Frank Alvin Gotch was an American professional wrestler. Gotch was the first American professional wrestler to win the world heavyweight free-style championship, credited for popularizing professional wrestling in the United States, he competed back when the contests were legit, his reign as World Heavyweight Wrestling Champion is one of the ten longest in the history of professional wrestling. He became one of the most popular athletes in America from the 1900s to the 1910s. Pro Wrestling Illustrated described Gotch as "arguably the best North American professional wrestler of the 20th century"; the son of Frederick Rudolph and Amelia Gotch, of German ancestry, he was born and raised on a small farm three miles south of Humboldt, Iowa. He took up earning a reputation by beating locals, he adopted. Gotch wrestled and won his first match against Marshall Green in Humboldt on April 2, 1899, but his first important match was in Lu Verne, Iowa on June 16, 1899, against a man claiming to be a furniture dealer from a neighboring town.
Gotch lost the hard-fought contest. Only when he received the impressed man's visiting card, he did learn that his opponent had been reigning American Heavyweight Champion Dan McLeod. On December 18, 1899, Gotch challenged another former American Heavyweight Champion, "Farmer" Martin Burns, losing in 11 minutes, but impressing Burns as well, who offered to train Gotch. Under the guidance of Burns, Gotch won a series of matches in Iowa and Yukon. While in the Yukon, Gotch wrestled under the name Frank Kennedy and won the title of "Champion of the Klondike". During his time in the Yukon, Gotch tried his hand at boxing, but failed miserably against the heavyweight Frank "Paddy" Slavin. Gotch returned to Iowa and challenged the reigning American Heavyweight Champion Tom Jenkins. Gotch lost their first match in 1903, before defeating Jenkins in a rematch on January 27, 1904, to take the championship. After trading the title with Jenkins and Fred Beell, Gotch set his sights on the World Heavyweight Wrestling Championship held by the undefeated Estonian George Hackenschmidt.
The opponent, called the "Russian Lion", had gained undisputed title recognition by defeating Jenkins in New York in 1905. Upon defeating Jenkins, Hackenschmidt ignored Gotch's challenge and sailed home to England. Gotch and Hackenschmidt met on April 3, 1908, at the Dexter Park Pavilion in Chicago. Showing his contempt for Gotch and for American wrestling in general, Hackenschmidt was not in the best condition, unlike Gotch, who used his speed and rough tactics to wear Hackenschmidt down and assume the attack; the wrestlers stood on their feet for two full hours before Gotch was able to get behind Hackenschmidt and take him down. While on their feet, Gotch made sure to lean on Hackenschmidt to wear him down, he bullied him around the ring, his thumbing and butting left Hackenschmidt covered in blood. Hackenschmidt complained to the referee of Gotch's foul tactics and asked that Gotch be forced to take a hot shower to rid his body of an abundance of oil, but the referee ignored the complaints and told Hackenschmidt he should have noticed the oil before the match began.
The match continued until the two-hour mark. Gotch tore him off the ropes, threw Hackenschmidt down and rode him hard for three minutes, working for his dreaded toe hold. Hackenschmidt had trained to avoid this hold, which he did, but the effort took his last remaining strength. Hackenschmidt quit the fall. "I surrender the championship of the world to Mr. Gotch", he said, stood up and shook Gotch's hand; the wrestlers retired to their dressing rooms before coming out for the second fall, but Hackenschmidt refused to return to the ring, telling the referee to declare Gotch the winner, thereby relinquishing his title to him."He is the king of the class, the greatest man by far I met", Hackenschmidt said. "After going nearly two hours with him, my muscles became stale. My feet gave out. I had trained against the toe hold and had strained the muscles of my legs; when I found myself weakening, I knew that I had no chance to win. That was the reason. I have no desire to wrestle him again. A return match would not win back my title".
Hackenschmidt reversed his opinion of Gotch and Americans in general, claiming to have been fouled by Gotch and victimized in America, calling for a rematch in Europe. As undisputed free-style heavyweight champion of the world, Gotch spent the next three years establishing his dominance over the sport, defeating the likes of Jenkins, Dr. Ben Roller, Stanislaus Zbyszko, believed to have won over 900 matches before falling to Gotch on June 1, 1910; the victory over Zbyszko was spectacular, as Gotch took both falls in less than half an hour, dominated Zbyszko. He took the first fall in just six seconds with a surprise move and quick pin, won the second fall in only 27 minutes. Gotch outclassed Zbyszko every second of the match. Gotch became a national sensation, he was in demand everywhere for public appearances, he starred in a play called All About A Bout, whenever he walked on stage he was greeted by a standing ovation. He was invited to the White House by United States President Theodore Roosevelt, wrestled a Japanese ju-jitsu expert in the East Hall, making his opponent submit.
The night before his second match with Hackenschmidt, he attended a Chicago Cubs baseball game at Wrigley Field with his wife and
Humboldt is a city in Humboldt County, United States. The population was 4,690 at the 2010 census. Frank A. Gotch Park was a location of prehistoric and some Dakota Indian villages near where the two forks of the Des Moines River meet. During westward expansion in the 1800s, this area is thought to be the location of a fort/trading post called Fort Confederation. According to Federal records in 1825, permission was granted to build the fort to trade with the Ihanktonwan Dakota Indians. Information about the exact details of the fort are unclear, such as if American or French Canadian or Metis traders built it, bringing up many questions about this fort; the founder of modern Humboldt, Stephen Harris Taft, laid out the plans for Springvale, the original name of the town, in 1863. It was named Springvale because of the several natural springs found near the Des Moines River. Taft had big plans for the community, expected many intellectuals from the East to move to his new community. Taft had five goals for his idyllic community.
The town shall be full of trees and forests. The town shall be free of the sale of intoxicants; the town shall be founded upon a saw mill and grist mill on the Des Moines River The town shall have the moral fortitude of a solid church and good schools, that it shall become a town of thinkers and beauty. The town shall grow with a college of university importance, have a church that will not dissent into factions. Taft undertook the great task of turning empty, blooming prairie into the community of his dreams, he brought out a group of settlers in 1863, they lived together in the few houses, built. The grist mill was known now as the Corydon Brown House; the first few years were spent laying out the town. Taft wanted wide boulevards throughout the town, the community is still known for its streets. Taft edited the Humboldt County True Democrat through the offices of the Fort Dodge Sentinel in Fort Dodge. Springvale was renamed Humboldt in hope of a merger between Springvale and Dakota City, but no merger took place.
This is the first of two major shortcomings that would stunt Humboldt's growth and keep it from reaching Taft's goals. A meeting in 1866 occurred. After the flood in 1867 that destroyed the town's dam, the issue became popular again in 1869; the association was renamed to Humboldt Collegiate Association in accordance with the town's name change. It was reported that "great enthusiasm" was the feeling in the room, however when the question was posed to the county's voters on October 12, 1869, the measure to appropriate swampland for a Northern Iowa College was defeated. Taft was not defeated and looked East for funding. After missing a payment deadline that would've sunk the college for good, Taft broke ground on June 17, 1870, he ended his address by saying "Hundreds are here present today. Tens of thousands shall gather here a hundred years hence to commemorate the birth of the institution and rejoice in the blessings it shall have conferred."Humboldt College opened its doors on September 13, 1872.
The first three years were designed as preparatory work intended to supplement the pupils' public education that ended around eighth grade. The subsequent four years were college work. June 1879 brought the first graduation class of three families, they would be the only students to receive a degree from the institution. At this time and the college were in financial trouble. An endowment fund capable of supporting Taft's vision seemed impossible to create, following turbulent financial times in the East, the college closed in 1916; the building was razed following unsuccessful attempts to rent the structure. Without the college, Taft's dreams of Humboldt becoming an intellectual center of knowledge in the West could not be realized. In July 1955, when contacts between Americans and Soviets were rare, Humboldt hosted a delegation of Soviet officials for an overnight glimpse of rural American life. On March 27, 1972, ABC-TV broadcast a half-hour documentary on Humboldt entitled "A Small Town in Iowa."
The program was written and produced by Andy Rooney and narrated by Harry Reasoner, a Humboldt native. The show portrayed Humboldt as a kind of paradise that struggled to keep its most talented youth from leaving for larger cities, asked, "what is it about paradise that's turning the bright kids off?" The answer, according to Reasoner and Rooney, was that "what seems to be missing is more a shortcoming of ours, than of the small town. It is that those of us with ego and ambition are not happy performing in front of an audience the size a small town provides."The First National Bank of Humboldt and its shareholders were the primary victims of what the Des Moines Register described as “one of the most spectacular white-collar crimes in state history.” In 1982 Humboldt native Gary Vance Lewellyn a Des Moines stockbroker, attempted to pump up the value of the stock of a high-tech company by singlehandedly creating phony market demand for it. To carry out the scheme, he illegally obtained access to bonds of the First National Bank of Humboldt valued at $16.7 million, secretly pledged the Bank’s bonds as security for his personal orders of the company’s stock through Wall Street investment firms.
When Lewellyn missed margin calls on his stock purchases, the firms obtained the bonds. Suspicious federal regulators closed the Humboldt Bank when it could not account for its missing bonds (and considere
Algona is the county seat of Kossuth County, United States. The population was 5,560 at the 2010 census. Ambrose A. Call State Park is located two miles southwest of the city. Algona was founded in 1854 and was named after the Algonquian word for "Algonquin waters". Between 1869 and 1875 the community was the location of Algona College, an institution sponsored by the Methodist Church. In 1894, along with other Iowa communities such as Dysart and Wesley, became part of the project known as the "Orphan Trains"; as New York City saw booming immigration, it inevitably saw a rise in the number of orphans in its asylums. Unable to provide adequate care for them, it saw fit to ship nearly 100,000 westward to start a new life with families across America. Algona itself welcomed nearly 100 orphans into the town. From 1902 to 1903, Algona played host to the Algona Brownies, a Negro league barnstorming team. Despite winning the league title in 1903, the team disbanded that same year; the Henry Adams Building, designed by Louis Sullivan in 1913 is located at the northwest corner of East State and Moore streets.
Although not designed to be a bank, the building is nonetheless considered to be one of Sullivan's "Jewel Boxes," a series of banks built in the Midwest from 1909 through 1919. Algona was the site of a German prisoner of war camp during World War II. From 1943 to 1946 Camp Algona housed nearly 10,000 prisoners, many of whom were put to work on farms owned by Americans who were fighting overseas. A museum features a nativity scene built by the POWs. A destructive F3 tornado killed two people and destroyed a large part of Algona on June 28, 1979 about 7:15 PM; the tornado moved in a south-southeast direction through Algona. Severe damage was done to the central business district and a number of homes were rendered uninhabitable. Near F4 damage was reported in some locations. There was about 15 minutes' warning and the tornado sirens were sounded well before the arrival of the tornado; the fact that it was still daylight contributed to the low death count from this destructive storm. In 2003, Algona drew national attention when it announced the purchase of the world's largest Cheetos puff.
It was meant as a plan to bring tourism to the town to see the puff by a local radio DJ. Algona is located along the East Fork Des Moines River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.51 square miles, of which 4.49 square miles is land and 0.02 square mile is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,560 people, 2,499 households, 1,495 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,238.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,711 housing units at an average density of 603.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.2% White, 0.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 2,499 households of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.2% were non-families.
36.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age in the city was 46.2 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,741 people, 2,434 households, 1,550 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,279.4 people per square mile. There were 2,640 housing units at an average density of 588.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.38% White, 0.09% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. There were 2,434 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families.
32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92. Age spread: 24.5% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 21.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,207, the median income for a family was $41,210. Males had a median income of $31,504 versus $20,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,979. About 7.9% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. There are two school systems in Algona; the Algona Community School District oversees the public school system. Algona High School has students from Algona Middle School, as well as students from several nearby towns, including grade-shared districts and from open enrollment.
The public elementary schools in Algona are Lucia Wallace Elementary, Bryant Elementary, Bertha Godfrey Elementary School. The Catholic school system is made up of Bishop Garrigan High School (name
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Keokuk is a city in and a county seat of Lee County, United States, along with Fort Madison. It is Iowa's southernmost city; the population was 10,780 at the 2010 census. The city is named after the Sauk chief Keokuk, thought to be buried in Rand Park, it is in the extreme southeast corner of Iowa. It is at the junction of U. S. Routes 61, 136 and 218. Just across the rivers are the towns of Hamilton and Warsaw and Alexandria, Missouri. Keokuk, along with the city of Fort Madison, is a principal city of the Fort Madison-Keokuk micropolitan area, which includes all of Lee County, Hancock County and Clark County, Missouri. Situated between the Des Moines and Mississippi rivers, the area that became Keokuk had access to a large trading area and was an ideal location for settlers. In 1820, the US Army prohibited soldiers stationed along the Mississippi River from having wives who were Native American. Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a surgeon stationed at Fort Edwards, instead resigned his commission rather than leave his Indian wife and crossed the river to resettle.
He built a log cabin for them at the bottom of the bluff, became the area's first white settler. As steamboat traffic on the Mississippi increased, more European Americans began to settle here. Around 1827, John Jacob Astor established a post of his American Fur Company at the foot of the bluff. Five buildings were erected to the business; this area became known as the "Rat Row." One of the earliest descriptions of Keokuk was by Caleb Atwater in 1829: The village is a small one containing twenty families perhaps. The American Fur Company have a store here and there is a tavern. Many Indians were fishing and their lights on the rapids in a dark night were darting about appearing and disappearing like so many fire flies. Fish were caught here in abundance; the settlement was part of the land designated in 1824 as a Half-Breed Tract by the United States Government for allotting land to mixed-race descendants of the Sauk and Fox tribes. Children of European or British men and Native women, they were excluded from tribal communal lands because their fathers were not tribal members.
Native Americans considered the settlement a neutral ground. Rules for the tract prohibited individual sale of the land, but the US Congress ended this provision in 1837, creating a land rush and instability. Centering on the riverboat trade, the settlement continued to grow; the village became known as Keokuk shortly after the Blackhawk War in 1832. Why residents named it after the Sauk chief is unknown. Keokuk was incorporated on December 13, 1847. Barnard States Merriam was elected mayor in 1852 and reelected in 1854. In 1853, Keokuk was one of the centers for outfitting Mormon pioneers for their journey west. Keokuk was the longtime home of Orion Clemens, brother of Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. Samuel's visits to his brother's home led him to write of the beauty of Keokuk and southeastern Iowa in Life on the Mississippi. At one time, because of its position at the foot of the lower rapids of the Mississippi, Keokuk was known as the Gate City. During the American Civil War, Keokuk became an embarking point for Union troops heading to fight in southern battles.
Injured soldiers were returned to Keokuk for treatment, so several hospitals were established. A national cemetery was designated for those. After the war was over, Keokuk continued its expansion. A medical college was founded, along with a major-league baseball team, the Keokuk Westerns, in 1875. In 1913, Lock and Dam No. 19 was completed nearby on the Mississippi River. The population of Keokuk reached 15,106 by 1930. During the last half of the 20th century, Keokuk became less engaged in Mississippi River trade and more dependent on jobs in local factories; the town celebrated 150 years in 1997. Keokuk has deep baseball history that started in 1875 when the Keokuk Westerns played in the National Association. On May 4, 1875, the Westerns and the Chicago White Stockings played the first professional baseball game in Iowa; the Keokuk Indians minor league team played in the Iowa State League, Central Association, Mississippi Valley League and Western League. After the Indians, Keokuk was home to the Keokuk Pirates, Keokuk Kernels, Keokuk Cardinals and the Keokuk Dodgers.
The team was an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cleveland Indians and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Notable players included baseball pioneer Bud Fowler, 1961 Home Run Record Holder Roger Maris and Player/Announcer Tim McCarver. Keokuk is in Iowa's southeast corner along the Mississippi River and just northeast of the Des Moines River. Hamilton, lies to the east across the Mississippi on U. S. Route 136. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.58 square miles, of which 9.13 square miles is land and 1.45 square miles is water. The lowest point in the state of Iowa is 480 feet, located at the confluence of the Des Moines River with the Mississippi, just southwest of Keokuk. Keokuk has a humid continental climate, it is known for having recorded the highest temperature in Iowa, 118 °F, on July 20, 1934. As of the census of 2010, there are 10,780 people, 4,482 households, 2,818 families r
Guillaume Delisle spelled Guillaume de l'Isle, was a French cartographer known for his popular and accurate maps of Europe and the newly explored Americas. Deslile was the son of Claude Delisle, his mother died after his father married again, to Charlotte Millet de la Croyère. Delisle and his second wife had as many as 12 children. Although the senior Delisle had studied law, he taught history and geography, he served as a tutor to lords. Among them was the duke Philippe d’Orléans, who became regent for the crown of France, collaborated with Nicolas Sanson, a well-known cartographer. Guillaume and two of his half-brothers, Joseph Nicolas and Louis, ended up pursuing similar careers in science. While his father has to be given credit for educating Guillaume, the boy showed early signs of being an exceptional talent, he soon contributed to the family workshop by drawing maps for his father's historical works. Some have questioned the authorship of these first maps, saying that Delisle only copied what his father had done before him.
In order to perfect his skills, Guillaume Delisle became the student of the astronomer Jean-Dominique Cassini. Early on he produced high-quality maps, the first being his Carte de la Nouvelle-France et des Pays Voisins in 1696. At 27, Delisle was admitted into the French Académie Royale des Sciences, an institution financed by the French state. After that date, he signed his maps with the title of "Géographe de l’Académie". Five years he moved to the Quai de l’Horloge in Paris, a true publishing hub where his business prospered. Delisle's progress culminated in 1718, he was appointed to teach geography to the Dauphin, King Louis XIV’s son, a task for which he received a salary. Again, his father's reputation as a man of science helped the younger Delisle. Historian Mary Sponberg Pedley says, "once authority was established, a geographer's name might retain enough value to support two or three generations of mapmakers". In Delisle's case, it could be said. Up to that point, he had drawn maps not only of European countries, such as Italy, Germany, Great Britain and regions such as the Duchy of Burgundy, but he had contributed to the empire's claims to explored continents of Africa and the Americas.
Like many cartographers of his day, Delisle did not travel with the explorers. He drew maps in his office, relying on a variety of data; the quality of his maps depended on a solid network to provide him first-hand information. Given his family's and his own reputation, Delisle had access to recent accounts of travellers who were returning from the New World, which gave him an advantage over his competitors. Being a member of the Académie, he kept current with recent discoveries in astronomy and measurement; when he could not confirm the accuracy of a source, he would indicate it on his maps. For instance, his Carte de la Louisiane shows a river that the baron of Lahontan claimed he discovered; as no one else could validate it, Delisle noted a warning to the viewer. Delisle's search for exactitude and intellectual honesty entangled him in a legal dispute in 1700 with Jean-Baptiste Nolin, a fellow cartographer. Noticing Nolin had used details that were considered original from his Map of the World, Delisle took Nolin to court to prove his plagiarism.
In the end, Delisle convinced the jury of scientists that Nolin knew only the old methods of cartography and must have stolen the information from Delisle's own manuscript. Nolin's maps were confiscated and he was forced to pay the court costs of the case; the high scientific quality of the work produced by the Delisle family contrasted with the workshop of Sanson. While Sanson knowingly published outdated facts and mistakes, Delisle worked to present up-to-date knowledge. After Guillaume Delisle's death in 1726, his widow tried to preserve the workshop and protect the family, she appealed to the king with the help of the abbot Bignon, the king's librarian and president of the academies. By that time, Guillaume's brothers Joseph-Nicolas and Louis had left France to serve Peter the Great in Russia; the youngest Delisle, Simon Claude, lacked practical knowledge in cartography. The Delisle workshop was bequeathed to Philippe Buache. Dutch cartographer Jan Barend Elwe reissued maps by Delisle in the late 18th century.
Historian David Buisseret has traced the roots of the flourishing of cartography in the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe. He noted five distinct reasons: 1) admiration of antiquity the rediscovery of Ptolemy, considered to be the first geographer; the reign of Louis XIV is considered to represent the beginning of cartography as a science in France. The evolution of cartography during the transition between the 17th and 18th centuries involved advancements on a technical level, as well as those on a representative level. According to Marco Petrella, the map developed "from a tool used to affirm the administrative borders of the reign and its features…into a tool, necessary to intervene in territory and thus establish control of it." Because unification of the
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual