Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, launched in October 2010 on iOS. A version for Android devices was released a year and half in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited website interface in November 2012, apps for Windows 10 Mobile and Windows 10 in April 2016 and October 2016 respectively; the app allows users to upload photos and videos to the service, which can be edited with various filters, organized with tags and location information. An account's posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tags and locations, view trending content. Users can "like" photos, follow other users to add their content to a feed; the service was distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square aspect ratio, but these restrictions were eased in 2015. The service added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, as well as "Stories"—similar to its main competitor Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each.
After its launch in 2010, Instagram gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, 800 million as of September 2017. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for US$1 billion in cash and stock; as of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded to the service. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, illegal or improper content uploaded by users; as of 14 January 2019, the most liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with a sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture has over 50 million likes. Instagram began development in San Francisco, when Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger chose to focus their multi-featured HTML5 check-in project, Burbn, on mobile photography; as Krieger reasoned, Burbn became too similar to Foursquare, both realized that it had gone too far.
Burbn was pivoted to become more focused on photo-sharing. The word Instagram is a portmanteau of instant telegram. On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a $500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn. Josh Riedel joined the company in October as Community Manager, Shayne Sweeney joined in November as an engineer, Jessica Zollman joined as a Community Evangelist in August 2011. Kevin Systrom posted the first photo to Instagram on July 16, 2010; the photo shows Systrom's girlfriend's foot. On October 6, 2010, the Instagram iOS app was released through the App Store. In February 2011, it was reported that Instagram had raised $7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca, Adam D'Angelo; the deal valued Instagram at around $20 million. On April 3, 2012, Instagram was released for Android phones, it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day. In March 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Instagram was raising a new round of financing that would value the company at $500 million, details that were confirmed the following month, when Instagram raised $50 million from venture capitalists with a $500 million valuation.
The same month, Facebook bought Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock, with a plan to keep the company independently managed. Britain's Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012, on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U. S. closed its investigation. On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook was closed; the deal, made just prior to Facebook's scheduled IPO, cost about a quarter of Facebook's cash-on-hand, according to figures documented at the end of 2011. The deal was for a company characterized as having "lots of buzz but no business model", the price was contrasted with the $35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005. Mark Zuckerberg noted that Facebook was "committed to building and growing Instagram independently", in contrast to its past practices. According to Wired, the deal netted Systrom $400 million based on his ownership stake in the business; the exact purchase price was 23 million shares of stock. In November 2012, Instagram launched website profiles, allowing anyone to see users' feeds from their web browsers.
However, the website interface was limited in functionality, with notable omissions including the lack of a search bar, a news feed, the ability to upload photos. In February 2013, the website was updated to offer a news feed, in June 2015, the website was redesigned to offer bigger photos. On October 22, 2013, during the Nokia World event held in Abu Dhabi, Systrom confirmed the upcoming release of the official Instagram app for Windows Phone, after pressure from Nokia and the public to develop an app for the platform; the app was released as a beta version on November 21, 2013, was lacking the ability to record and upload video, though an Instagram spokesperson stated that "We're not finished, our team will continue developing the Windows Phone app to keep releasing features and bringing you the best Instagram possible". In April 2016, Instagram upgraded the app to Windows 10 Mobile, adding support for video and direct messages, followed by updates in October 2016 that
Los Angeles County Fire Department
The Los Angeles County Fire Department provides firefighting and emergency medical services for the unincorporated parts of Los Angeles County, California, as well as 59 cities, including the city of La Habra, located in Orange County and is the first city outside of Los Angeles County to contract with LACoFD. As of 2013 the department is responsible for just over 4 million residents spread out in over 1.2 million housing units across an area of 2,305 square miles. The department has an annual budget of $1.15 Billion. According to Firehouse magazine, the LACoFD is the 6th busiest department in the US, behind New York City Fire Department, Chicago Fire Department, Houston Fire Department, Los Angeles City Fire Department, Dallas Fire Department; the Department responded to 389,313 calls for service in 2015. The LACoFD has featured several times in popular culture, including the 1970s NBC TV series Emergency! The Los Angeles County Fire Department began in 1920, was known as the Los Angeles County Forestry Department and Los Angeles County Fire Protection Districts.
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors enlisted Stuart J. Flintham to lead the new department, directed him to establish a program for fire prevention and firefighting in the county, he succeeded in opening 30 Fire Protection Districts, which served, continue to serve and the unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Cities could choose to join the Fire Protection District by allocating property tax for this service. Cities formed as contract cities in the post-World War II period retained membership in the Fire Protection District. Following the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, property taxes were capped at 1% and the Fire Department charged cities fees for services when annexation occurred. Properties within the district that are not covered under a fee for service arrangement pay a special fire tax as a result of Proposition E, passed in 1997. County vehicles assigned to the Los Angeles County Fire Department continue to list as registered owner the "Consolidated Fire Protection District of Los Angeles County" on California Department of Motor Vehicles paperwork.
The Los Angeles County Fire Department Emergency Operations are commanded by Chief Deputy David R. Richardson; the 4 Bureaus that the Chief Deputy oversees contain the bulk of the firefighting personnel and apparatus that the Fire Department provides, as well as the Technical Services Division. The 3 Operations Bureaus consist of the neighborhood fire stations and camps that are geographically based, while the fourth bureau has specialized teams that respond throughout the county; the 3 Operations Bureaus of LACoFD serve 59 cities and all unincorporated communities with 22 Battalions and 9 Divisions. Each Division is commanded by an assistant chief; the LACoFD has 10 fire camps with handcrews which are used for both fire prevention and wildland firefighting. In 2013, to help combat jail crowding as well as increase time served by serious criminal offenders, Los Angeles County sent more than 500 inmates to firefighting camps in mountain and foothill areas. Inmates assigned to the camps are nonviolent offenders who have completed physical and security screenings.
They are trained by county firefighters to help fight fires and assist with clearing brush and debris. The camps are run in conjunction with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation and the Los Angeles County Probation Department; the Los Angeles County Fire Department utilizes a wide array of firefighting apparatus, including Engines, Trucks, Light Forces and Water Tenders. Support apparatus include Rescue Squads, Hazardous Materials Squads, Urban Search & Rescue Squads. LACoFD apparatus are painted reddish-orange as opposed to LAFD apparatus red. While many modern fire departments have opted to go with trucks/quints that have rear-mounted ladders, the LACoFD has chosen to stay with tiller trucks because of their enhanced maneuverability in tight areas; the benefit of a quint is that it has a built in pump and water tank and can thus operate without an engine. The LA County Fire Department has 10 helicopters available for aerial firefighting. With the exception of Copter 10, used for command purposes, all copters are outfitted with water drop tanks for aerial firefighting.
The headquarters for the Air Operations Section is located at Barton Heliport, next to Whiteman Airport in Pacoima. Five Sikorsky S-70A/S-70i Firehawks Copter 15, Copter 16, Copter 19, Copter 21, Copter 22 are fitted with 1,000 US gallons tanks. One Bell 412 Copter 12 is fitted with a 360 US gallons tank. Two Bell 412EP Copter 11 and Copter 14 are outfitted with 360 US gallons tanks. Two Bell 412HP Copter 17 and Copter 18 are outfitted with 360 US gallons tanks; as of March 2019 The LACoFD is dispatched from the P. Michael Freeman Command And Control Facility at the county fire operations center in East Los Angeles; the Los Angeles County Fire Department has been featured in multiple different television series. Rescue 8 – The syndicated series of the late 1950s focused on Rescue Squad 8 and starred Jim Davis and Lang Jeffries. Emergency! – The NBC series of the 1970s dramatized a department paramedic rescue squad, popularly credited for encouraging the widespread adaptation of the medical service.
The exterior fire station scenes for the fictional station 51 in the series were shot at county fire station 127. It is now called the Robert A. Cinader Memorial Fire Station in honor of the television producer who made the station famous. In addition, the fire station in Universal City, where Universal Pictures is located, who
Hilda Lucia Solis is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors for the 1st district. Solis served as the 25th United States Secretary of Labor from 2009 to 2013, as part of the administration of President Barack Obama, she is a member of the Democratic Party and served in the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2009, representing the 31st and 32nd congressional districts of California that include East Los Angeles and the San Gabriel Valley. Solis was raised in California, by immigrant parents from Nicaragua and Mexico, she earned degrees from the California State Polytechnic University and the University of Southern California and worked for two federal agencies in Washington, D. C. Returning to her native state, she was elected to the Rio Hondo Community College Board of Trustees in 1985, the California State Assembly in 1992, the California State Senate in 1994, she was the first Hispanic woman to serve in the State Senate, was reelected there in 1998.
Solis sought to pass environmental justice legislation. She was the first female recipient of the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award in 2000. Solis defeated a long-time Democratic incumbent as part of getting elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 2000, where she focused on labor causes and environmental work, she was reelected to four subsequent terms. In December 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced his intention to nominate Solis as the next U. S. Secretary of Labor, she took office after being confirmed by the United States Senate in February 2009, becoming the first Latina to serve in the U. S. Cabinet. There she focused on workplace safety issues and on strengthening compliance with wage and hour laws. In January 2013, Solis stepped down from her post as Labor Secretary. Returning to the area of her upbringing, in April 2014, Solis formally announced a campaign for a seat on the non-partisan Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Solis won the seat outright in a June 3 election and was sworn in on December 1.
As Supervisor, Solis lobbied the state to allocate funds for the Exide battery plant cleanup. One of her areas of responsibility was Downtown Los Angeles, where her main priority was dealing with gentrification and the lack of affordable housing, she was unopposed for re-election as Supervisor, which took place on June 5, 2018. Solis was born in Los Angeles, California, as the daughter of immigrant parents who had met in citizenship class and married in 1953: Juana Sequeira and Raúl Solís, her father was a Teamsters shop steward in Mexico and, after coming to the United States, worked at the Quemetco battery recycling plant in the City of Industry in the San Gabriel Valley. There he again organized for the Teamsters, to gain better health care benefits for workers, but contracted lead poisoning, her mother worked for over 20 years on the assembly line of Mattel once her children were all of school age, belonged to the United Rubber Workers, was outspoken about working conditions. She was a devout Roman Catholic.
Hilda Solis is the third oldest of seven siblings and grew up in a tract home in La Puente, California. She had to help raise her youngest siblings, said of her childhood: "It wasn't what you would call the all-American life for a young girl growing up. We had to mature quickly." She graduated from La Puente High School, where she saw a lack of support for those wishing to continue their education, including a guidance counselor who told her mother that "Your daughter is not college material. Maybe she should follow the career of her older sister and become a secretary." However, another counselor did encourage her to attend college, went to her house to help her fill out an application. She took her younger sisters to the library to get them to follow her lead, she was the first of her family to go to college, being accepted into the Educational Opportunity Program at California State Polytechnic University and paying for it with the help of government grants and part-time jobs. She graduated in 1979 with a Bachelor of Arts in political science.
She earned a Master of Public Administration degree at the University of Southern California in 1981. Solis served near the end of the Carter administration in the White House Office of Hispanic Affairs, where she was editor-in-chief of a newsletter during a 1980–1981 Washington semester internship as part of her master's program. At the start of the Reagan administration in 1981, she became a management analyst at the civil rights division of the Office of Management and Budget, but her dislike for Ronald Reagan's policies motivated her to leave that year. In Washington, she met Sam H. Sayyad, he owns an automobile repair center in California. The couple lives in a modest house in El Monte, not far from where she grew up. Returning to California, Solis became Director of the California Student Opportunity and Access Program in 1982, to help disadvantaged youth gain necessary preparation for college. In particular, she worked with the Whittier Union High School District. Friends urged her to try for elective office, so in 1985, she ran for the Board of Trustees of the Rio Hondo Community College District.
She campaigned hard and overtook an incumbent and one other better established candidate to become the top placer. She was reelected in 1989. During her time on the board, she worked towards improved vocational job training at the college and sought to increase the number of tenured faculty positions held by mino
Hollywood Regency, sometimes called Regency Moderne, is a design style that describes both interior design and landscape architecture characterized by the bold use of color and contrast with metallic and glass accents meant to signify both opulence and comfort. It is named for the movie-making industry of southern California as typified by the glamorous homes and estates of the actors and actresses of Hollywood's "Golden Era" from the 1920s through the 1950s, typified by the work of designers such as Dorothy Draper and Billy Haines; the term "Hollywood Regency" appears to have originated with Draper in the 1920s. It remains a lively area of design work both inside and outside of southern California. Hollywood Regency is glitz and glamour covered in lacquer and mirrored finishes; every detail is meant to convey luxury and there is always the feeling that people should look good in the design— if they are wearing satin bathrobes and sipping a cocktail. It is a style meant to feel frivolously overdone and pleasantly, extravagantly unbalanced, yet sleek and modern, not unlike the Rococo style and in contrast to the strict, repetitive ornament of styles such as Baroque.
Blocks of contrasting color pink, turquoise and black-and-white checkerboard are favored, sometimes in orderly but asymmetric repetition or in different textures of soft furnishings in the same high-ceilinged, large-windowed room. Whole mirrors cover the surfaces of furniture such as dressers and side tables, are used to cover entire walls and sometimes ceilings. Animal prints as well as complex floral designs in both black-and-white and shades of single colors are used as rugs and seat cushions. Imitation bamboo stalks are used as trim in shower doors, table legs, other household furniture; the divan, with its plush sides and asymmetric shape, is a staple furniture item. Oversized black-and-white wall prints of famous actresses are common; the criss-cross and zig-zag are universal. Sunburst mirrors are ubiquitous. Personalities known for defining this style include those such as George Vernon Russell, Douglas Honnold, John Woolf, Paul R. Williams. Dame, Kerry Ann. "What is Hollywood Regency Design?".
PoshSurfside.com. Poshsurfside.com. Retrieved 24 July 2017. Photos from Lonny.com
A hashtag is a type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging which makes it possible for others to find messages with a specific theme or content. Users create and use hashtags by placing the number sign or pound sign # in front of a word or unspaced phrase in a message; the hashtag may contain letters and underscores. Searching for that hashtag will yield each message, tagged with it. A hashtag archive is collected into a single stream under the same hashtag. For example, on the photo-sharing service Instagram, the hashtag #bluesky allows users to find all the posts that have been tagged using that hashtag; the use of hashtags was first proposed by Chris Messina in a 2007 tweet that, although decried by Twitter as a "thing for nerds" led to their use becoming widespread throughout the platform. Messina, who made no attempt to copyright the use because he felt "they were born of the internet, owned by no one", has subsequently been credited as the godfather of the hashtag.
By the end of the decade hashtags could be seen in most emerging as well as established social media platforms including Instagram, Facebook and YouTube — so much so that Instagram had to place a "30 hashtags" limit on its posts to prevent people from abusing their use, a limit which Instagrammers circumvented by posting hashtags in the comments section of their posts. As of 2018 more than 85% of the top 50 websites by traffic on the Internet use hashtags and their use is common with millennials, Gen Z, politicians and celebrities worldwide; because of its widespread use, hashtag was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014. The term hashtag is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the hash symbol itself when used in the context of a hashtag. Formal taxonomies can be developed from the folk taxonomy rendered machine-readable by the markup that hashtags provide; the US pound sign, number sign or hash symbol "#" is used in information technology to highlight a special meaning. In 1970, for example, the number sign was used to denote immediate address mode in the assembly language of the PDP-11 when placed next to a symbol or a number.
In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie used # in the C programming language for special keywords that had to be processed first by the C preprocessor. In the 1986 SGML standard, ISO 8879:1986, # is a reserved name indicator which precedes keyword syntactic literals, --e.g. the primitive content token #PCDATA, used for parsed character data. The International Telecommunication Union approved in November 1988 recommendation E.161 that put the pound sign on the right side of the 0 in the 4 x 3 button arrangement for push buttons on telephones. This same arrangement is still used today in most software phones; the ITU recommendation had 2 design options for the pound sign: a European version where the hash sign was built with a 90-degree angle and a North-American version with an 80-degree angle. The North-American version seems to have prevailed as most pound signs in Europe now follow the 80-degree inclination; the pound sign was adopted for use within internet relay chat networks circa 1988 to label groups and topics.
Channels or topics that are available across an entire IRC network are prefixed with a hash symbol #. The use of the pound sign in IRC inspired Chris Messina to propose a similar system to be used on Twitter to tag topics of interest on the microblogging network, he posted the first hashtag on Twitter: How do you feel about using # for groups. As in #barcamp? Messina’s suggestion to use the hashtag was not adopted by Twitter, but the practice took off after hashtags were used in tweets relating to the 2007 San Diego forest fires in Southern California. According to Messina, he suggested use of the hashtag to make it easy for "lay" users to search for content and find specific relevant updates. Therefore, the hashtag "was created organically by Twitter users as a way to categorize messages." Today they are for anyone, either with or without technical knowledge, to impose enough annotation to be useful without needing a more formal system or adhering to many technical details. Internationally, the hashtag became a practice of writing style for Twitter posts during the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests.
The first published use of the term "hash tag" was in a blog post by Stowe Boyd, "Hash Tags = Twitter Groupings," on August 26, 2007, according to lexicographer Ben Zimmer, chair of the American Dialect Society's New Words Committee. Beginning July 2, 2009, Twitter began to hyperlink all hashtags in tweets to Twitter search results for the hashtagged word. In 2010, Twitter introduced "Trending Topics" on the Twitter front page, displaying hashtags that are becoming popular. Twitter has an algorithm to tackle attempts to spam the trending list and ensure that hashtags trend naturally. Although the hashtag started out most popularly on Twitter as the main social media platform for this use, the use has extended to other social media sites including Instagram, Flickr and Google+. A hashtag must begin with a hash character followed by other characters
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Deer are the hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk, the fallow deer, the chital. Female reindeer, male deer of all species except the Chinese water deer and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family within the same order of even-toed ungulates; the musk deer of Asia and chevrotains of tropical African and Asian forests are separate families within the ruminant clade. They are no more related to deer than are other even-toed ungulates. Deer appear in art from Paleolithic cave paintings onwards, they have played a role in mythology and literature throughout history, as well as in heraldry, their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a popular activity since at least the Middle Ages and remains a resource for many families today.
Deer live in a variety of biomes. While associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna; the majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, savanna habitats around the world. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to thrive. Deer are distributed, with indigenous representatives in all continents except Antarctica and Australia, though Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer, confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. Small species of brocket deer and pudús of Central and South America, muntjacs of Asia occupy dense forests and are less seen in open spaces, with the possible exception of the Indian muntjac.
There are several species of deer that are specialized, live exclusively in mountains, swamps, "wet" savannas, or riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas. Huemul deer of South America's Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids; the highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species can be found. This region has several clusters of national parks including Mount Revelstoke National Park, Glacier National Park, Yoho National Park, Kootenay National Park on the British Columbia side, Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, Glacier National Park on the Alberta and Montana sides. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry subalpine/pine forests with alpine meadows higher up.
The foothills and river valleys between the mountain ranges provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands. The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at higher altitudes in the subalpine meadows and alpine tundra areas of some of the mountain ranges. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. Elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer; the White-tailed deer have expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing to conversion of land to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose; the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, pronghorn antelope. The Eurasian Continent boasts the most species of deer in the world, with most species being found in Asia.
Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in animal species. However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer; these species have long been associated with the continent of Europe, but inhabit Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, Northwestern Iran. "European" fallow deer lived over much of Europe during the Ice Ages, but afterwards became restricted to the Anatolian Peninsula, in present-day Turkey. Present-day fallow deer populations in Europe are a result of historic man-made introductions of this species, first to the Mediterranean regions of Europe eventually to the rest of Europe, they were park animals that escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild. Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan, extinct aurochs (fo