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Desert climate

The desert climate, is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts are the most common type of climate on earth after polar climate. Although no part of Earth is known for certain to be rainless, in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, the average annual rainfall over a period of 17 years was only 5 millimetres; some locations in the Sahara Desert such as Kufra, Libya record only 0.86 mm of rainfall annually. The official weather station in Death Valley, United States reports 60 mm annually, but in a 40-month period between 1931 and 1934 a total of 16 mm of rainfall was measured. There are two variations of a desert climate: a hot desert climate, a cold desert climate. To delineate "hot desert climates" from "cold desert climates", there are three used isotherms: most a mean annual temperature of 18 °C, or sometimes a mean temperature of 0 or −3 °C in the coldest month, so that a location with a BW type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold arid".

Most desert and arid climates receive between 200 mm of rainfall annually. In the Köppen classification system, a climate will be classed as arid if its mean annual precipitation in millimeters is less than ten times its defined precipitation threshold, it will be classed as a desert if its mean annual precipitation is less than five times this threshold; the precipitation threshold is twice its mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius, plus a constant to represent the distribution of its rainfall throughout the year. This constant is 0 for regions that receive 70% or more of their rainfall during the six winter months, 28 for regions that receive such a share of rainfall during the six summer months, 14 for those in-between. Hot desert climates are found under the subtropical ridge in the lower middle latitudes between 20° and 33° north and south latitude. In these locations, stable descending air and high pressure aloft create hot, conditions with intense sunshine. Hot desert climates are hot and dry year-round.

They are found across vast areas of North Africa, the Middle East, northwestern parts of the Indian Subcontinent, interior Australia, smaller areas of the Southwestern United States, Chile. This makes hot deserts present in every continent except Antarctica. At the time of high sun, desiccating heat prevails. Hot-month average temperatures are between 29 and 35 °C, midday readings of 43–46 °C are common; the world absolute heat records, over 50 °C, are in the hot deserts, where the heat potential is the highest on the planet. This includes the record of 56.7 °C, considered the highest temperature recorded on Earth. Some desert locations experience high temperatures all year long during wintertime; these locations feature some of the highest annual average temperatures recorded on Earth, exceeding 30 °C. This last feature is seen in sections of Arabia. During colder periods of the year, night-time temperatures can drop to freezing or below due to the exceptional radiation loss under the clear skies.

However rarely do temperatures drop far below freezing. Hot desert climates can be found in the deserts of North Africa such as the wide Sahara Desert, the Libyan Desert or the Nubian Desert. Hot deserts are lands of extremes: most of them are among the hottest, the driest and the sunniest places on Earth because of nearly constant high pressure. Cold desert climates feature hot, dry summers, though summers are not as hot as hot desert climates. Unlike hot desert climates, cold desert climates tend to feature dry winters. Snow tends to be rare in regions with this climate; the Gobi Desert in Mongolia is a classic example for cold deserts. Though hot in the summer, it shares the cold winters of the rest of Central Asia. Cold desert climates are found at higher altitudes than hot desert climates and are drier than hot desert climates. Cold desert climates are located in temperate zones in the rain shadow of high mountains, which restrict precipitation from the westerly winds. An example of this is the Patagonian Desert in Argentina bounded by the Andes to its west.

In the case of Central Asia, mountains restrict precipitation from the monsoon. The Kyzyl Kum and Katpana Desert deserts of Central Asia and the drier portions of the Great Basin Desert of the wester

Ziad Hawat

Ziad Hawat is a Lebanese politician who served as the mayor of Byblos, Lebanon from 2010 to 2017. He is the youngest man. Ziad was born in Byblos, Lebanon, considered the oldest inhabited city in the world, full of heritage and culture, to parents Halim Hawat and May Abi Saab Mazraat Bani Saab, he grew up in the city he loved with his brother and sister Zeina. Together, they were raised on ethics and love for their country. Ziad graduated from College des Freres Maristes and went on to major in Business Administration at the Holy Spirit University of Kaslik. After his graduation in 1998, he went on to work with his father in the family business, Hawat Trading, a leading wood products importer and exporter in Lebanon and the Middle East, he learned business administration and relations throughout his work at the company. A few years into his work, he saw an opportunity to travel around in Iraq and Saudi Arabia where he could grow the family business and place it on the map, his distance from his country and his hometown further asserted his patriotism.

He started mapping out a plan for him to be more involved in the public sector. Ziad always knew the potential that he wanted to grow, helping the people of his town. Within his years abroad, Ziad achieved great successes which benefited him on both a personal level as well as a business one, he came back from his travels to a booming business. Ziad started carving out his plan to be more involved in helping the town grow and prosper. At the young age of 33, Ziad submitted his name to run for Mayor of Jbeil, he worked hard on his campaign where to tried to listen to people's needs and wants. He got down on the ground, talked to the people of his hometown, toured the town and had a long, strategic plan to grow and evolve his beautiful home, his run was looked down on by many and he heard plenty of chit chats about the impossibility of his win. He was running against people, in the municipality for decades, he was considered to be too young for the position. However, along with a group of young hopefuls like himself, he ran a tough campaign.

In May 2010, the elections came to an end and Ziad Hawat was elected as President of the Municipality of Jbail, gaining the highest number of votes in the history of Jbail's municipal elections. Ziad Hawat is a Lebanese politician. In 2010 he was sworn in as mayor of Byblos. In the year 2009, he married Ms. Carine Abou Khaled and is to this day a faithful family man with 3 children, Halim and Sophia; the new mayor took office with determination. Ziad was a leader by all means, he discovered a new world of national and international affairs and became the most loved mayor in the country. His approval rates sky rocketed year after year as his will and love of the country kept growing. In 2013, Ziad Hawat was awarded the “Golden Medal of Merit” from the United Nations World Tourism Organization for outstanding achievements, with a certificate of distinction for Jbail, Byblos as Best Arab Tourist City for the year 2013. Hawat has long been an aggressive advocate for the environment. Taking it a step further, In March 2014, Hawat launched a €40 million project financed by the republic of Italy, aims at establishing a sewage system that covers the cities of Jbail, Blat, Kfarmashoun and Hosryael.

A fighter for preserving the heritage of the city of Jbail, his outstanding perseverance acts in this sphere attracted the American Rockefeller Foundation which chose the city of Jbail-Byblos as the 5th official member of the 100 resilient cities program, amongst 400 cities from the six continents that will be granted support in putting in place plans to protect and safeguard its heritage and archaeological sites. In line with his presidency, Ziad remains chairman of Hawat Trading, chairman of Hawat Trading, Middle East, chairman of ABM, Lebanon and chairman of Zinaline Kitchen Factory, Lebanon. In parallel with all the above, Ziad is a member of AIMF and a member of the Lebanese Maronite Association. During his presidency, Ziad launched and oversaw the success of many projects, the most notable being: -- The new municipality building—Reconstruction of the old souk facades—Public Park with a surface area of 12,000 m2, awarded the biggest park award in Lebanon—Sports City—Best Touristic City of 2016—Christmas trees which got worldwide recognition In 2016, Ziad Hawat was reelected as President of the Municipality of Jbail for his 2nd term with no opponent to beat.

He resigned from his post in July 2017, in order to run for parliament in the 2018 Lebanese general election. And in May 2018, he gained a seat at the parliament, he is the nephew of senior Byblos politician Jean Hawat

Tomislav Karadžić

Tomislav "Tole" Karadžić is a Montenegrin Serb businessman and football administrator. From 2008 to 2016, he served in his second stint as the president of the Football Association of Serbia. From 2005 until 2006 Karadžić was the president of Serbian and Montenegrin Football Association. Prior to that he was the president of the regional FA, the job he performed for 18 years. On 25 September 2007, Karadžić became the president of Partizan Belgrade where he came following the decades-long reign of Nenad Bjeković, Žarko Zečević, Ivan Ćurković at the club. Karadžić kept a position at the Serbian FA where he was a deputy to the association's president Zvezdan Terzić. In March 2008, Terzić fled the country after getting indicted for embezzlement of player transfer funds and Karadžić took over his role as FA president. During summer 2008 new elections were held for the FSS presidency. Karadžić beat out Dragan Aca Bulić. During his time as a student in Belgrade, Karadžić was convicted in 1961 of aggravated assault and sentenced to year and a half in prison.

The victim is said to have lost an eye. However, under mysterious circumstances, Karadžić was released after only 6 months in the Spuž prison; the incident came back into public focus during August 2013 while Karadžić publicly clashed with the Red Star Belgrade club vice-president Nebojša Čović over ongoing Serbian SuperLiga administrative issues. For many years, Karadžić has been criticized by public due to various reasons and decisions, which had catastrophic consequences for the Serbian football. After numerous serious irregularities in player sales, serious suspicions of match-fixing, an impending boycott of the Serbian top club Red Star Belgrade combined with sharp criticism of over half of the clubs in Serbian SuperLiga, Karadžić announced his resignation in late 2013; when criticism became public, he was in Budva on holiday, so therefore he didn't comment it in details, but referred to his critics as criminals. His adversary Zvezdan Terzic — a football administrator who drew strong criticism by Serbian public for of similar reasons — called for the convening of a special meeting of the Federation Parliament and the immediate withdrawal.

However, Karadžić not resigned and since is more under criticism. Accusations against him for administrative abuse and clientelism have been continued. For a certain time, during the league matches, fans start a chant against him which says "Tole, lopove!", these are supporters of both teams playing the fans of the biggest Serbian clubs and eternal rivals and Grobari. These chants have been sung during the matches of the Serbian national team