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Depth of field

For many cameras, depth of field is the distance between the nearest and the farthest objects that are in acceptably sharp focus in an image. The depth of field can be calculated based on focal length, distance to subject, the acceptable circle of confusion size, aperture. A particular depth of field may be chosen for artistic purposes. Limitations of depth of field can sometimes be overcome with various techniques/equipment. For Cameras that can only focus on one object distance at a time, Depth of field is the distance between the nearest and the farthest objects that are in acceptably sharp focus. "Acceptably sharp focus" is defined using a property called the circle of confusion. The depth of field can be determined by focal length, distance to subject, the acceptable circle of confusion size, aperture; the approximate depth of field can be given by: DOF ≈ 2 u 2 N c f 2 for a given circle of confusion, focal length, F-number, distance to subject. As distance or the size of the acceptable circle of confusion increases, the depth of field increases.

Depth of Field changes linearly with F-number and circle of confusion, but changes in proportional to the square of the focal length and the distance to the subject. As a result, photos taken at close range have a proportionally much smaller depth of field. Sensor size affects DOF only in that changing the sensor size on a camera requires changing the focal length to get the same picture, it is the change in focal length that affects the DOF. For a given subject framing and camera position, the DOF is controlled by the lens aperture diameter, specified as the f-number. Reducing the aperture diameter increases the DOF because only the light travelling at shallower angles passes through the aperture; because the angles are shallow, the light rays are within the acceptable circle of confusion for a greater distance. Motion pictures make only limited use of this control. Aperture settings are adjusted more in still photography, where variations in depth of field are used to produce a variety of special effects.

Precise focus is only possible at an exact distance from the lens. Otherwise, a point object will produce a blur spot shaped like the aperture and a circle; when this circular spot is sufficiently small, it is visually indistinguishable from a point, appears to be in focus. The diameter of the largest circle, indistinguishable from a point is known as the acceptable circle of confusion, or informally as the circle of confusion. Points that produce a blur spot smaller than this acceptable circle of confusion are considered acceptably sharp; the acceptable circle of confusion depends on. It is accepted to be 0.25 mm for an image viewed from 25 cm away. For 35 mm motion pictures, the image area on the film is 22 mm by 16 mm; the limit of tolerable error was traditionally set at 0.05 mm diameter, while for 16 mm film, where the size is about half as large, the tolerance is stricter, 0.025 mm. More modern practice for 35 mm productions set the circle of confusion limit at 0.025 mm. The term "camera movements" refers to swivel and shift adjustments of the lens holder and the film holder.

These features have been in use since the 1800's and are still in use today on view cameras, technical cameras, cameras with tilt/shift or perspective control lenses, etc. Swiveling the lens or sensor causes the POF to swivel, causes the field of acceptable focus to swivel with the POF. While calculations for DOF of cameras with swivel set to zero have been discussed and documented since before the 1940's, documenting calculations for cameras with non-zero swivel seem to have begun in 1990. More so than in the case of the zero swivel camera, there are various methods to form criteria and set up calculations for DOF when swivel is non-zero. However, since the 1800's there seems to have been universal agreement that there is a gradual reduction of clarity in objects as they move away from the POF, at some virtual flat or curved surface the reduced clarity becomes unacceptable; some photographers do calculations or use tables, some use markings on their equipment, some judge by previewing the image.

When the POF is rotated, the near and far limits of DOF may be thought of as wedge-shaped, with the apex of the wedge nearest the camera. Traditional depth-of-field formulas can be hard to use in practice; as an alternative, the same effective calculation can be done without regard to the focal length and f-number. Moritz von Rohr and Merklinger observe that the effective absolute aperture diameter can be used for similar formula in certain circumstances. Moreover, traditional depth-of-field formulas assume equal acceptable circles of confusion for near and far objects. Merklinger suggested that distant objects need to be much sharper to be re

Gondeshwar Temple, Sinnar

The Gondeshwar temple is an 11th-12th century Hindu temple located in Sinnar, a town in the Nashik district of Maharashtra, India. It features a panchayatana plan; the Gondeshwar temple was built during the rule of the Seuna dynasty, is variously dated to either the 11th or the 12th century. Sinnar was a stronghold of the dynasty during their pre-imperial period, modern historians identify it with Seunapura, a town established by the Yadava king Seuanchandra. According to local tradition, the town of Sinnar was established by the Gavali chief Rav Singhuni, the Gondeshvara temple was commissioned by his son Rav Govinda, at a cost of 200,000 rupees. According to another suggestion, the temple - known as Govindeshvara - was built by the Yadava feudatory Govinda-raja, but no historical evidence supports this suggestion; the Gondeshwar temple is built in the Bhumija style, in form of a panchayatana complex, which features a main shrine surrounded by four subsidiary shrines. The temple is situated on a rectangular platform.

The plan of the temple is similar to that of the Ambarnath Shiva temple, but the sculptures on its exterior walls are of inferior quality than those of the Ambarnath temple. The temple complex was surrounded by a wall, now destroyed.. Udayesvara Temple known as Neelkantheshwara temple in Udaipur, Madhya Pradesh shares with the similar design; the main shrine is dedicated to Shiva, contains a large linga. The shrine and the Nandi pavilion facing it are located on an elevated plinth; the mandapa, which has porches on three sides, acts as the entrance to the temple. The shrine has a Nagara-style shikhara; the walls of the temple depict scenes from the ancient epic Ramayana. The subsidiary shrines are dedicated to Surya, Vishnu and Ganesha: all of them have a porch, they are rectangular in plan, include a mandapa, an antarala, the garbhagriha

Cal 2-27

The Cal 2-27 is an American sailboat, designed by William Lapworth and first built in 1974. The Cal 2-27 design replaced the earlier Cal 27 and was replaced in turn in the Cal Yachts line, by the Cal 3-27 in 1983; the Cal 2-27 was built by Cal Yachts in the United States between 1974 and 1980, but it is now out of production. During its six-year production run 656 examples were built; the boat was developed into the Crown 28 in Canada by Calgan Marine. The Cal 2-27 is a small recreational keelboat, built predominantly of fiberglass, with wood trim, it has an internally-mounted spade-type rudder and a fixed fin keel. It carries 3,100 lb of ballast; the boat has a draft of 4.25 ft with the standard keel fitted. The boat was factory-fitted with a Universal Atomic 4 gasoline engine, although in the production run a Farymann diesel engine became an option; the fuel tank holds 25 U. S. gallons and the fresh water tank has a capacity of 20 U. S. gallons. The boat has a hull speed of 6.3 kn. List of sailing boat typesRelated development Cal 27 Cal 3-27 Crown 28Similar sailboats Aloha 27 C&C 27 Catalina 27 Catalina 270 Catalina 275 Sport CS 27 Edel 820 Express 27 Fantasia 27 Halman Horizon Hotfoot 27 Hullmaster 27 Hunter 27 Hunter 27-2 Hunter 27-3 Island Packet 27 Mirage 27 Mirage 27 O'Day 272 Orion 27-2 Tanzer 27 Watkins 27 Watkins 27P Media related to Cal 2-27 at Wikimedia Commons

1890 Rochester Broncos season

The 1890 Rochester Broncos season was the team's only season in Major League Baseball. In 1889, the team had played in the minor league International Association as the Rochester Jingoes; the Broncos finished 5th in the American Association. They went 23 -- 41 on the road. After the season, the team returned to the minor leagues, moving to the Eastern Association as the Rochester Hop Bitters. Harry Lyons led the league in outs. Sandy Griffin was tied for 4th in the league in doubles. Jimmy Knowles was 4th in RBIs. Ted Scheffler was 2nd in stolen bases, 4th in hit by pitches, tied for 4th in bases on balls. Bob Barr was 1st in the league in walks tied for 1st in games lost. Barr was 2nd in the league in games pitched, games started, complete games, batters faced, hits allowed, earned runs and innings pitched, he was 4th in wild pitches. He was 5th in strikeouts and tied for 5th in shutouts; the team had the third best ERA in the league. At 17, Harvey Blauvelt was the league's youngest player. Note: Pos = Position.

= Batting average. = Batting average.

Charles Lewis Meryon

Charles Lewis Meryon was an English physician and biographer. The son of Lewis Meryon of Rye, from a Huguenot background, he was born on 27 June 1783, he was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, from 1796 to 1802. Obtaining a Stuart's exhibition to St John's College, Oxford, he matriculated there on 29 March 1803, graduated B. A. 1806, M. A. 1809, M. B. and M. D. 1817. He studied medicine at St. Thomas's Hospital under Henry Cline. With Cline's recommendation, Meryon was in 1810 taken on by the eccentric Lady Hester Stanhope, as her medical attendant, on a voyage to Sicily and the Near East, he was with her during her seven years' wanderings, saw her settled on Mount Lebanon, returned to England to take his medical degrees. Meryon revisited Syria at Lady Hester's request in 1819, found that she had adopted local customs. A clash with one of her medical men ended his stay. Meryon was admitted a candidate of the Royal College of Physicians on 26 June 1820, a fellow on 25 June 1821. Shortly afterwards he became domestic physician to Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 4th Baronet, but in 1827, at the request of Lady Hester Stanhope, he started again for Syria, with his wife and family.

They were attacked and robbed en route by a pirate, returned to Livorno, where they stayed for a time. In November 1830 they sailed from Marseille, arrived at Mount Lebanon about 15 December. Lady Hester had a large household, with about 30 servants, over time became house-bound, she would talk to Meryon into the night. She moved to Joun, died in 1839. After disagreements centred on his wife, Meryon left Mount Lebanon in April 1831, he paid Lady Hester a fourth and last visit between July 1837 and August 1838. Settling in London, Meryon died there on 11 September 1877, aged 94. Meryon published in London Memoirs of the Lady Hester Stanhope, as related by herself in Conversations with her Physician, They form, in effect, a sequel to his work of the following year, Travels of Lady Hester Stanhope, forming the completion of her Memoirs narrated by her Physician; the 1860 poem The Origin of Rome and of the Papacy, by "Deuteros Whistlecraft", is attributed to Meryon. It is a translation from Giovanni Battista Casti.

Meryon had a son with a French ballet dancer, the artist Charles Méryon. Edward Meryon M. D. was a nephew. Charles Meryon had a daughter Eugenia and a son John by his wife, as mentioned in Lady Stanhope's memoirs. Online Books pageAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Meryon, Charles Lewis". Dictionary of National Biography. 37. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Komachiya Station

Komachiya Station is a railway station on the Iida Line in the city of Komagane, Nagano Prefecture, operated by Central Japan Railway Company. Komachiya Station is served by the Iida Line and is 164.4 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Toyohashi Station. The station consists of one ground-level side platform serving one bi-directional track. There is no station building, but only a shelter built on the platform; the station is unattended. Komachiya Station opened on 26 December 1914. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR Central. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 706 passengers daily. Komagane City Hall Akaho Elementary School Akaho Junior High School List of railway stations in Japan Komachiya Station information