Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations in the economic sphere. It is the repeal of governmental regulation of the economy, it became common in advanced industrial economies in the 1970s and 1980s, as a result of new trends in economic thinking about the inefficiencies of government regulation, the risk that regulatory agencies would be controlled by the regulated industry to its benefit, thereby hurt consumers and the wider economy. Economic regulations were promoted during the Gilded Age, in which progressive reforms were touted as necessary to limit externalities like corporate abuse, unsafe child labor, pollution, to mitigate boom and bust cycles. Around the late 1970s, such reforms were deemed as burdensome on economic growth and many politicians espousing neoliberalism started promoting deregulation; the stated rationale for deregulation is that fewer and simpler regulations will lead to raised levels of competitiveness, therefore higher productivity, more efficiency and lower prices overall.

Opposition to deregulation may involve apprehension regarding environmental pollution and environmental quality standards, financial uncertainty, constraining monopolies. Regulatory reform is a parallel development alongside deregulation. Regulatory reform refers to organized and ongoing programs to review regulations with a view to minimizing and making them more cost effective; such efforts, given impetus by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, are embodied in the United States Office of Management and Budget's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the United Kingdom's Better Regulation Commission. Cost–benefit analysis is used in such reviews. In addition, there have been regulatory innovations suggested by economists, such as emissions trading. Deregulation can be distinguished from privatization, where privatization can be seen as taking state-owned service providers into the private sector. Argentina underwent heavy economic deregulation and had a fixed exchange rate during the Menem administration.

In December 2001, Paul Krugman compared Enron with Argentina, claiming that both were experiencing economic collapse due to excessive deregulation. Two months Herbert Inhaber claimed that Krugman confused correlation with causation, neither collapse was due to excessive deregulation. Having announced a wide range of deregulatory policies, Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced the policy of "Minimum Effective Regulation" in 1986; this introduced now familiar requirements for "regulatory impact statements", but compliance by governmental agencies took many years. The labour market under the Hawke/Keating Labor governments operated under an accord. John Howard's Liberal Party of Australia in 1996 began deregulation of the labor market, subsequently taken much further in 2005 through their WorkChoices policy. However, it was reversed under the following Rudd Labor government. Natural gas is deregulated in most of the country, with the exception of some Atlantic provinces and some pockets like Vancouver Island and Medicine Hat.

Most of this deregulation happened in the mid-1980s. There is price comparison service operating in some of these jurisdictions Ontario, Alberta and BC; the other provinces have not attracted suppliers. Customers have the choice of purchasing from a deregulated supplier. In most provinces the LDC is not allowed to offer a term contract, just a variable price based on the spot market. LDC prices are changed either monthly or quarterly; the province of Ontario began deregulation of electricity supply in 2002, but pulled back temporarily due to voter and consumer backlash at the resulting price volatility. The government is still searching for a stable working regulatory framework; the current status is a regulated structure in which consumers have received a capped price for a portion of the publicly owned generation. The remainder of the price has been market price based and there are numerous competitive energy contract providers. However, Ontario is installing Smart Meters in all homes and small businesses and is changing the pricing structure to Time of Use pricing.

All small volume consumers are to be shifted to the new rate structure by the end of 2012. There is price comparison service operating in these jurisdictions; the province of Alberta has deregulated their electricity provision. Customers are free to choose which company they sign up with, but there are few companies to choose from and the price of electricity has increased for consumers because the market is too small to support competition. If they choose they may remain with the utility at the Regulated Rate Option. Former Premier Ralph Klein based the entire deregulation scheme on the Enron model, continued with it after the publicized and disastrous California electricity crisis 2003 Corrections to EU directive about software patents Deregulation of the air industry in Europe in 1992 gave carriers from one EU country the right to operate scheduled services between other EU states; the taxi industry was deregulated in Ireland leading to an influx of new taxis. This was due to the price of a licence dropping overnight.

The number of taxis increased dramatically. The Conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher started a programme of deregulation and privatisation after their victory at the 1979 general election; these included express coach, British Telecom, privatisation of London bus services, local bus services (Trans

Inverse-chi-squared distribution

In probability and statistics, the inverse-chi-squared distribution is a continuous probability distribution of a positive-valued random variable. It is related to the chi-squared distribution and its specific importance is that it arises in the application of Bayesian inference to the normal distribution, where it can be used as the prior and posterior distribution for an unknown variance; the inverse-chi-squared distribution is the probability distribution of a random variable whose multiplicative inverse has a chi-squared distribution. It is often defined as the distribution of a random variable whose reciprocal divided by its degrees of freedom is a chi-squared distribution; that is, if X has the chi-squared distribution with ν degrees of freedom according to the first definition, 1 / X has the inverse-chi-squared distribution with ν degrees of freedom. Information associated with the first definition is depicted on the right side of the page; the first definition yields a probability density function given by f 1 = 2 − ν / 2 Γ x − ν / 2 − 1 e − 1 /, while the second definition yields the density function f 2 = ν / 2 Γ x − ν / 2 − 1 e − ν /.

In both cases, x > 0 and ν is the degrees of freedom parameter. Further, Γ is the gamma function. Both definitions are special cases of the scaled-inverse-chi-squared distribution. For the first definition the variance of the distribution is σ 2 = 1 / ν, while for the second definition σ 2 = 1. Chi-squared: If X ∼ χ 2 and Y = 1 X Y ∼ Inv- χ 2 scaled-inverse chi-squared: If X ∼ Scale-inv- χ 2 X ∼ inv- χ 2 Inverse gamma with α = ν 2 and β = 1 2 Scaled-inverse-chi-squared distribution Inverse-Wishart distribution InvChisquare in geoR package for the R Language

Alpine Shepherd Boy

"Alpine Shepherd Boy" is the fifth episode of the first season of the AMC television series Better Call Saul, the spinoff series of Breaking Bad. The episode aired on March 2015 on AMC in the United States. Outside of the United States, the episode premiered on streaming service Netflix in several countries. Two police officers arrive at Chuck's house after his neighbor calls 911 to report the stolen newspaper. Chuck refuses to open the door because of his electromagnetic hypersensitivity. One officer walks around to the basement door, where he finds that the electric lines to the circuit breaker panel have been cut and there are several empty camping fuel cans from Chuck's lanterns and cook stove laying about. Combining this with Chuck's ramblings about probable cause case law, the two officers mistakenly conclude that Chuck is producing methamphetamine, kick down his front door, taser him. Tycoon Big Ricky Sipes offers Jimmy $1 million in cash to help him secede from the United States. Jimmy's excitement at the windfall dissipates when he notices the wealthy eccentric has printed his own currency, Jimmy can't take a single "dollar" to the bank.

He visits another prospective client, Roland Jaycocks, who asks him to help patent an invention called "Tony the Toilet Buddy", a training toilet that plays recordings of what are supposed to be encouraging phrases to children as they use it. All the phrases are sexual innuendos and when Jimmy points this out, an incensed Roland chases him out of the house. Jimmy visits Mrs. Strauss, an elderly woman who collects porcelain Hummel figurines, one of, a rare and valuable alpine shepherd boy, he assists her with estate planning, which consists of allocating her Hummels to various friends and relatives. Mrs. Strauss finds Jimmy's personality charming and he offers to take half his fee in advance and half after the will is completed, but she pays the $140 up front in cash; that evening, Jimmy entertains Kim with tales of his eventful day. With two wills and a living trust to his credit, she suggests a career in elder law. Jimmy considers, but is interrupted when Kim takes a call from Howard, who tells her Chuck is in the hospital.

In Chuck's hospital room and Kim explain Chuck's condition to a skeptical doctor. She proves Chuck's electromagnetic hypersensitivity isn't genuine by turning on the bed's control panel without Chuck noticing, she recommends Chuck be committed to a mental institution. Jimmy decides to comply with Chuck's wishes, but Howard arrives and tells Jimmy he convinced the DA to make sure Chuck isn't committed. Jimmy believes Howard is putting the firm's needs ahead of Chuck's, knowing that if Chuck is committed, Jimmy will become his guardian and have authority to accept HHM's severance offer on Chuck's behalf. Although he scares Howard by threatening to commit Chuck, severing Howard's connection to his "cash cow", Jimmy tells Kim he isn't going to do it, but wanted to irritate Howard. Jimmy brings him home. At Chuck's house and Jimmy discuss Jimmy's recent clients, Chuck encourages him to pursue elder law. After mimicking Andy Griffith's clothing and mannerisms from Matlock, Jimmy promotes his new specialty at a nursing home by printing a slogan on the bottom of Jell-O containers: "Need a will?

Call McGill." Exiting the courthouse parking lot, Jimmy gives Mike a business card that has the same slogan printed on it. After his shift, Mike parks outside a woman's house, she comes out of the house, gets in her car, stares at Mike uncomfortably for several moments before they each drive away in opposite directions. At his home, Mike is visited by several police officers, he recognizes one detective and asks, "Long way from home, aren't you?", to which the detective replies, "You and me both." "Alpine Shepherd Boy" is the first Better Call Saul episode not to be written or directed by someone who wrote or directed for Breaking Bad. It was written by Bradley Paul; the episode was titled "Jello" as the showrunners intended each episode title to end in the letter "o" but were unable to obtain permission to use the trademarked gelatin brand name "Jell-O". Upon airing, the episode received 2.71 million American viewers, an 18-49 rating of 1.2. The episode received critical acclaim from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, based on 18 reviews, it received a 94% approval rating with an average score of 6.8 out of 10.

The site's consensus reads, "With'Alpine Shepherd Boy', Better Call Saul continues to forge its own identity, while establishing its characters and their journeys in surprising ways. IGN gave the episode a 9.0 rating. The Telegraph rated the episode 4 out of 5 stars. "Alpine Shepherd Boy" at AMC "Alpine Shepherd Boy" on IMDb