."The School Library Journal's blog called the first book, "A great book and worth a close inspection. And if I have to compare it to Jeff Kinney’s series, I’ll do it this way: This is the funniest book I’ve read for kids since discovering Diary of a Wimpy Kid."

The Popularity Papers was listed by the American Literary Association as being a challenged book in the children's genre. These challenges originate from the inclusi

Savernack Street

Savernack Street is a small art gallery in the Mission District of San Francisco founded in 2013 by artist Carrie Sinclair Katz. The gallery interior is inaccessible and visitors can only view artwork by looking through a reverse peephole located on the storefront; the monthly exhibitions at Savernack Street feature a single piece of artwork that appears larger or life size when viewed through the peephole. The name Savernack is not an actual street in San Francisco. Savernack Street Gallery was founded in 2013 by artist Carrie Sinclair Katz shortly after receiving her MFA from the San Francisco Art Institute; the artist said her motivation was to comment on the difficulties an emerging artist faces when trying to crack into the art world and that the small size of the gallery and its limited access was “ a practical issue about how much square footage in San Francisco costs right now” and was all she could afford. In May 2015, Katz stated a motivation for Savernack Street Gallery "was trying to play with expectations and make people question why they had certain expectations ”.

In June 2014, Katz was awarded an Alternative Exposure grant by Southern Exposure to support continued exhibitions at Savernack Street. The funding for Southern Exposure's Alternative Exposure award is provided by the Andy Warhol Foundation. Exhibitors have included artists j. Frede, Jo Babcock, Juan Fontanive, Peggy Ingalls, Lee Hunter. Other Savernack Street projects: Founded in Spring 2014, Station Gallery is an art gallery curated by Carrie Sinclair Katz inside her 1940’s wristwatch. Savernack Street Gallery Website: Do It Anyway: Platforms of Perseverance in San Franciscoby Leora Lutz:

Davan Maharaj

Davan Maharaj is a journalist and the former editor-in-chief and publisher of the Los Angeles Times. Maharaj was born in Tobago, he worked as a reporter at the Trinidad Express before moving to the United States, where he received a degree in political science from the University of Tennessee, as well as a master's degree in law from Yale University. He started his career at the Los Angeles Times as an intern in 1989, subsequently working as a reporter in Los Angeles, Orange County, East Africa, he won the 2005 Ernie Pyle Award for Human Interest Writing. Maharaj received a political science degree from University of Tennessee, a master's degree in law from Yale University. In December 2011, Maharaj was named editor and executive vice president of the Times. In March 2016, he was named publisher. In December 2016, L. A. Magazine published an in-depth report, a disturbing exposure of Maharaj's methods managing the Los Angeles Times. In August 2017, Ross Levinsohn and Jim Kirk, replaced Davan Maharaj as editor and publisher of the Los Angeles Times