The Deseret alphabet is a phonemic English-language spelling reform developed between 1847 and 1854 by the board of regents of the University of Deseret under the leadership of Brigham Young, the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. George D. Watt is reported to have been the most involved in the development of the script, as well as being its first serious user. In public statements, Young claimed the alphabet was intended to replace the traditional Latin alphabet with an alternative, more phonetically accurate alphabet for the English language; this would offer immigrants an opportunity to learn to read and write English, he said, the orthography of, less phonetically consistent than those of many other languages. Similar experiments have not been uncommon, the most well-known of, the Shavian alphabet. Young prescribed the learning of Deseret to the school system, stating "It will be the means of introducing uniformity in our orthography, the years that are now required to learn to read and spell can be devoted to other studies."During the alphabet's heyday between 1854 and 1869, newspapers, street signs and correspondence used the new letters, but despite heavy and costly promotion by the early LDS Church, the alphabet never enjoyed prolonged widespread use and has been regarded by historians as a failure.
The Deseret alphabet was developed by a committee made up of the university's board of regents, members of which included church leaders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt and Heber C. Kimball. According to Brigham Young University professor Richard G. Moore, most scholars believe that Watt's contribution to the alphabet was the greatest. In addition, Jules Remy reported that William W. Phelps helped "work out the letters." Before they decided on the Deseret alphabet, the attention of the board of regents was focused on Pitman style alphabets, in April 1847 Brigham Young nearly purchased 200 pounds of lead type to print books using Pitman's orthography. The University of Deseret was incorporated on 28 February 1850. On 29 November 1853 the committee voted on using a modified version of the Pitman orthography, when Willard Richards, deathly ill and missed the debate before the vote, saw the proposed alphabet. Richards was quick to condemn it, saying to the committee "Those characters...seem like putting old wine into new bottles...
I am inclined to think...we shall...throw away all characters that bear much resemblance to the English characters, introduce an alphabet, original." These words persuaded Brigham Young and the rest of the committee, George D. Watt endeavored to create an original alphabet. Less than two months on 19 January 1854, the board of regents approved the first 38-letter Deseret alphabet. Upon the alphabet's acceptance, its first user was its principal architect, George D. Watt, who began writing the meeting minutes of the early Bishops in a cursive form of it in 1854. After its publication, church members began experimenting with it, by 1855 travel writers Jules Remy and Julius Brenchley published a chart of the new alphabet which differed from the 1854 version; some early Mormons, such as Thales Hastings Haskell, began writing their personal journals in the new alphabet. Remy further reported that during his time in Salt Lake City, he saw signs on the street and above shops using the new alphabet. After its approval by the board of regents, Brigham Young testified before the Utah territorial legislature that the new alphabet should "be and extensively taught in all the schools."
Some teaching in Utah schools did take place: John B. Milner taught the alphabet in Provo, American Fork, Pleasant Grove, while evening classes were taught in Salt Lake City and Farmington. After several months' practice writing with the new alphabet, Watt wrote to Brigham Young that he was unhappy with it, proposed a complete overhaul, never followed up on. Word of the new alphabet soon spread outside Utah, most press reports in non-Mormon papers were critical. Other writers, acquainted with other phonotypic and stenographic alphabets, ranged from neutral descriptions of the new alphabet to praise; until this point, all the printed material had been produced with large wooden type, not suitable for printing at small sizes. Because the alphabet was wholly unique, no font existed, so in 1857 the board of regents appointed Erastus Snow to procure metal type from St. Louis-based font foundry Ladew & Peer. However, in May 1857 the Utah War began, Snow left St. Louis to support the Mormon pioneers.
During the war, Ladew & Peer kept working on the type, the punches and matrices were delivered in the winter of 1858. The first use of the new type was to make a business card for George A. Smith, an early Mormon historian. In 1859, with the new type in hand, the Deseret News began printing with it, it would print one piece per issue in the new alphabet a quotation from The Book of Mormon or the New Testament. However, this only lasted for one year. Benn Pitman, the brother of Isaac Pitman, was interested in spelling reform, by 1864 had published his own orthography, which the board
Ahmet Kaya was a folk singer, born in Malatya, Turkey. He was of mixed Kurdish-Turkish origin and identified himself as a "Kurd of Turkey". Many of his albums broke sales records. Kaya, with over 20 albums, is by far one of the most influential and controversial artists of the 20th century in Turkey, vocal on social and political issues. An elegy "Ya beni sararsa memleket hasreti / What if I am homesick" tells the story of his agony, longing for the people and homeland he was torn away from. Many believe this led to his sudden death at a young age. Ahmet Kaya paid a huge price announcing his wish "to sing in the Kurdish language" when he was invited to stage to receive award at an award ceremony live on TV in 1999, he was declared a villain by authorities. Turkish Media portrayed Kaya as "Part of the Kurdistan Worker's Party and "with Abdullah Ocalan" as a result of his declaration of him being Kurdish. Ahmet Kaya was the fifth and last child born into a mixed family, to a Kurdish father who had moved from Adıyaman to Malatya and a Turkish mother.
Despite identifying himself as Kurdish in his last years, he did not speak Kurdish. He first encountered music at the age of six. Ahmet Kaya worked for a while as a taxicab driver in Istanbul before becoming a famous singer in the mid-1980s, his first album, Ağlama Bebeğim, was released in 1985. His popularity continued to rise into the 1990s when in 1994 he released the album Şarkılarım Dağlara which sold a record number of copies. All of his 1990 albums became chart-toppers. During his career, he recorded 20 albums and was known for his protest music and positions on social justice. Recurring themes in his songs are love towards one's mother and hope. On 10 February 1999 during the televised annual music awards ceremony, Show TV, at which he was to be named Musician of the Year, Kaya said that he wanted to produce music in his native language, as he was of Kurdish background, he announced that he had recorded a song in Kurdish and intended to produce a video to accompany it. Following this announcement, he faced massive opposition from Turkish people and celebrities in the event.
First, Serdar Ortaç started singing a song with modified lyrics to boost nationalist feelings people in the ceremony started singing 10th Year March. Kaya was attacked by celebrities. Kaya's wife describes the attack as "All of a sudden, all of those chic women and men, they all turned into monsters, grabbing forks and knives and throwing them at us, booing. Imagine the atmosphere changing in just five minutes a Kafkaesque transformation." The incident led to a prosecution case. In March 2000 he was sentenced in absentia to three years and nine months in prison on the charge of spreading separatist propaganda. However, the mass media allegation showing Kaya in front of the poster was proven to be forged, he died from a heart attack in Paris in 2000, at the age of 43, is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery. It is buried in item number 71. In June 2012 the Turkish Association of Magazine Journalists awarded Ahmet Kaya its Special Prize. In October 2013 Ahmet Kaya was given the Grand Presidential Prize in Culture and Arts in the music category on the day that would have been his 57th birthday.
Ferzende, Kaya. Başım Belada. TR: Gam. ISBN 975-6628-19-7. Archived from the original on 4 September 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2006. Official Biography of Ahmet Kaya in English CNN's report about his death Interview with Ahmet Kaya on YouTube Interview with Gülten Kaya, Ahmet Kaya's wife Kurdnetwork Official Page: Ahmet Kaya His biographical information by Kurdish Institute of Paris
The Building at 399 West Fullerton Parkway is a historic apartment building at 399 West Fullerton Parkway in the Lincoln Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. Built in 1926, the seventeen-story building was developed and marketed as luxury cooperative apartments for Chicago's affluent residents. Cooperative apartments, in which residents were part owners of the building and controlled its management and who could buy units, became popular with Chicago's upper class in the 1920s due in part to successful marketing by developers; the apartments at 399 West Fullerton offered an attractive location with lakeside views and modern amenities, including parking space and chauffeur service for the popular automobile. Architects McNally and Quinn designed the French Renaissance Revival building; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 22, 2007
Charles Vane was an English pirate who operated in the Bahamas during the end of the Golden Age of Piracy. Vane was born in the Kingdom of England around 1680. One of his first pirate ventures was under the leadership of Henry Jennings, during Jennings' attack on the salvage camp for the wrecked Spanish 1715 Treasure Fleet off the coast of Florida. By 1717, Vane was commanding his own vessels and was one of the leaders of the Republic of Pirates in Nassau. In 1718 Vane accepted a King's Pardon. Unlike some other notable pirate captains of the age like Benjamin Hornigold and Samuel Bellamy, Vane was known for his cruelty beating and killing sailors from ships he captured. In February 1719, Vane was caught in a storm in the Bay Islands and was marooned on an uncharted island. Upon being discovered by a passing British ship, he was arrested and brought to Port Royal where he was tried and hanged in March 1721. Little is known of Vane's early life, he lived in Port Royal before becoming a pirate, but he was most not born there.
Vane worked with Henry Jennings during Jennings' attack on the salvage camp for the wrecked Spanish 1715 Treasure Fleet. Vane first operated as an independent captain in the summer of 1717. By the winter of that year he was one of the leaders of the pirates operating out of Nassau; when word reached the pirates that King George I of Great Britain had extended an offer of pardon to all pirates who wished to surrender, Vane led the pirates who opposed taking the pardon, which included many with Jacobite leanings. On 23 February 1718, Captain Vincent Pearse arrived at Nassau in HMS Phoenix, in an attempt to get the pirates on the island to surrender. Vane was captured along with the Lark. Benjamin Hornigold, Thomas Nichols, others urged Pearse to release Vane as a show of good faith, which he did, but on 21 March and his men turned pirate again, capturing a Jamaican sloop. Vane sailed back to Nassau and harassed Pearse trading their sloop for the Lark. Vane left Nassau on 4 April. After leaving Nassau, Vane raided ships around the Bahamas.
He gained a reputation for cruelty. Around this time Vane's crew renamed the Lark. Vane cruised again in May and June, among other ships, a twenty-gun French ship that became Vane's new flagship. Vane was back at Nassau on 22 July 1718 when Woodes Rogers reached Nassau to take office as the new governor. Rogers' ships trapped Vane in the harbor; that night, Vane turned the French ship into a fireship, setting it on fire and sailing it towards Rogers' ships. The fireship failed to damage all of Rogers' fleet except one, but the ships were forced to pull away, unblocking the channel. Vane commandeered a small 24 gun sloop, the Katherine, escaped out the smaller entrance as Rogers' ships returned. Vane took ships off the Bahamas in July, working with Charles Yeats, the original captain of the Katherine. A brigantine that Vane captured became his new flagship. In August he took eight ships there. After seizing a slave ship, he put the slaves aboard Yeats' ship; the merchants of Charleston outfitted two sloops under the command of William Rhett.
Rhett failed to find Vane. In August Vane careened his ship near Abaco, where his accomplice Nicholas Woodall smuggled him supplies and ammunition. Hornigold had turned pirate-hunter along with his associate John Cockram and followed Vane, who escaped. Vane returned to Nassau in September to marry. In October Vane sailed to Ocracoke Inlet, met with Blackbeard attempting to convince Blackbeard to join forces with him. In October Vane raided Eleuthera, carrying away liquor and livestock. On 23 November, Vane spotted a large frigate, but when he hoisted the Jolly Roger the frigate replied by raising a French naval ensign and opening fire. Vane's brigantine and sloop were outgunned, he ordered a retreat. Vane's crew saw this as an act of cowardice, he was voted out of command in favor of Calico Jack Rackham. Vane and sixteen others who supported him, including his first mate Robert Deal, were put on the sloop. Vane sailed to the Bay Islands. In February 1719, Vane and Deal were separated; when English ships arrived to collect water near the island, Vane tried to join one of the crews under a false name.
He was recognized by an old acquaintance, arrested. Vane was taken to Spanish Town and held in prison for some time. On 22 March 1721, he was found guilty. Vane learned that Deal had been tried and hanged some time earlier. Vane was sentenced to death, on 29 March he was hanged at Gallows Point in Port Royal, his corpse was hung in chains at Gun Cay. W. Morgan Sheppard portrayed Vane in the 1999 family film Treasure of Pirate's Point. Vane a
The Copano Bay Fishing Pier is a pier in Aransas County, United States used for recreational fishing. The pier has two separate sections. One is 2,500 feet long on the south side of the bay and the other is 6,190 feet long on the north side, it was permanently closed in August 2017 following a collapse of one section and inspections which indicated severe deterioration of the over 80 year old structure. The pier was the causeway across Copano Bay for State Highway 35. In 1967, a new causeway opened and the old one was closed to vehicular traffic; the new causeway had a higher middle section than the old one, so the old middle section was removed to allow for passage of larger ships. This left the two piers; the State Department of Highways and Public Transportation transferred ownership of the pier to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the pier became a 5.9 acres state park. On November 1, 2005 TPWD transferred control of the pier to the Aransas County Navigation District No.1. In 2013, the popular pier, open twenty-four hours a day, is the subject of a segment of Bob Phillips' syndicated television anthology series, Texas Country Reporter
Vorwärts was a German-language socialist daily newspaper published from Czernowitz/Cernăuți, Bukovina. The newspaper was founded in 1899 with the name Volkspresse. During its initial phase, Volkspresse was published twice-monthly. Volkspresse was an organ of the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria and the trade union movement; the newspaper was representative of the Jewish labour movement of the town. In 1905 it was converted into a weekly newspaper. Publishers of the newspaper included Rudolf Gaidosch and Johann Dumpert; the newspaper was renamed Vorwärts in 1912. The newspaper carried the by-line'Organ of the International Social Democratic Provincial Organization of Bukovina', it continued publication until 1914, hereby there was an interruption for a few years. Publication was resumed in 1918. From June 29, 1918 until December 19, 1934 Vorwärts was published daily, it returned to weekly publication. Vorwärts played an important role in re-activating the workers movement in the town after the war.
Vorwärts focused on international issues, leaving little space for local German concerns. The Bundist Dr. Jakob Pistiner served as the editor of the newspaper. Other editors of the newspaper included Salo Hellenberg; as of the late 1920s, the offices of Vorwärts were located on Strada General Mirescu, 4. Vorwärts was closed down in 1937; the last issue was published on December 19, 1937. List of newspapers in Romania Austria-Hungary