Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm
"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" is the national anthem of Estonia. It was adopted as the national anthem in 1920; the lyrics were written by Johann Voldemar Jannsen and are set to a melody composed in 1848 by Fredrik Pacius, that of the national anthem of Finland: "Maamme". The only difference between the two anthems is the key signature, it is considered to be an ethnic anthem for Livonian people with text "Min izāmō, min sindimō". The song was first presented to the public as a choral work in the Grand Song Festival of Estonia in 1869 and became a symbol of the Estonian National Awakening. "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" was adopted as the national anthem of Estonia in 1920, after the Estonian War of Independence. In contrast, Finland never passed an equivalent legislation for "Maamme", thus it is considered to be the de facto Finnish national anthem. In 1944, the Soviet Union invaded and illegally occupied Estonia and "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ended up being banned by the Soviet regime. During the Soviets' occupation of Estonia from 1945 to 1990, the Soviet puppet regime for Estonia, known as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, had its own regional anthem.
Yet the people of Estonia could hear their former national anthem as Finland's state broadcaster Yleisradio, whose radio and television broadcasts were received in northern Estonia, played an instrumental version of the Finnish national anthem, identical to this song, at the conclusion of its broadcast every night. The official lyrics are in Estonian; the Estonian national anthem - web page of the State Chancellery, an audio stream. The anthem is played by vocals by the National Male Choir. Streaming audio and details of the Estonian anthem
The "Deutschlandlied", or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922. In East Germany, the national anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" between 1949 and 1990. Since World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany, only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem; the stanza's beginning, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" is considered the unofficial national motto of Germany, is inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins. The music is the hymn "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser", written in 1797 by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn as an anthem for the birthday of Francis II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and of Austria. In 1841, the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the lyrics of "Das Lied der Deutschen" as a new text for that music, counterposing the national unification of Germany to the eulogy of a monarch, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time. Along with the flag of Germany, which first appeared in its "modern" form in 1778.
In order to endorse its republican and liberal tradition, the song was chosen as the national anthem of Germany in 1922, during the Weimar Republic. West Germany adopted the "Deutschlandlied" as its official national anthem in 1952 for similar reasons, with only the third stanza sung on official occasions. Upon German reunification in 1990, only the third stanza was confirmed as the national anthem; the song is well known by the beginning and refrain of the first stanza, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles", but this has never been its title. The line "Germany, Germany above all" meant that the most important goal of 19th-century German liberal revolutionaries should be a unified Germany which would overcome loyalties to the local kingdoms, principalities and palatines of then-fragmented Germany; the melody of the "Deutschlandlied" was written by Joseph Haydn in 1797 to provide music to the poem "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" by Lorenz Leopold Haschka. The song was a birthday anthem honouring Francis II, Habsburg emperor, was intended as a parallel to Great Britain's "God Save the King".
Haydn's work is sometimes called the "Emperor's Hymn." It has been conjectured that Haydn took the first four measures of the melody from a Croatian folk song. This hypothesis has never achieved unanimous agreement. For further discussion see folk music. Haydn used the hymn as the basis for the second movement of his Opus 76 No. 3, a string quartet called the "Emperor" or "Kaiser" quartet. The Holy Roman Empire, stemming from the Middle Ages, was disintegrating when the French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic Wars altered the political map of Central Europe. However, hopes for the Enlightenment, human rights and republican government after Napoleon's defeat in 1815 were dashed when the Congress of Vienna reinstated many small German principalities. In addition, with the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich and his secret police enforced censorship in universities, to keep a watch on the activities of teachers and students, whom he held responsible for the spread of radical liberalist ideas.
Since reactionaries among the monarchs were the main adversaries, demands for freedom of the press and other liberal rights were most uttered in connection with the demand for a united Germany though many revolutionaries-to-be had different opinions about whether a republic or a constitutional monarchy would be the best solution for Germany. The German Confederation was a loose federation of 35 monarchical states and four republican free cities, with a Federal Assembly in Frankfurt, they began to remove internal customs barriers during the Industrial Revolution, the German Customs Union was formed among the majority of the states in 1834. In 1840 Hoffmann wrote a song about the Zollverein to Haydn's melody, in which he praised the free trade of German goods which brought Germans and Germany closer. After the 1848 March Revolution, the German Confederation handed over its authority to the Frankfurt Parliament. For a short period in the late 1840s, Germany was economically united with the borders described in the anthem, a democratic constitution was being drafted, with the black-red-gold flag representing it.
However, after 1849 the two largest German monarchies and Austria, put an end to this liberal movement toward national unification. August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the text in 1841 on holiday on the North Sea island of Heligoland a possession of the United Kingdom. Hoffmann von Fallersleben intended "Das Lied der Deutschen" to be sung to Haydn's tune, as the first publication of the poem included the music; the first line, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, über alles in der Welt", was an appeal to the various German monarchs to give the creation of a united Germany a higher priority than the independence of their small states. In the third stanza, with a call for "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit", Hoffmann expressed his desire for a united and free Germany where the rule of law, not monarchical arbitrariness, would prevail. In the e
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found
Carl August Nielsen was a Danish musician and violinist recognized as his country's most prominent composer. Brought up by poor yet musically talented parents on the island of Funen, he demonstrated his musical abilities at an early age, he played in a military band before attending the Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen from 1884 until December 1886. He premiered his Op. 1, Suite for Strings, in 1888, at the age of 23. The following year, Nielsen began a 16-year stint as a second violinist in the Royal Danish Orchestra under the conductor Johan Svendsen, during which he played in Giuseppe Verdi's Falstaff and Otello at their Danish premieres. In 1916, he took a post teaching at the Royal Danish Academy and continued to work there until his death. Although his symphonies and choral music are now internationally acclaimed, Nielsen's career and personal life were marked by many difficulties reflected in his music; the works he composed between 1897 and 1904 are sometimes ascribed to his "psychological" period, resulting from a turbulent marriage with the sculptor Anne Marie Brodersen.
Nielsen is noted for his six symphonies, his Wind Quintet and his concertos for violin and clarinet. In Denmark, his opera Maskarade and many of his songs have become an integral part of the national heritage, his early music was inspired by composers such as Brahms and Grieg, but he soon developed his own style, first experimenting with progressive tonality and diverging more radically from the standards of composition still common at the time. Nielsen's sixth and final symphony, Sinfonia semplice, was written in 1924–25, he died from a heart attack six years and is buried in Vestre Cemetery, Copenhagen. Nielsen maintained the reputation of a musical outsider during his lifetime, both in his own country and internationally, it was only that his works entered the international repertoire, accelerating in popularity from the 1960s through Leonard Bernstein and others. In Denmark, Nielsen's reputation was sealed in 2006 when three of his compositions were listed by the Ministry of Culture amongst the twelve greatest pieces of Danish music.
For many years, he appeared on the Danish hundred-kroner banknote. The Carl Nielsen Museum in Odense documents that of his wife. Between 1994 and 2009 the Royal Danish Library, sponsored by the Danish government, completed the Carl Nielsen Edition available online, containing background information and sheet music for all of Nielsen's works, many of which had not been published. Nielsen was born the seventh of twelve children to a poor peasant family on 9 June 1865 at Sortelung near Nørre Lyndelse, south of Odense on the island of Funen, his father, Niels Jørgensen, was a house painter and traditional musician who, with his abilities as a fiddler and cornet player, was in strong demand for local celebrations. Nielsen described his childhood in his autobiography Min Fynske Barndom, his mother, whom he recalls singing folk songs during his childhood, came from a well-to-do family of sea captains while one of his half-uncles, Hans Andersen, was a talented musician. Nielsen gave an account of his introduction to music: "I had heard music before, heard father play the violin and cornet, heard mother singing, when in bed with the measles, I had tried myself out on the little violin".
He had received the instrument from his mother. He learned the violin and piano as a child and wrote his earliest compositions at the age of eight or nine: a lullaby, now lost, a polka which the composer mentioned in his autobiography; as his parents did not believe he had any future as a musician, they apprenticed him to a shopkeeper from a nearby village when he was fourteen. After learning to play brass instruments, on 1 November 1879 he became a bugler and alto trombonist in the band of the army's 16th Battalion at nearby Odense. Nielsen did not give up the violin during his time with the battalion, continuing to play it when he went home to perform at dances with his father; the army paid him three kroner and 45 øre and a loaf of bread every five days for two and a half years, after which his salary was raised enabling him to buy the civilian clothes he needed to perform at barn dances. In 1881, Nielsen began to take his violin playing more studying under Carl Larsen, the sexton at Odense Cathedral.
It is not known how much Nielsen composed during this period, but from his autobiography, it can be deduced that he wrote some trios and quartets for brass instruments, that he had difficulty in coming to terms with the fact that brass instruments were tuned in different keys. Following an introduction to Niels W. Gade, the director of the Royal Academy in Copenhagen, by whom he was well received, Nielsen obtained his release from the military band at short notice, studied at the Academy from the beginning of 1884. Though not an outstanding student and composing little, Nielsen progressed well in violin under Valdemar Tofte, received a solid grounding in music theory from Orla Rosenhoff, who would remain a valued adviser during his early years as a professional composer, he studied composition under Gade, whom he liked as a friend but not for his music. Contacts with fellow students and cultured families in Copenhagen, some of whom would become lifelong friends, became important; the patchy education resulting from his country background left Nielsen insatiably curious about the arts and aesthetics.
But, in the opinion of the musicologist David Fanning, it left him "with a pe
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, was titled "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin"; the French National Convention adopted it as the Republic's anthem in 1795. The song acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching to the capital; the song is the first example of the "European march" anthemic style. The anthem's evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music; as the French Revolution continued, the monarchies of Europe became concerned that revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries. The War of the First Coalition was an effort to stop the revolution, or at least contain it to France; the French army did not distinguish itself, Coalition armies invaded France. On 25 April 1792, baron Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, the mayor of Strasbourg, requested his guest Rouget de Lisle compose a song "that will rally our soldiers from all over to defend their homeland, under threat".
That evening, Rouget de Lisle wrote "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin", dedicated the song to Marshal Nicolas Luckner, a Bavarian in French service from Cham. A plaque on the building on Place Broglie where De Dietrich's house once stood commemorates the event. De Dietrich was executed the next year during the Reign of Terror; the melody soon became the rallying call to the French Revolution and was adopted as "La Marseillaise" after the melody was first sung on the streets by volunteers from Marseille by the end of May. These fédérés were making their entrance into the city of Paris on 30 July 1792 after a young volunteer from Montpellier called François Mireur had sung it at a patriotic gathering in Marseille, the troops adopted it as the marching song of the National Guard of Marseille. A newly graduated medical doctor, Mireur became a general under Napoléon Bonaparte and died in Egypt at age 28; the song's lyric reflects the invasion of France by foreign armies that were under way when it was written.
Strasbourg itself was attacked just a few days later. The invading forces were repulsed from France following their defeat in the Battle of Valmy; as the vast majority of Alsatians did not speak French, a German version was published in October 1792 in Colmar. The Convention accepted it as the French national anthem in a decree passed on 14 July 1795, making it France's first anthem, it lost this status under Napoleon I, the song was banned outright by Louis XVIII and Charles X, only being re-instated after the July Revolution of 1830. During Napoleon I's reign, "Veillons au salut de l'Empire" was the unofficial anthem of the regime, in Napoleon III's reign, it was "Partant pour la Syrie". During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, "La Marseillaise" was recognised as the anthem of the international revolutionary movement. Eight years in 1879, it was restored as France's national anthem, has remained so since. Several musical antecedents have been cited for the melody: Mozart's Allegro maestoso of Piano Concerto No. 25 the credo of the fourth mass of Holtzmann of Mursberg, but this has been refuted by Edgar Istel in 1922.
The oratorio Esther by Jean Baptiste Lucien Grison For Guido Rimonda it is based on "Tema e variazioni in Do maggiore", a spurious work attributed to the Italian violinist Giovanni Battista Viotti. Rouget de Lisle. Only the first verse and the first chorus are sung today in France. There are some slight historical variations in the lyrics of the song; these verses were omitted from the national anthem. "La Marseillaise" was arranged for soprano and orchestra by Hector Berlioz in about 1830. Franz Liszt wrote a piano transcription of the anthem. During World War I, bandleader James Reese Europe played a jazz version of "La Marseillaise", which can be heard on part 2 of the Ken Burns TV documentary Jazz. Serge Gainsbourg recorded a reggae version in 1978, titled "Aux armes et cætera". Jacky Terrasson recorded a jazz version of "La Marseillaise", included in his 2001 album A Paris. During the French Revolution, Giuseppe Cambini published Patriotic Airs for Two Violins, in which the song is quoted and as a variation theme, with other patriotic songs.
Ludwig van Beethoven quotes "La Marseillaise" in his Wellington's Victory overture, Op. 91, composed in 1813. Gioachino Rossini quotes "La Marseillaise" in his 1813 opera, L'italiana in Algeri, during the choral introduction to Isabella's 2nd act aria "Pensa alla patria" and in the second act of his opera Semiramide. Robert Schumann used part of "La Marseillaise" for "Die beiden Grenadiere", his 1840 setting of Heinrich Heine's poem "Die Grenadiere"; the quotation appears at the end of the song. Schumann incorporated "La Marseillaise" as a major motif in his overture Hermann und Dorothea, inspired by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, quotes it, in waltz rhythm, in the first movement of Faschingsschwank aus Wien, for solo piano. Richard Wagner quotes from "La Marseillaise" in his 1839–40 setting of a French translation of Heine's poem. In Orphée aux enfers, Jac
"Maamme" or "Vårt land" is Finland's national anthem. The music was composed by the German immigrant Fredrik Pacius, with words by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, with this music it was performed for the first time on 13 May 1848, it was written for the 500th anniversary of Porvoo and for that occasion it was Runeberg himself who wrote the music. The poem has been influenced both in style and content; the melody of "Maamme" is used for the national anthem of Estonia with a themed text, "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm". It is considered to be the ethnic anthem for the Livonians as "Min izāmō"; the original poem, written in 1846 but not printed until 1848, had 11 stanzas and formed the prologue to the verse cycle The Tales of Ensign Stål, a classic example of Romantic nationalism. The current Finnish language text is attributed to the 1889 translation of Ensign Stål by Paavo Cajander, but in fact originates from the 1867 translation by Julius Krohn; the Tales of Ensign Stål were much appreciated throughout all of Scandinavia.
Up until the time of Finland's independence in 1917 and 1918, when the song began to be recognized as applying to Finland, Pacius's tune and Runeberg's text were also sung in Denmark and Sweden. Note that in the original Swedish text there is no reference to Finland, only to a country in the north, but the Finnish text explicitly refers to Finland; the poem's theme is, remarkably similar to that of the national anthems of Sweden and Norway. There is no law regarding an official national anthem in Finland, in the way the coat of arms and flag of Finland are defined. Instead its position has been established by convention over the years. Today, "Maamme" is established by convention. Children learn it in school, it is played at sporting events, such as the Olympics. In the 1880s and in the 1920s there were more attempts to replace it with a Finnish language version but these ceased by the 1930s; some Finns have proposed that the Finnish national anthem be changed to "Finlandia" by Jean Sibelius, with lyrics by V.
A. Koskenniemi and Joel Rundt. There are those who prefer "Finlandia" as a musical piece, although critics claim that it is difficult to sing, it is said. It was popular throughout the 19th century, but established as national anthem only after Pacius' death; the melody of "Maamme" has similarities with the German drinking song "Papst und Sultan". Many believe that Fredrik Pacius unintentionally copied parts of the tune. Another Finnish patriotic song, "Sotilaspoika", composed by Pacius includes similarities with "Papst und Sultan". During 1993, an instrumental version of Maamme was used as professional wrestler Tony Halme's entrance theme The original lyrics consist of eleven verses but it is customary to sing the first verse and the last verse, unless the people gathered are mixed Finnish and Swedish speaking. In the case three verses are sung: the first in Finnish, the first in Swedish and the last in Finnish. Flag of Finland Holidays in Finland Finnish national symbols "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" – the national anthem of Estonia "Ålänningens sång" – the regional anthem of Åland "Min izāmō" – the ethnic anthem of the Livonians Finland: "Maamme" - Audio of the national anthem of Finland, with information and lyrics The Livonian version, sung with organ History of the Finnish national anthem Full lyrics at Wikisource This Is Finland: The Finnish National Anthem - historical overview and RealAudio of the song www.national-anthems.net - mp3, RealAudio and Windows Media files of performances "Papst und Sultan" - A German drinking-song which resembles the tune of Maamme