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Derby Museum and Art Gallery

Derby Museum and Art Gallery was established in 1879 in Derby, along with Derby Central Library, in a new building designed by Richard Knill Freeman and given to Derby by Michael Thomas Bass. The collection includes a gallery displaying many paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby. Further displays include archaeology, natural history, military collections and world cultures; the Art Gallery was opened in 1882. The museum can trace its start to the formation of the Derby Town and County Museum and Natural History Society on 10 February 1836; the society was housed by Full Street Public Baths but it was a private society funded by its members' subscriptions. Its collections were created by donations from Dr Forrester, a President of Derby Philosophical Society; the patron of the Museum Society was William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, the President was Sir George Crewe, a keen naturalist. Col. George Gawler contributed a collection of minerals and exotic stuffed birds which included an albatross from his time as governor in South Australia.

In 1839 a major exhibition was held at the Mechanics' Institute which contained many items including those from Joseph Strutt's collection. Many of these made their way into Derby Museum's collection; the society moved in 1840 to the Athenaeum in Victoria Street. The society's collections grew in 1856 and they were first offered for incorporation into the town by William Mundy, but the offer was rejected. In 1857, Llewellyn Jewitt became secretary and the museum was opened to the general public on Saturday mornings. In 1858 the Derby Philosophical Society moved to a house on the Wardwick in Derby as it merged with what was called the Derby Town and County Museum and the Natural History Society; this move included the society's library of 4,000 volumes and scientific apparatus and its collection of fossils. In 1863 the botanist Alexander Croall was appointed the first Librarian and Curator and the following year the museum and library were joined together. Croall left in 1875 to become the curator of the Smith Institute in Stirling.

The Derby Town and County Museum was transferred into the ownership of Derby Corporation in 1870, but there were difficulties in finding space to display the collections. After placing all the artefacts into storage for three years, the museum was opened to the public on 28 June 1879; the Art Gallery opened in 1882 and in 1883 the museum had electricity supplied for new lighting. In 1936 the museum was given a substantial collection of paintings by Alfred E. Goodey, collecting art for 50 years. At his death in 1945 he left £13,000 to build an extension to the museum; the extension, which now houses the museum, was completed in 1964. Refurbishment to parts of both the new and old buildings were undertaken in 2010–11. In 2012, over 1,000 items were stolen from 19 June; the museum did not know about the theft until they accessed the facility to remove an item from storage. Stolen items included coins and watches. A man was charged with receiving stolen goods in connection with the theft in January 2013.

Derby was significant in the eighteenth century for its role in the Enlightenment, a period in which science and philosophy challenged the divine right of kings to rule. The enlightenment has many strands, including the philosophical "Scottish enlightenment" centred around the philosopher David Hume, political changes that culminated in the French revolution, but the English Midlands was an area where many key figures of industry and science came together; the Lunar Society included Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, Joseph Priestley and Josiah Wedgwood with Benjamin Franklin corresponding from America. Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, started the Derby Philosophical Society when he moved to Derby in 1783; some of the paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby, which are renowned for their use of light and shade, are of Lunar Society members. The Derby Gallery possesses over 300 sketches and 34 oil paintings by Wright, holds a document collection. One of the paintings is entitled The Alchymist in Search of the Philosopher's Stone and it depicts the discovery of the element phosphorus by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669.

A flask into which a large quantity of urine has been boiled down is seen bursting into light as the phosphorus, abundant in urine, ignites spontaneously in air. A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery shows an early mechanism for demonstrating the movement of the planets around the sun, an actual orrery is on display in the centre of the gallery in front of the painting; the Scottish scientist and lecturer James Ferguson undertook a series of lectures in Derby in July 1762. They were based on his book Lectures on Select Subjects in Mechanics, Pneumatics, Optics &c. published in 1760. In order to illustrate his lectures he used various machines and instruments. Wright attended Ferguson's lecture as tickets for the event were available from John Whitehurst, his close neighbour, the clockmaker and scientist; the artist could have drawn on Whitehurst's practical knowledge to find out more about the orrery and its operation. These factual paintings are considered to have metaphorical meaning too, the bursting into light of the phosphorus in front of a praying figure signifying the problematic transition from faith to scientific understanding and enlightenment, the various expressions on the figures around the bird in the airpump indicating concern over the possible inhumanity of the coming age of science.

These paintings represent a high point in scientific

William McNaught (Glasgow)

William McNaught was a Scottish engineer, from Glasgow, who patented a compound steam engine in 1845. This was a technique of improving the efficiency of a standard simple Watt beam engine; the engine was compounded by adding a high-pressure cylinder between the support column and the flywheel, on the side opposite the low-pressure cylinder. This improvement could be retrospectively fitted to existing engines. William McNaught was born on 27 May 1813 at Paisley, Scotland, son of John McNaught, the inventor of the McNaught indicator. McNaught patented his compound steam engine in 1845, he relocated to Manchester in 1849. The Robertson Street workshop was operated by William McNaught & Son as "Makers of Steam-Engine Indicators, Steam Gauges, etc" at 12 Hampden Terrace, Glasgow, at least until 1895. MacNaught died in Chorlton upon Medlock, Manchester, on 8 January 1881, leaving two sons who carried on the business, he was buried in Glasgow. A beam engine might run at 5 psi, using one low-pressure cylinder steamed by an 1840 wagon boiler, but when McNaught'ed the new high-pressure cylinder could run at over 60 psi, which the then-new Lancashire boiler could produce.

In addition the stress on the centre of the beam was reduced, stress on the crank pin reduced. This was important in preventing beam failure. Many engine makers McNaughted existing beam engines, including William McNaught of Rochdale, as the thermodynamic benefits of high-pressure steam were beginning to be understood. Bolton Steam Museum displays a McNaughtt'ed beam engine; the Cellars Clough mill engine was McNaughte'd by Woodhouse and Mitchell of Brighouse in 1909. Notes Bibliography

Eric Griffiths

Eric Ronald Griffiths was an English musician and dry cleaner, he was best known as the guitarist in the original lineup of The Quarrymen until he left the group in the summer of 1958. Born in Denbigh, North Wales, to Liverpudlian parents, Eric's mother returned to Liverpool in 1945 to live with her parents after her husband's death as an RAF pilot in World War II. In 1950 the family moved to Halewood Drive, Woolton and at the age of 11 Griffiths won a scholarship to Quarry Bank High School where he met John Lennon, Pete Shotton and Rod Davis; the four boys shared an interest in American music. Lennon and Griffiths attended some guitar lessons but found it too slow to learn and dropped the lessons when Lennon's mother taught them to play easier banjo chords; the two boys would play truant to practice in the Griffiths home. Griffiths befriended a novice drummer, Colin Hanton, with whom he would practice; when Lennon formed The Quarry Men with Shotton and Davis, Griffiths was invited to add his rudimentary skills because he had a new guitar.

Griffiths left school in the summer of 1957 with GCE passes in English and History and became an engineering apprentice whilst continuing to play as lead guitarist in the band. When Paul McCartney joined The Quarry Men he aspired to be lead guitarist but his ineptitude at his one public attempt stymied that; the other band members decided that neither McCartney nor Griffiths were suitable lead guitarists, so when George Harrison joined the band they suggested that Griffiths buy an electric bass and an amplifier, but he could not afford this. Griffiths was not invited to McCartney's house for the next rehearsal and when he coincidentally phoned them during the practice session, drummer Colin Hanton had to let him know he was no longer in the band. Griffiths decided to abandon engineering too and he joined the Merchant Navy as a cadet navigating officer, he continued to meet his old friends from the band when he was on leave but he lost contact with Lennon and McCartney after they first recorded with EMI.

Griffiths married Relda at Woolton Parish Church. He spent the next thirty years working in the prison service modernising prisoners' working practices. In 1972 he left the English Prison Service to join the Scottish Prison Service and he moved to Edinburgh with his wife and three sons. In 1994 he left the Prison Service to concentrate on running the family business, a chain of dry cleaners. In January 1997, Griffiths returned to Liverpool to meet some of his former band members at the Cavern Club's 40th anniversary. All the surviving original Quarry Men were there and that evening they gave an impromptu performance with borrowed instruments on the stage; when the band were persuaded to reform for a charity gig in Woolton in July 1997 Griffiths had to buy a guitar and re-learn a few chords. The reunion was a huge success and generated demand for a CD. Griffiths decided that the reformed band should record an album and John Lennon’s Original Quarrymen—Get back Together was released in September 1997.

Griffiths toured with The Quarrymen until his last performance at the SAS Royal Garden Hotel, Norway on 27 November 2004. He had been complaining of back pain and it became so acute that he had a hospital check-up and pancreatic cancer was diagnosed, he died at his Edinburgh home from pancreatic cancer on 29 January 2005. John Lennon's Original Quarrymen Obituary, The Independent

David Comes to Life

David Comes to Life is the third studio album by Canadian hardcore punk band Fucked Up. It was released on June 7, 2011 in North America and June 6, 2011 elsewhere on Matador Records in CD and double LP formats. David Comes to Life is an 18 song epic in four acts, it became Fucked Up's first charting album in the United States ranking at number 83 on the Billboard 200. The album is a rock opera set in 1980s England; the story involves meta-narrative plot devices. Drummer Jonah Falco described the album as a love story between the title character David and a girl named Veronica. David Comes to Life was first announced in March 2010, with guitarist Ben Cook describing the album as a musical; the album began recording in June 2010 in New York City and was finished in February 2011. The day before the album was released, the band took over Clint Roenisch Gallery in Toronto and turn it into a pop-up record shop, where they sold copies of David Comes to Life and 7" singles featuring other songs from the recording session.

The character of David Eliade had appeared in previous Fucked Up songs such as "David Comes to Life" and "David's Christmas". The reason Fucked Up made the album a rock opera was to contrast rock opera's perception as being indulgent with the rawness of hardcore punk; the music was written. Damian Abraham called the songs on David Comes to Life the most personal ones yet, saying "e could hide behind characters and pretend that we’re talking about David and Veronica when we’re talking about my breaking with my girlfriend or something We always wrote about things we’re passionate about, but we’re always writing it in the sort of'we','collective','us vs. humanity' type of thing. This time, it was much like'Here is what I am going through.' "On Record Store Day, Fucked Up released David's Town, a compilation of 11 songs purporting to be from bands in Byrdesdale Spa, the fictional town David Comes to Life is set in. Each song on the compilation featured a guest singer, including Danko Jones, Wesley Patrick Gonzalez, Dan Romano, Simone Schmidt, Cee Kay and Cloud Nothings.

David Eliade is a worker at a light bulb factory in late 70's, early 80's England. David meets Veronica Boisson, an activist, the two fall in love. Though David enjoys being in a relationship with Veronica, David starts to worry that something wrong is going to happen; the two build a bomb as a form of attempt to bomb the factory. The bomb fails to destroy the factory and ends up killing Veronica in the process. David feels sorrow for spending time with Veronica, thinking that it was all a waste, something the narrator agrees on. David feels guilty for causing Veronica's death; the story introduces an acquaintance of David named Vivian Benson, who tells David to not trust narration. David realizes that he is a character in a story, being controlled by Octavio St. Laurent, the story's narrator. David and Octavio fight for control over the plot, but David loses the fight and comes out feeling worse. Vivian reveals to David that she witnessed the bomb blast, that Octavio was the cause of Veronica's death.

Octavio accepts. However, Octavio defends his action, saying that because he was cast as a villain, he was doing his job and should not be blamed. Veronica's spirit returns to David and David realizes. David, glad with his experience, returns to the factory to relive everything again; the first music video from the album, "Queen of Hearts," was released on June 21, 2011. The video, directed by Scott Cudmore and shot in rural Ontario, features a children choir singing the song, with the boys singing Damien Abraham's part while the girls sing Madeline Follin's part; the second music video from the album, "The Other Shoe," was released on August 16, 2011. The video, directed by Matt Eastman, is set in the location of the album's story; the video features the characters David and Octavio, as well as the bomb that would kill Veronica. The video intercuts to footage of the band walking in slow motion; the third music video from the album, "Turn the Season," was released on December 12, 2011 on Spin's website.

The video features a photo shoot with the band intertwined with elements from the David Comes to Life story. On December 12, 2012, the fourth music video from the album, "Inside a Frame," premiered on David Comes to Life has received overwhelmingly positive reviews. On the review aggregate Metacritic, the album has a score of 86 out of 100, indicating "Universal acclaim."The A. V. Club's Steven Hyden gave the album a grade of "A," writing: "For a highfalutin concept record, the component parts of David Comes To Life are downright catchy. They're bracingly potent and screamingly vital. Brian Raftery of Spin praised the album, writing " is one of the most overly complicated hard-rock records of the past ten years. It's one of the best." Pitchfork's Larry Fitzmaurice gave the album a Best New Music designation, commenting on the album's length: "David Comes to Life is worth the commitment, a convincing demonstration of what can happen when a band works without limitations." AllMusic's Jason Lymangrover wrote "Guest backing vocalists Kurt Vile, Jennifer Castle, Madeline Follin give the songs a hint of melody, but otherwise, David Comes to Life is the musical equivalent of a bullhorn and a blender, all the more awesome for it."

Consequence of Sound's Adam Kivel, while criticizing the narrative, wrot

Hicksville, Ohio

Hicksville is a village in Defiance County, United States. The population was 3,581 at the 2010 census. Led by Henry W. Hicks, the Hicks Land Company platted the community in 1835 and 1836. A post office has been in operation at Hicksville since 1838. Hicksville was incorporated as a village in 1871. Hicksville made its debut in American literature in 1885 when Mark Twain mentioned the town in chapter 33 of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Tom Sawyer claims to be a stranger from Ohio. Hicksville is located at 41°17′39″N 84°45′43″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.66 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,581 people, 1,432 households, 946 families living in the village; the population density was 1,346.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,571 housing units at an average density of 590.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94.9% White, 0.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.1% of the population. There were 1,432 households of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.9% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the village was 36.9 years. 26% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,649 people, 1,476 households, 957 families living in the village; the population density was 1,450.4 people per square mile. There were 1,567 housing units at an average density of 622.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.88% White, 0.14% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 1.34% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.32% of the population. There were 1,476 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.03. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $39,459, the median income for a family was $43,571. Males had a median income of $32,066 versus $22,413 for females; the per capita income for the village was $1,385. About 2.1% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over.

The Hicksville Exempted Village School district operates one pre-K–12 school in the village. Hicksville has a branch of the Defiance Public Library System. Daeida Wilcox Beveridge, with her husband, developed the Los Angeles suburb of Hollywood Amelia Bingham, Broadway actress James Purdy, novelist Dain Clay, baseball player Don Batchelor, football player Village website Historical society

E.Y.E.: Divine Cybermancy

E. Y. E: Divine Cybermancy, stylised as E.Ψ.Ǝ: Divine Cybermancy, is an action role-playing first-person shooter video game developed by Streum On Studio, built using Valve's Source engine. It is a cyberpunk themed game based on the table-top role-playing game "A. V. A." Developed by Streum On Studio in 1998. The game spent about two years in development before being released on Steam. E. Y. E: Divine Cybermancy is set in a dystopian future; the player takes the role of an E. Y. E. Member, a secretive and elite army of demon-fighting psi-cybernetic warrior-monks, the military wing of an ancient demon-fighting cult called the Secreta Secretorum that dates back before mankind colonized space. With access to advanced technology, each member is infused with cybernetics, psionic training, genetic modification. A mystical alien army - the "Meta-Streumic Force" the psychic manifestation of countless environments and races destroyed by colonization efforts, rampages through all of known space. Taking advantage of this chaos, the Secreta Secretorum is attempting to seize power from the all-powerful Federation, the current human government, spanning countless worlds under its corrupt fist, made of various governments and megacorportions, weakened from the Meta-Streumic Force's attacks.

To complicate matters, E. Y. E is composed of two groups, the Jian Shang Di and the Culter Dei, the player belonging to the latter. Once proud allies in the past, they are in the middle of an unofficial and secret civil war; the player wakes up from a botched operation that left his comrades dead, with no memory of what has happened. Fighting his way through Federation forces and back to E. Y. E.'s base of operations, he learns through a message addressed to himself not to trust anyone. Your loyalties are torn between Commander Rimanah, the power-hungry leader of the Culter Dei and a father figure to the player character, your Mentor, a wise, if grouchy warrior who seeks to unite the Jians and the Culters into one force; the player must choose between supporting Rimanah, who seeks to destroy the Jian Shang Di, Mentor, whose cause is only supported by the player, leading to two different and distinct storylines. Gameplay begins with character creation, in which the player has three slots in which to choose from DNA types to apply.

This initial character-building DNA infusion has a semi-random outcome in generating the initial character statistics. Gameplay is from a first-person perspective; the player begins each game "asleep" and in a dreamscape, must walk through a door within the dream in order to wake up. Upon awaking, they spawn in the location. Little is known to the player about the environment at first, so they must learn about it by speaking to characters and accessing historical data terminals. Between missions, the player spends time talking to various friendly characters, learning about the current conflicts and their history, obtaining objectives, attempting to serve their greater goals by choosing from response options which can influence the direction of the conversation. Many between-mission scenes take place in the Temple, an elaborate and vast futuristic structure that serves as headquarters to the E. Y. E. Organization. New weapons and technologies can be purchased here using Brouzouf, the game's form of currency, earned by killing enemies, completing objectives, or hacking bank terminals.

The Temple contains many characters to speak to, a training room for testing weapons, multiple mobile armories where the player's available equipment can be loaded and armor changed, a medical section where new cybernetic abilities can be purchased, an archive room where the history of the in-game universe can be learned through the use of data terminals, where new psionic powers can be purchased. The Temple features an armory where new weapons can be bought, which can be equipped using the mobile armories; the Temple can be accessed at any time by choosing the Temple option at the game's loading screen, or in the escape menu, which pauses the current mission. Side missions can be acquired from Temple guard at its entrance, or the player can take a Temple exit to enter the local streets and see randomly generated objectives, battle various enemies, hack bank terminals, etc. to earn Brouzouf and experience, to find new technologies. The player loads out prior to missions at mobile armories, choosing a variety of weapons.

Melee weapons consist of different types of Samurai blade weapons. Ranged weapons consist of traditional firearms from handgun, assault, heavy machine, sniper classes, some of which have varying wall-penetrating values. Grenades and automated drone robots are available. Ammunition clips are unlimited. All items must be placed in inventory slots that are divided into groupings for each area on the player where they are to be stored; as a unique gameplay mechanic, all equipment carried causes a weight disadvantage, termed a "malus" in-game, as does the armor type chosen. The total weight malus is shown in the player's stats screen as a percentage; the player's available special abilities are listed in a screen where they can be activated or bound to a quick-access menu. Available abilities are dependent upon which upgrades have been purchased or researched, many are available upon character creation. Many abilities require the use of energy, for which a meter is always displayed on-screen, along with a life meter and a "mental balance" meter.

Energy is depleted by running, or by using "alchemy", an ability whereby enemies' dropped items can be converted to a health b