A pistol is a type of handgun. The pistol originates in the 16th century; the English word was introduced in ca. 1570 from the Middle French pistolet. The most common types of pistol today are the single shot and semi-automatic. Sometimes in usage, the term "pistol" refers to a handgun having one chamber integral with the barrel, making pistols distinct from the other main type of handgun, the revolver, which has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers. Most handgun experts and dictionaries make a technical distinction that views pistols as a subset of handguns. UK/Commonwealth usage does not always make this distinction when the terms are used by the military. For example, the official designation of the Webley Mk VI revolver was "Pistol, Webley, No. 1 Mk VI". In contrast to Merriam-Webster the Oxford English Dictionary describes'pistol' as a small firearm to be used in one hand and the usage of "revolver" as being a type of handgun and gives its original form as "revolving pistol" The pistol originates in the 16th century, when early handguns were produced in Europe.
The English word was introduced in ca. 1570 from the Middle French pistolet. The etymology of the French word pistolet is disputed, it may be from a Czech word for early hand cannons, píšťala, or alternatively from Italian pistolese, after Pistoia, a city renowned for Renaissance-era gunsmithing, where hand-held guns were first produced in the 1540s. The first suggestion derives the word from Czech píšťala, a type of hand-cannon used in the Hussite Wars during the 1420s; the Czech word was adopted in German as pitschale, pitschole and variants. The second suggestion is less likely; the Czech word is well documented since the Hussite wars in 1420s. Single shot handguns were seen during the era of flintlock and musket weaponry where the pistol was loaded with a lead ball and fired by a flint striker, later a percussion cap. However, as technology improved, so did the single shot pistol. New operating mechanisms were created, due to this, they are still made today, they are the oldest type of pistol, are used to hunt wild game.
Multi-barreled pistols, such as the Pepperbox, were common during the same time as single shot pistols. As designers looked for ways to increase fire rates, multiple barrels were added to all guns including pistols. One example of a multi-barreled pistol is the Duck's foot pistol, which had either four or eight barrels, although some 20th-century models had three barrels. Around 1850, pistols such as the Jarre harmonica gun were produced; the sliding magazine contained pinfire speedloaders. The magazine needed to be moved manually in many designs, hence distinguishing them from semi-automatic pistols. With the development of the revolver in the 19th century, gunsmiths had achieved the goal of a practical capability for delivering multiple loads to one handgun barrel in quick succession. Revolvers feed ammunition via the rotation of a cartridge-filled cylinder, in which each cartridge is contained in its own ignition chamber, is sequentially brought into alignment with the weapon's barrel by an indexing mechanism linked to the weapon's trigger or its hammer.
These nominally cylindrical chambers numbering between five and eight depending on the size of the revolver and the size of the cartridge being fired, are bored through the cylinder so that their axes are parallel to the cylinder's axis of rotation. The semi-automatic pistol was the next step in the development of the pistol. By avoiding multiple chambers—which need to be individually reloaded—semi-automatic pistols delivered faster rates of fire and required only a few seconds to reload. In blowback-type semi-automatics, the recoil force is used to push the slide back and eject the shell so that the magazine spring can push another round up. An example of a modern blow back action semi-automatic pistol is the Walther PPK. Blowback pistols are some of the more designed handguns. Many semi-automatic pistols today operate using short-recoil; this design is coupled with the Browning type tilting barrel. Water gun, including water pistol and squirt gun
The.410 bore or.410 gauge, is the second-smallest caliber of shotgun shell available. A.410 bore shotgun loaded with shot shells is well suited for small game hunting and pest control. The.410 started life off in the UK as a garden gun along with the.360 and the No.3, No.2 and No.1 bore rimfires..410 shells have similar base dimensions to the.45 Colt cartridge, allowing many single-shot firearms, as well as some derringers chambered in that caliber to fire.410 shot shells without any modifications. Lancaster's pattern centerfire and pinfire.410 shot cartridges first appeared in Eley Brothers Ltd. flysheets in 1857. By 1874, Eleys were advertising modern centerfire.410 cartridges. It appears to have become popular around 1900, although it was recommended as "suited to the requirements of naturalists, garden guns and for such weapons as walking-stick guns" for self-defense, in 1892 by W. W. Greener; the first ammunition was 2.0 inches long, compared with the modern 2.5 and 3.0-inch sizes.410 shotguns loaded with shot shells are well suited for small game hunting and pest control.
A. 410 loaded with 1/4 ounce slugs is effective against larger animals such as deer. While a.410 is inferior to the traditional 12-gauge shotshell for defensive use, a number of companies market defensive guns chambered in.410, such as the Mossberg 500 Home Security Model and the Taurus Judge revolver chambered for both.45 Colt and.410 bore rounds up to 3 inches in length. Defensive ammunition such as buckshot and combination loads are common. American Derringer and Winchester market ammunition loaded with five 000 buckshot pellets in 3-inch shells and three pellets in 2.5-inch shells. Combination shells such as Winchester Supreme Elite.410 shells are loaded with three 71 grain disks and twelve BB pellets. The small size of the.410 bore makes it popular for use in compact firearms carried for emergency use. These are combination guns, with a.22 Hornet or.22 rimfire rifle barrel mounted over a.410 bore shotgun barrel. The Snake Charmer is a.410 gauge, stainless steel, single shot, break-action shotgun, with an exposed hammer, an 18 1/8 inch barrel, black molded plastic furniture and a short thumb-hole butt-stock that holds four additional 2 1/2 shotgun shells.
These light weight 3 1/2 pound guns have an overall length of 28 1/8 inches and will fit under a car seat. They are used by gardeners and farmers for pest control, it sold for $89.95 and was marketed as a general purpose utility shotgun perfect for "Fishing - Hunting - Camping - Back Packing - Survival - Home Defense - Truck or Jeep Gun." The Savage Model 24 is an American made over and under combination gun manufactured by Savage Arms. The basic.22LR over.410 gauge model weighs 7 pounds, has 24-inch barrels and an overall length of 41-inches. It may be disassembled for ease of stowage; the M6 Aircrew Survival Weapon was made for the US Air Force, with a.22 Hornet rifle barrel mounted over a.410 bore shotgun barrel. The civilian version, the Springfield Armory M6 Scout has a.22 rimfire over a.410 bore shotgun barrel. The original has a 14-inch barrel, the same length as the stock, folds in half for storage, making a compact package. With the short barrel, this is classified as an any other weapon in the United States, so 18.5-inch barreled models are made for civilian sales, as well as a 16-inch pistol version in.22 over.45 Colt.
Special flare cartridges in.410 were issued with the USAF model. The fact that the.410 bore shell fits in a.45 Colt chamber has resulted in some unusual applications. While shotguns are limited in minimum length, a firearm chambered in.45 Colt, such as the Contender pistol, is not defined as a shotgun though it can chamber shotgun shells. The Thompson Center Arms Contender pistols are encountered with a special.45 Colt-.410 bore barrel. The barrel is rifled for the.45 Colt, but has a special choke and vent rib to make it function as a shotgun. Due to the rifled barrel, the assembled firearm is considered a rifle or pistol and thus is not subject to the National Firearms Act's 18-inch minimum barrel length. Nonetheless, possession of a Thompson Center Arms.45-.410 pistol barrel is illegal in California, for both dealers and individuals, such a barrel may not be shipped into the state, or taken into California for a hunting trip, by reason of it being classified as a short barreled shotgun when used with a Contender receiver.
American Derringer has long offered.45 Colt-.410. Bond Arms offers various Derringer models which chamber both.45 Colt cartridges and.410 shotshell. Taurus, Magnum Research, Smith & Wesson offer revolvers with extended cylinders, long enough to hold.410 shells as well. Magnum Research offers a single-action revolver in their BFR line, while the Taurus Judge is similar in price to their other double-action revolvers, with the Raging Judge model capable of chambering and firing the.454 Casull cartridge. The Smith & Wesson Governor is a double-action revolver capable of firing.45 Colt as well as.45 ACP cartridges with the aid of moon clips. The discontinued MIL Thunder 5 is chambered in.410-bore. Most shotgun cartridges are measured in terms of shotgun gauge. Shotgun gauge is determined by the weight of a round lead ball, sized to fit into its barrel. For example, the barrel of a 12-gauge shotgun is equal to the diameter of a 1/12-pound lead ball and a 20-gauge can fit a 1/20-pound ball. Using this method a.410 bore is equivalent to a 67-gauge.
Garden guns The Shotgun Report review of the Remington
A bar is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, liquor and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and sell snack foods such as potato chips or peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may serve food from a restaurant menu; the term "bar" refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" is derived from the metal or wooden bar, located at feet along the length of the "bar". Bars provide chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours.
Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, to collect cover charges. Such bars feature entertainment, which may be a live band, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music. Patrons may be served by the bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two; the "back bar" is a set of shelves of bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. There have been many different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were an important meeting place, as most other institutions were weak. During the 19th century saloons were important to the leisure time of the working class. Today when an establishment uses a different name, such as "tavern" or "saloon" or, in the United Kingdom, a "pub", the area of the establishment where the bartender pours or mixes beverages is called "the bar".
The sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called "speakeasies", "blind pigs", "blind tigers". Laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, they are not allowed to drink. In some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron, intoxicated. Cities and towns have legal restrictions on where bars may be located and on the types of alcohol they may serve to their customers; some bars may have a license to serve wine, but not hard liquor. In some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a legal liability for the conduct of patrons. Many Islamic countries prohibit bars as well as the possession or sale of alcohol for religious reasons, while others, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, allow bars in some specific areas, but only permit non-Muslims to drink in them.
A bar's owners and managers choose the bar's name, décor, drink menu and other elements which they think will attract a certain kind of patron. However, they have only limited influence over. Thus, a bar intended for one demographic profile can become popular with another. For example, a gay or lesbian bar with a dance or disco floor might, over time, attract an heterosexual clientele. Or a blues bar may become a biker bar. A cocktail lounge is an upscale bar, located within a hotel, restaurant, or airport. A full bar serves liquor, cocktails and beer. A wine bar is a bar that focuses on wine rather than on liquor. Patrons of these bars may taste wines before deciding to buy them; some wine bars serve small plates of food or other snacks. A beer bar focuses on beer craft beer, rather than on wine or liquor. A brew pub serves craft beers. "Fern bar" is an American slang term for an preppy bar. A music bar is a bar. A dive bar referred to as a "dive", is a informal bar which may be considered by some to be disreputable.
A non-alcoholic bar is a bar. A Strip club is a bar with nude entertainers. A bar and grill is a restaurant; some persons may designate either an area of a room as a home bar. Furniture and arrangements vary from efficient to full bars. Bars categorized by the kind of entertainment they offer: Blues bars, specializing in the live blues style of music Comedy bars, specializing in stand-up comedy entertainment Dance bars, which have a dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. If a venue has a large dance floor, focuses on dancing rather than seated drinking, hires professional DJs, it is considered to be a nightclub or discothèque rather than a bar. Karaoke bars, with nightly karaoke as entertainment Music bars. Piano bars are one example. Drag b
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the gunpowder or black powder they replaced. The term is unique to the United States and is not used in other English-speaking countries, which used proprietary names such as "Ballistite" and "Cordite" but shifted to "propellant" as the generic term; the basis of the term smokeless is that the combustion products are gaseous, compared to around 55% solid products for black powder. Despite its name, smokeless powder is not free of smoke; this article focuses on nitrocellulose formulations, but the term smokeless powder was used to describe various picrate mixtures with nitrate, chlorate, or dichromate oxidizers during the late 19th century, before the advantages of nitrocellulose became evident. Since the 14th century gunpowder was not a physical "powder", smokeless powder can be produced only as a pelletized or extruded granular material. Smokeless powder allowed the development of modern semi- and automatic firearms and lighter breeches and barrels for artillery.
Burnt gunpowder leaves a thick, heavy fouling, hygroscopic and causes rusting of the barrel. The fouling left by smokeless powder exhibits none of these properties; this makes an autoloading firearm with many moving parts feasible. Smokeless powders are classified as division 1.3 explosives under the UN Recommendations on the transportation of Dangerous goods – Model Regulations, regional regulations and national regulations. However, they are used as solid propellants. Before the widespread introduction of smokeless powder the use of gunpowder or black powder caused many problems on the battlefield. Military commanders since the Napoleonic Wars reported difficulty with giving orders on a battlefield obscured by the smoke of firing. Verbal commands could not be heard above the noise of the guns, visual signals could not be seen through the thick smoke from the gunpowder used by the guns. Unless there was a strong wind, after a few shots, soldiers using gunpowder ammunition would have their view obscured by a huge cloud of smoke.
Snipers or other concealed shooters were given away by a cloud of smoke over the firing position. Gunpowder is a low explosive but rather deflagrates. Gunpowder produces lower pressures and is about three times less powerful when compared to smokeless powder. Gunpowder is corrosive, making cleaning mandatory after every use. Gunpowder's tendency to produce severe fouling caused actions to jam and made reloading difficult. Nitroglycerine was synthesized by the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero in 1847, it was subsequently developed and manufactured by Alfred Nobel as an industrial explosive, but then it was unsuitable as a propellant: despite its energetic and smokeless qualities, it detonates instead of deflagrating smoothly, making it more liable to shatter a gun, rather than propel a projectile out of it. Nitroglycerine is highly sensitive, making it unfit to be carried in battlefield conditions. A major step forward was the invention of guncotton, a nitrocellulose-based material, by German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1846.
He sold manufacturing rights to the Austrian Empire. Guncotton was more powerful than gunpowder, but at the same time was once again somewhat more unstable. John Taylor obtained an English patent for guncotton. English interest languished after an explosion destroyed the Faversham factory in 1847. Austrian Baron Wilhelm Lenk von Wolfsberg built two guncotton plants producing artillery propellent, but it too was dangerous under field conditions, guns that could fire thousands of rounds using gunpowder would reach the end of their service life after only a few hundred shots with the more powerful guncotton. Small arms could not withstand the pressures generated by guncotton. After one of the Austrian factories blew up in 1862, Thomas Prentice & Company began manufacturing guncotton in Stowmarket in 1863. Abel patented this process in 1865. After the Stowmarket factory exploded in 1871, Waltham Abbey began production of guncotton for torpedo and mine warheads. In 1863, Prussian artillery captain Johann F. E. Schultze patented a small-arms propellent of nitrated hardwood impregnated with saltpeter or barium nitrate.
Prentice received an 1866 patent for a sporting powder of nitrated paper manufactured at Stowmarket, but ballistic uniformity suffered as the paper absorbed atmospheric moisture. In 1871, Frederick Volkmann received an Austrian patent for a colloided version of Schultze powder called Collodin, which he manufactured near Vienna for use in sporting firearms. Austrian patents were not published at the time, the Austrian Empire considered the operation a violation of the government monopoly on explosives manufacture
Henry Reed Rathbone was a United States military officer and diplomat, present at the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Rathbone was sitting with his fiancée, Clara Harris, next to the President and his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, when John Wilkes Booth entered the president's box at Ford's Theatre and fatally shot Lincoln in the head; when Rathbone attempted to prevent Booth from fleeing the scene, Booth stabbed and wounded him. Henry Rathbone was born in Albany, New York, one of four children of Jared L. Rathbone, a merchant and wealthy businessman, who became Albany's mayor, Pauline Rathbone. Upon his father's death in 1845, Rathbone inherited the considerable sum of two hundred thousand dollars, his widowed mother, Pauline Rathbone, married Ira Harris in 1848. Ira Harris was appointed U. S. Senator from New York after William H. Seward became President Lincoln's Secretary of State. Harris was a widower with four children whose wife Louisa had died in 1845; as a result of this marriage, Ira Harris became Rathbone's stepfather and his daughter, became Rathbone's stepsister.
Although this unusual series of events made them stepbrother and stepsister, they were not related by blood. Rathbone and Harris formed a close friendship and fell in love; the two became engaged shortly before the American Civil War. Rathbone studied law at Union College and worked in a law partnership in Albany before entering the Union Army at the start of Civil War. During the war, Rathbone served as Captain in the 12th Infantry Regiment and was at the Battle of Antietam and the Battle of Fredericksburg. By the war's end, he had attained the rank of major. On April 14, 1865, Major Rathbone and his fiancee Clara Harris accepted an invitation to see a play at Ford's Theatre from President Abraham Lincoln and his wife, First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln; the couple, friends with the President and his wife for some time, were invited after Ulysses S. Grant and his wife Julia, Thomas Eckert, several others had declined Mrs. Lincoln's invitation. During the play, noted stage actor John Wilkes Booth surreptitiously entered the Presidential box and fatally shot Lincoln in the head with a pistol.
As Rathbone attempted to apprehend Booth, Booth slashed Rathbone's left arm with a dagger from the elbow to his shoulder. Rathbone recalled that he was horrified at the anger on Booth's face. Rathbone again grabbed at Booth, he grabbed onto Booth's coat, causing Booth to fall awkwardly to the stage breaking his leg. Booth nonetheless escaped, remained at large for twelve days. Despite his serious wound, Rathbone escorted Mary Lincoln to the Petersen House across the street, where the president had been taken. Shortly thereafter he passed out due to blood loss. Harris held his head in her lap while he lay semiconscious; when a surgeon, attending Lincoln examined him, it was realized that his wound was more serious than thought. Booth had severed an artery. Rathbone was taken home while Harris remained with Mary Todd Lincoln as the President lay dying over the next nine hours; this death vigil lasted through the night, until morning, when Lincoln died at 7:22 a.m. on April 15, 1865. Although Rathbone's physical wounds healed, his mental state deteriorated in the years following Lincoln's death as he anguished over his perceived inability to thwart the assassination attempt.
He married Harris on July 11, 1867, the couple had three children: Henry Riggs, who became a U. S. Congressman), Gerald Lawrence, Clara Pauline. Rathbone resigned from the Army in 1870. After his resignation, he struggled to keep a job due to his mental instability, he became convinced. He resented the attention Harris paid their children and threatened his wife on several occasions after suspecting that she was going to divorce him and take the children. Nonetheless, President Chester A. Arthur appointed Rathbone as the U. S. Consul to the Province of Hanover in 1882; the family relocated to Germany. On December 23, 1883, Rathbone attacked his children in a fit of madness. Rathbone fatally shot and stabbed his wife, attempting to protect the children. Rathbone stabbed himself five times in the chest in an attempted suicide, he was charged with murder but was declared insane by doctors after blaming the murder on an intruder. He was committed to an asylum for the criminally insane in Hildesheim, Germany.
The couple's children were sent to live with William Harris, in the United States. Rathbone spent the rest of his life in the asylum, he died on August 14, 1911, was buried next to his wife in the city cemetery at Hanover/Engesohde. As time passed, the cemetery management, looking over records concerning plots without recent activity or family interest, decided in 1952 that both sets of remains could be exhumed and disposed of. On film and television Rathbone has been portrayed by Lloyd Whitlock in The Prisoner of Shark Island Steve Darrell in Prince of Players John Cooler in The Lincoln Conspiracy Sean Baldwin in The Day Lincoln Was Shot Andy Martin in The Conspirator Joseph Carlson in Killing Lincoln Bruce Falcon in Darkling Darkling The biography of Henry Rathbone, his experience at the Lincoln Assassination and the murder of Clara Harris is covered in the non-fiction book Worst Seat in the House: Henry Rathbone's Front Row View of the Lincoln Assassination by Caleb Step
.22 Long Rifle
The.22 Long Rifle or simply.22 LR is a long-established variety of.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today. It is used in a wide range of rifles, revolvers, smoothbore shotguns, submachine guns. American firearms manufacturer J. Stevens Arms & Tool Company introduced the.22 Long Rifle cartridge in 1887. The round owes its origin to the.22 BB Cap of 1845 and the.22 Short of 1857. It combined the casing of the.22 Long of 1871 with the 40-grain bullet of the.22 Extra Long of 1880, giving it a longer overall length, a higher muzzle velocity and superior performance as a hunting and target round, rendering both the.22 Long and.22 Extra Long cartridges obsolete. The.22 LR uses a heeled bullet, which means that the bullet is the same diameter as the case, has a narrower "heel" portion that fits in the case. It is one of the few cartridges that are accepted by a large variety of handguns. The.22 LR cartridge is popular among novice experts alike.
Its minimal recoil and low noise make it an ideal cartridge for recreational shooting, small-game hunting, pest control..22 LR cadet rifles are used by military cadets and others for basic firearms and marksmanship training. It is used by the Boy Scouts in the United States for the rifle shooting merit badge; the low recoil of the cartridge makes it ideal for introductory firearms courses. Novice shooters can be frightened by the noise and recoil of more powerful rounds. Beginners shooting firearms beyond their comfort level develop a habit of flinching in an attempt to counter anticipated recoil; the resulting habit impedes correct posture and follow-through at the most critical phase of the shot and is difficult to correct. With high recoil eliminated, other errors in marksmanship technique are easier to identify and correct. Available for this round are AR-15 M1911 slide assemblies. Many handgun manufacturers have an upper pistol conversion kit to make it shoot.22 LR ammunition. These conversions allow shooters to practice inexpensively while retaining the handling characteristics of their chosen firearms.
Additionally.22 LR cartridge conversion kits allow practice at indoor ranges which prohibit high-power firearms. Owners of guns that use gas systems, such as AR-15 sport style rifles avoid firing non-jacketed.22 LR cartridge ammunition, as the use of unjacketed ammunition may cause lead-fouling of the gas-port inside the barrel and costly gunsmithing procedures. A wide variety of.22 LR ammunition is available commercially, the available ammunition varies both in price and performance. Bullet weights among commercially available ammunition range from 20 to 60 grains, velocities vary from 575 to 1,750 ft/s..22 LR is the least costly cartridge ammunition available. Promotional loads for plinking can be purchased in bulk for less cost than precision target rounds; the low cost of ammunition has a substantial effect on the popularity of the.22 LR. For this reason, rimfire cartridges are used for target practice..22 LR cartridges are packaged in boxes of 50 or 100 rounds, is sold by the'brick', a carton containing either 10 boxes of 50 rounds or loose cartridges totaling 500 rounds, or the'case' containing 10 bricks totaling 5,000 rounds.
Annual production is estimated by some at 2–2.5 billion rounds. The NSSF estimates that a large percentage of the US production of 10 billion cartridges is composed of.22 LR. Despite the high production figures there have been shortages of.22 LR cartridge in the continental United States, most notably during the 2008–13 United States ammunition shortage. Performance depends on the type of action. For example, it will perform differently in a bolt-action rifle than in a semiautomatic rifle. The.22 LR is effective to 150 yd. After 150 yd, the ballistics of the round are such that it will be difficult to compensate for the large "drop"; the short effective range, low report, light recoil has made it a favorite for use as a target-practice cartridge. The accuracy of the cartridge is not exceptional. A contributing factor in rifles is the transition of a high-velocity cartridge projectile from supersonic to subsonic within 100 yd; as the bullet slows, the shock wave caused by supersonic travel overtakes the bullet and can disrupt its flight path, causing minor but measurable inaccuracies.
When zeroed for 100 yd, the arc-trajectory of the standard high-velocity.22 LR with a 40-gr bullet has a 2.7-inch rise at 50 yd, a 10.8-inch drop at 150 yd. A.22 LR rifle needs to be zeroed for 75 yd to avoid overshooting small animals like squirrels at intermediate distances. As a hunting cartridge, rimfires are used to kill small game up to the size of coyotes. Although proper shot placement can kill larger animals such as deer or hog, it is not recommended because its low power may not guarantee a humane kill; the largest recorded animal killed with a.22 long caliber rifle was a grizzly bear in 1953. Because a.22 LR bullet is less powerful than larger cartridges, its danger to humans is underestimated. In fact, a.22 LR bullet is capable of killing or injuring humans. After flying 400 yd, a.22 bullet is still traveling about 500 ft/s. Ricochets are more common in.22 LR projectiles than for more powerful cartridges as the combination of unjacketed lead and m
A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand. The two most common handgun sub-types in use today are semi-automatic pistols. In the days before mass production, handguns were considered a badge of office, much the same as a sword; as they had limited utility and were more expensive than the long-guns of the era, handguns were carried only by the few who could afford to purchase them. However, in 1836, Samuel Colt patented the Colt Paterson, the first practical mass-produced revolver, it was capable of firing 5 shots in rapid succession and quickly became a popular defensive weapon, giving rise to the saying "God created men, but Colt made them equal." Today, in most of the world, handguns are considered self-defence weapons used by police and military officers. However, in the United States and many other countries around the world, handguns are widely available to civilians and carried for self-defence. Firearms first appeared in China; the oldest known bronze barrel handgun is the Heilongjiang hand cannon, dated to 1288.
It weighs 3.55 kg. The diameter of the interior at the end of the barrel is 2.5 cm. The barrel is 6.9 inches long. The hand cannon has a bulbous base at the breech called the yaoshi or gunpowder chamber, where the explosion that propels the projectile occurs; the diameter of the Heilongjiang hand-gun's powder chamber is 6.6 cm. The walls of the powder chamber are noticeably thicker to better withstand the explosive pressure of the gunpowder; the powder chamber has a touch hole, a small hole for the fuse that ignites the gunpowder. Behind the gunpowder chamber is a socket shaped like a trumpet where the handle of the hand cannon is inserted; the bulbous shape of the base gave the earliest Chinese and Western cannons a vase-like or pear-like appearance, which disappeared when advancements in metallurgical technology made the bulbous base obsolete. The matchlock appeared in Europe in the mid-15th century; the matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
The classic European matchlock gun held a burning slow match in a clamp at the end of a small curved lever known as the serpentine. Upon the pulling of a lever protruding from the bottom of the gun and connected to the serpentine, the clamp dropped down, lowering the smoldering match into the flash pan and igniting the priming powder; the flash from the primer traveled through the touch hole igniting the main charge of propellant in the gun barrel. On release of the lever or trigger, the spring-loaded serpentine would move in reverse to clear the pan. For obvious safety reasons the match would be removed before reloading of the gun. Both ends of the match were kept alight in case one end should be accidentally extinguished; the wheellock was the next major development in firearms technology after the matchlock and the first self-igniting firearm. Its name is from its rotating steel wheel to provide ignition. Developed in Europe around 1500, it was used alongside the matchlock; the wheellock works by spinning a spring-loaded steel wheel against a piece of pyrite to generate intense sparks, which ignite gunpowder in a pan, which flashes through a small touchhole to ignite the main charge in the firearm's barrel.
The pyrite is clamped in vise jaws on a spring-loaded arm. When the trigger is pulled, the pan cover is opened, the wheel is rotated, with the pyrite pressed into contact. A close modern analogy of the wheellock mechanism is the operation of a cigarette lighter, where a toothed steel wheel is spun in contact with a piece of sparking material to ignite the liquid or gaseous fuel. A wheellock firearm had the advantage that it can be readied and fired with one hand, in contrast to the then-common matchlock firearms, which must have a burning cord of slow match ready if the gun might be needed and demanded the operator's full attention and two hands to operate. On the other hand, wheellock mechanisms were complex to make, making them expensive. A flintlock is a general term for any firearm; the term may apply to a particular form of the mechanism itself, introduced in the early 17th century, replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the matchlock and the wheellock. Flintlock pistols were used as a military arm.
Their effective range was short, they were used as an adjunct to a sword or cutlass. Pistols were smoothbore although some rifled pistols were produced. Flintlock pistols came in a variety of sizes and styles which overlap and are not well defined, many of the names we use having been applied by collectors and dealers long after the pistols were obsolete; the smallest were less than 15 cm long and the largest were over 51 cm. From around the beginning of the 1700s the larger pistols got shorter, so that by the late 1700s the largest would be more like 41 cm long; the smallest would fit into a typical pocket or a hand warming muff and could be carried. The largest sizes would be carried in holsters across a horse's back just ahead of the saddle. In-between sizes included the coat pocket pistol, or coat pistol, which would fit into a large pocket, the coach pistol, meant to be carried on or under the seat of a coach in a bag or box, belt pistols, sometimes equipped with a hook designed to slip over a belt or waistband.
Larger pistols were called horse pistols. Arguably the most elegant of the p