Der Ring des Nibelungen

Der Ring des Nibelungen, WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner. The works are based loosely on characters from the Nibelungenlied; the composer termed the cycle a "Bühnenfestspiel", structured in three days preceded by a Vorabend. It is referred to as the Ring cycle, Wagner's Ring, or The Ring. Wagner wrote the libretto and music over the course of about twenty-six years, from 1848 to 1874; the four parts that constitute the Ring cycle are, in sequence: Das Rheingold Die Walküre Siegfried Götterdämmerung Individual works of the sequence have been performed separately, indeed the operas contain dialogues that mention events in the previous operas, so that a viewer could watch any of them without having watched the previous parts and still understand the plot. However, Wagner intended them to be performed in series; the first performance as a cycle opened the first Bayreuth Festival in 1876, beginning with Das Rheingold on 13 August and ending with Götterdämmerung on 17 August.

Opera stage director Anthony Freud stated that Der Ring des Nibelungen "marks the high-water mark of our art form, the most massive challenge any opera company can undertake." Wagner's title is most rendered in English as The Ring of the Nibelung. The Nibelung of the title is the dwarf Alberich, the ring in question is the one he fashions from the Rhine Gold; the title therefore denotes "Alberich's Ring". The "-en" suffix in "Nibelungen" can occur in a genitive singular, accusative singular, dative singular, or a plural in any case, but the article "des" preceding makes it clear that the genitive singular is intended here. "Nibelungen" is mistaken as a plural, but the Ring of the Nibelungs is incorrect. The cycle is a work of extraordinary scale; the most outstanding facet of the monumental work is its sheer length: a full performance of the cycle takes place over four nights at the opera, with a total playing time of about 15 hours, depending on the conductor's pacing. The first and shortest work, Das Rheingold, has no interval and is one continuous piece of music lasting around two and a half hours, while the final and longest, Götterdämmerung, takes up to five hours, excluding intervals.

The cycle is modelled after ancient Greek dramas that were presented as three tragedies and one satyr play. The Ring proper ends with Götterdämmerung, with Rheingold as a prelude. Wagner called Das Rheingold a Vorabend or "Preliminary Evening", Die Walküre, Siegfried and Götterdämmerung were subtitled First Day, Second Day and Third Day of the trilogy proper; the scale and scope of the story is epic. It follows the struggles of gods and several mythical creatures over the eponymous magic ring that grants domination over the entire world; the drama and intrigue continue through three generations of protagonists, until the final cataclysm at the end of Götterdämmerung. The music of the cycle is thick and richly textured, grows in complexity as the cycle proceeds. Wagner wrote for an orchestra of gargantuan proportions, including a enlarged brass section with new instruments such as the Wagner tuba, bass trumpet and contrabass trombone. Remarkably, he uses a chorus only briefly, in acts 2 and 3 of Götterdämmerung, mostly of men with just a few women.

He had a purpose-built theatre constructed, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, in which to perform this work. The theatre has a special stage that blends the huge orchestra with the singers' voices, allowing them to sing at a natural volume; the result was that the singers did not have to strain themselves vocally during the long performances. The plot revolves around a magic ring that grants the power to rule the world, forged by the Nibelung dwarf Alberich from gold he stole from the Rhine maidens in the river Rhine. Wagner described the Ring itself as a Rune-magic taufr intended to rule the feminine multiplicative power by a fearful magical act termed "denial of love". With the assistance of the god Loge, Wotan – the chief of the gods – steals the ring from Alberich, but is forced to hand it over to the giants and Fasolt in payment for building the home of the gods, Valhalla, or they will take Freia, who provides the gods with the golden apples that keep them young. Wotan's schemes to regain the ring, spanning generations, drive much of the action in the story.

His grandson, the mortal Siegfried, wins the ring by slaying Fafner – as Wotan intended – but is betrayed and slain as a result of the intrigues of Alberich's son Hagen, who wants the ring for himself. The Valkyrie Brünnhilde – Siegfried's lover and Wotan's daughter who lost her immortality for defying her father in an attempt to save Siegfried's father Sigmund – returns the ring to the Rhine maidens as she commits suicide on Siegfried's funeral pyre. Hagen is drowned. In the process, the gods and Valhalla are destroyed. Details of the storylines can be found in the articles on each music drama. Wagner created the story of the Ring by fusing elements from many German and Scandinavian myths and folk-tales; the Old Norse Edda supplied much of the material for Das Rheingold, while Die Walküre was based on the Völsunga saga. Siegfried contains elements from the Völsunga saga and Thidrekssaga; the final Götterdämmerung draws from the 12th-century German poem, the Nibelungenlied, which appears to have been the original inspiration for the Ring

Toby Everett

Toby Joe Everett is an English rugby league footballer who plays as a prop or loose forward for the Batley Bulldogs in the Betfred Championship. He has played for the London Broncos in the Super League and the RFL Championship. Everett spent time on loan from the Broncos at the London Skolars, Hemel Stags and the Toronto Wolfpack in League 1, he has played for the Dewsbury Rams in the Championship. Everett was born in Farnborough, England, he played for the London Broncos. Everett has spent time on loan at the London Skolars and Hemel Stags, his deal with the Toronto Wolfpack was blighted due to rehabilitation for an injury. In September 2018 Everett signed for the Batley Bulldogs. Toronto Wolfpack profile London Broncos profile Scoresway profile

Nova América

Nova América is a municipality in northeastern Goiás state, Brazil. Nova América is located 71 km. east of Ceres and the important BR-153 highway. Nearby towns are 21 km. Crixás, 55 km. and Nova Glória, 45 km. Distance to Goiânia: 256 km. Highway connections: GO-080 / Nerópolis / São Francisco de Goiás / BR-153 / Rialma / GO-434 / Rubiataba. See SeplanNeighboring municipalities: Rubiataba, Crixás, Mozarlândia In 2007 the population density of the municipality was 10.38 inhabitants/km2. The urban population was 1,532 and the rural population was 668; the geometric growth rate was 0.07% for the period 1996/2007. Nova América began in 1944 on the banks of the Baunilha River; the first settler was José Jeremias. In 1952 he donated them to settlers; the first name was "Baunilha", after the river. In 1952 it was raised to a district belonging to Itapaci with the name "América", after the wife of its founder, América do Couto. In 1958 it was dismembered to become a municipality; the economy is based on modest agriculture, cattle raising and public employment.

In 2007 there were 14 retail units in the town. There were no financial institutions. In 2007 there were 258 automobiles. There were 269 farms in 2006 with a total area of 21,804 hectares, of which 800 hectares were cropland and 16,400 hectares were pasture. In 2006 there were a modest number of poultry and swine; the main agricultural products were rice and corn, none surpassing 500 hectares in planted area. In 2007 there was only 1 walk-in health clinic in the town. In 2000 the infant mortality rate was 26.46, below the national average of 35.0. In 2006 the school system had 4 schools, 19 classrooms, 54 teachers, 794 students. In 2000 the adult literacy rate was 82.4%, below the national average of 86.4%. Ranking on the Municipal Human Development Index MHDI: 0.715 State ranking: 183 National ranking: 2,704 For the complete list see Frigoletto Sepin