click links in text for more info


Deshret, from Ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet, the fertile Nile river basin. When combined with the Hedjet of Upper Egypt, it forms the Pschent, in Ancient Egyptian called the sekhemti; the Red Crown in Egyptian language hieroglyphs was used as the vertical letter "n". The original "n" hieroglyph from the Predynastic Period, the Old Kingdom was the sign depicting ripples of water. In mythology, the earth deity Geb, original ruler of Egypt, invested Horus with the rule over Lower Egypt; the Egyptian pharaohs, who saw themselves as successors of Horus, wore the deshret to symbolize their authority over Lower Egypt. Other deities wore the deshret too, or were identified with it, such as the protective serpent goddess Wadjet and the creator-goddess of Sais, shown wearing the Red Crown; the Red Crown would be combined with the White Crown of Upper Egypt to form the Double Crown, symbolizing the rule over the whole country, "The Two Lands" as the Egyptians expressed it.

As concerns deshret, the Red Land which comprised the deserts and foreign lands surrounding Egypt, Seth was its lord. It was considered a region of chaos, without full of dangers. No red crown has been found. Several ancient representations indicate it was woven like a basket from plant fiber such as grass, flax, palm leaf, or reed; the Red Crown is mentioned in texts and depicted in reliefs and statues. An early example is the depiction of the victorious pharaoh wearing the deshret on the Narmer Palette. A label from the reign of Djer records a royal visit to the shrine of the Deshret which may have been located at Buto in the Nile delta; the fact that no crown has been found buried with any of the pharaohs in intact tombs, might suggest that it was passed from one regent to the next, much as in present-day monarchies. The ancient Egyptian Red Crown, the Deshret crown, is one of the oldest Egyptian hieroglyphs; as an iconographic element, it is used on the famous Narmer Palette of Pharaoh Narmer as the "Red Crown of the Delta", the Delta being Lower Egypt.

The first usage of the Red Crown was in iconography as the symbol for Lower Egypt with the Nile Delta. It came to be used in the Egyptian language – as an alphabetic uniliteral, vertical form for letter "n" as a phoneme or preposition, it became functional in running hieroglyphic texts, where either the horizontal or vertical form preposition satisfied space requirements. The Red Crown is used as a determinative, most notably in the word for deshret, it is used in other words or names of gods. One older use of the red crown hieroglyph is to make the word:'in'!, (formerly an--. Egyptian "in" is used at the beginning of a text and translates as: Behold!, or Lo!, is an emphatic. In the 198 BC Rosetta Stone, the'Red Crown' as hieroglyph has the usage of the vertical form of the preposition "n". In running text, word endings are not always at the end of hieroglyph blocks. Since the start of the next hieroglyphic block could be started with a horizontal "n" at the bottom of the previous block, it should be thought that the vertical "n" is chosen for a visual effect.

Visually it is a hieroglyph that takes up more'space'-. The Red Crown hieroglyph is used 35 times in the Rosetta Stone, it averages once per line usage in the 36 line Decree of Memphis -. Atef – Hedjet Crown with feathers identified with Osiris Gardiner's Sign List Gardiner's Sign List#S. Crowns, Staves, etc. Hedjet – White Crown of Upper Egypt Khepresh – Blue or War Crown called Royal Crown N-water ripple Pharaoh-seated, with flail & red crown Pschent – Double Crown of Lower & Upper Egypt Uraeus – Rearing Cobra Budge. An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, E. A. Wallace Budge, c 1978, Dover edition, 1978. Budge; the Rosetta Stone, E. A. Wallace Budge, c 1929, Dover edition, 1989

Rettet den Regenwald

Rainforest Rescue is a non-governmental environmental organization with head office in Germany which advocates the preservation of rainforests at global level. It is a politically independent organization that defends the inhabitants of the tropical rainforests and their living spaces; the work of the organization consists in launching petitions on its website and collecting donations for concrete projects in the affected tropical areas. The protest actions deal with ecologic and social problems caused by the trade of tropical timber, gold mining, the expansion of industrial-scale monocultures and land conflicts with indigenous populations; the organization does not receive any subsidies from the state or local governments and its activities are financed through donations. Today around 3.500 sustaining members are supporting the organization's work by annual donations, apart from thousands of sporadic donations every year. Rainforest Rescue was founded in 1986; as it was recognized by the Revenue of Hamburg as an organization of public interest, the donations can be deducted from income tax.

In November 2002 the journal “Öko-Test“ investigated its handling of donations and awarded Rainforest Rescue with the grade “very good“. Rettet den Regenwald was founded in 1986 by Reinhard Behrend, today the head of the organization; the international support is seen as an essential means to defend the local inhabitants of the rainforests who, being deprived of their power, are dependent on this help in order to survive. The organization seeks to break what it considers a circle of lumber dealers, land owners and mining companies and corrupt politicians who benefit, in the short term, from the destruction of rainforests, at the expense of nomads, indigenous groups, rubber tree tappers, riverbank populations and of peasants that are linked to the NGO. Rettet den Regenwald cooperates with German and international environmental and human rights organizations. Among them are: Rainforest Foundation, Rainforest Information Centre, Rainforest Action Network, Rainforest Relief, Environmental Defense, Acción Ecológica, DECOIN, Fundación del Río, Save Our Borneo, JATAM, WALHI, Aldaw and many more.

The main activities are: organization of protest actions against the destruction of tropical rainforests by lumber dealers and mining companies and development projects support of NGOs in Africa, Latin America and the Philippines publication of a quarterly journal called “Rainforest Report“ provide information for schools and the media Media related to Rettet den Regenwald at Wikimedia Commons

Ken Webb

Ken Webb is an English cyclist who at 42 claimed the world record for distance cycled in a year. He calculated that on 7 August 1972 he passed the 75,065 miles set by another Briton, Tommy Godwin, that he finished the year with 80,647 miles, he rode on to claim the record for 100,000 miles in 448 days. Both records appeared in the Guinness Book of Records but were removed. In 1911 the weekly magazine, Cycling began a competition for the greatest distance cycled in a single year; the first holder was Marcel Planes of France, with 34,666 miles. The distance was untouched for more than 20 years. Followed a succession of claims in the 1930s, including two by an Australian professional, Ossie Nicholson, one by a one-armed vegetarian named Walter Greaves and another by Charles de Gaulle's chauffeur, René Menzies. In 1939 the distance leapt from 65,127 miles by an Englishman, Bernard Bennett, to 75,065 miles established by Tommy Godwin. In 2016, under the supervision of the Ultra Marathon Cycling Association, Kurt Searvogel broke Tommy Godwin's record by riding 76,076 miles in one year.

On 14 May 2017 Amanda Coker broke Searvogel's UMCA and Guinness World record when she finished her year with 86,573.2 miles. Ken Webb, from Gossops Green, intended to attempt the record when he retired after a working life that included 12 years with the Fleet Air Arm. Unemployment as a project engineer at 42 advanced his plans, he set off from Fleet Street, London the heart of the British newspaper industry, at noon on 1 September 1971. Webb had little support from sponsors. By 10 November he took a job at Gatwick Airport, near his home, he spoke of working there, riding 220 miles a day after work and sleeping two or three hours a night. He averaged better than 223 miles a day, sent witnessed postcards to Cycling's office to log his progress and used a different odometer each month to support the distance shown on the cards. Webb rode one day with a reporter from Cycling. Bingham quoted Webb as saying: "People ask how it is that I account for a greater mileage between places than the road signs indicate.

I tell them that I don't always ride straight from one place to the other, that sometimes I make detours - as you've seen this morning, when we went a few miles out of our way looking for the right road to Maldon. And what they don't seem to realise either is that when I arrive anywhere I might not seek anyone to sign a card until I've refreshed myself in a café, sometimes 30 minutes after stopping." He finished the year record £134 in debt after cashing his life insurance policies, using his redundancy payments and using his pension fund. He completed his 100,000-mile ride outside Buckingham Palace after 448 days, he knew throughout his ride. He was followed at times by cyclists checking his riding and Cycling received calls asking what he had claimed, his distances appeared in the Guinness Book of Records but vanished from editions. Webb insisted that he had ridden the distance, that he sent thousands of check cards to Cycling, that his 13 odometers had been sealed by their maker and returned for checking.

He said he wrote to the editor of the Guinness Book of Records to ask why his name had been deleted but that he got no reply. He said

Heart (novel)

Heart is a children's novel by the Italian author Edmondo De Amicis, a novelist, short story writer, poet. The novel is his best known work to this day, having been inspired by his own children Furio and Ugo, schoolboys at the time, it is set during the Italian unification, includes several patriotic themes. It was issued by Treves on October 18, 1886, the first day of school in Italy, rose to immediate success. Through its investigation of social issues such as poverty, Heart shows the influence of left-wing ideologies on De Amicis' work; because of this, the book remained influential in countries of the Eastern Bloc. On the other hand, the book's strong evocation of Italian nationalism and patriotism made it welcome in Fascist Italy; the novel is written in a diary form as told by Enrico Bottini, an 11-year-old primary school student in Turin with an upper class background, surrounded by classmates of working class origin. The entire chronological setting corresponds to the third-grade season of 1881-82.

Enrico's older sister Silvia interact with him as written in his diary. As well as his teacher who assigns him with homework that deals with several different stories of children throughout the Italian states who should be seen as role models – these stories are given in the book as Enrico comes upon reading them; every story revolves around a different moral value, the most prominent of which are helping those in need, having great love and respect for family and friends, patriotism. These appear at the end of every school month. Enrico Bottini: Narrator and main character. Average student, keen to learn things and meet people in his classroom. Mr. Alberto Bottini: Enrico's father. Stern yet loving, he works as an engineer. Mrs. Bottini: Enrico's mother. Traditional homemaker, loving yet tough. Silvia Bottini: Enrico's older sister, she cares for him and his studies, once selflessly foregoing going out with girlfriends to take care of him while he was sick in bed. Enrico and Silvia's unnamed younger brother.

Does not have much input on Enrico's diary, since he cannot talk down to him like the other family members do. Antonio Rabucco: Known as "the little stonemason" because of his father's job, he is the youngest boy in the class. Ernesto Derossi: The class' perennial champion, he wins the top medal in the class every month, he is a natural learner. Despite his prowess, he is not haughty. Garrone: Friendly tough guy, he protects his weak classmates Nelli and Crossi, as the oldest boy in the class is the de facto enforcer. Pietro Precossi: Son of a blacksmith who beats him. At one point his father stops beating him and studies enthusiastically enough to earn the runner-up medal in the class. Carlo Nobis: Haughty because his parents are rich. However, his father forces him to apologize to Betti when Carlo insults Betti and his coal miner father. Stardi: Derossi's perennial medal challenger along with Votini, he likes reading books. Betti: Son of a coal miner. Votini: Top contender to the top medal, at one point others make light of his envy of Derossi.

Crossi: A red-head with a paralyzed arm. Victim of bullies. Nelli: Hunchbacked and bullied because of it. Garrone becomes his protector. Coraci: Dark-skinned boy from Calabria, in the south of Italy. Garoffi: Son of a pharmacist, he deals on toys and trading cards on the side whenever he can. Franti: Bad student, all-around jerk who bothers people, hates learning and his classmates and teacher, laughs at sad situations, he has been expelled from another school before and is expelled from the school after he lights a firecracker that causes a huge explosion. Mr. Perboni: The teacher. A kindly and affable man who gets angry, but, stern with his students when they do wrong, he is a lifelong bachelor. Ms. Delcati: Enrico's previous grade teacher, she now teaches his little brother; the novel was translated into Chinese in the early 20th century and became quite well known in East Asia. It was translated into Spanish with the title, Corazón: Diario de un niño meaning Heart: Diary of a Child; the book was popular in Latin countries, such as Mexico, among young boys and girls in the 1960s and 1970s.

The novel was extremely popular and influential in 1950s Israel, though at present it is considered rather old-fashioned and no longer well-known to the current generation of young Israelis. In 1887, a sequel, called Testa, was written by neurologist Paolo Mantegazza, Amicis' friend, which narrates the life of Enrico in his teens. In 1962, Umberto Eco published Elogio di Franti viewing Franti, the "bad boy" of the novel, as a figure of resistance against militarist and nationalist ideology. One of the two teenage characters in the film I Prefer the Sound of the Sea reads Cuore and has a job in a bookshop named Franti; the book has been used as one of the inspirations for academic achievement in Mexico, having used the name of the author for one of the world schools of the International Baccalaureate called Instituto D´Amicis, located in the city of Puebla. In 1948, it was made into a film, directed by Vittorio De Duilio Coletti. One of the stories, "From the Apennines to the Andes," became the basis of the 1976 anime series 3000 Leagues in

Operation Hood River

Operation Hood River was a joint U. S. South Korean and South Vietnamese operation conducted by in Quảng Ngãi Province, lasting from 2 to 13 August 1967. In late July the Army of the Republic of Vietnam II Corps received intelligence that the People's Army of Vietnam 1st Regiment was regrouping in Base Area 121, 20 km west of Quảng Ngãi and would soon be joined by the 21st Regiment in preparation for an attack on Quảng Ngai before the Presidential election on 3 September; the new Task Force Oregon commander, MGen Richard T. Knowles planned for the 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment and the 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment to be deployed by helicopter to the west of Base Area 121, the South Korean 2nd Marine Brigade would move in from the north and two ARVN Ranger Battalions would move in from the south backed up by an ARVN Airborne Battalion operating from the Minh Long Special Force Camp. A mechanized task force of the 196th Infantry Brigade would patrol Route 529. Surprise would be essential to the plan.

The operation commenced on 2 August with the forces reaching their initial objectives by nightfall. The Allied forces engaged small groups of PAVN but were unable to locate either of the PAVN Regiments which were supposed to be in the area. Meanwhile PAVN attacks increased in the areas vacated by the Allied forces. Operation Hood River concluded on 13 August, PAVN losses were 166 killed, Allied losses were 21 killed; the operation was a disappointment and it was speculated that the PAVN had been tipped off by spies within the ARVN staff or that the original intelligence was misinformation. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History

Intel 8061

The Intel 8061 microcontroller is most notable for its use in the Ford EEC-IV automotive engine control unit. A close relative of the 8096, the Intel 8061 is second-sourced by Motorola; the MCS-96 family originated as a commercial derivative of the Intel 8061, the first processor in the Ford EEC-IV engine controller family. Differences between the 8061 and the 8096 include the memory interface bus, the 8061's M-Bus being a'burst-mode' bus requiring a tracking program counter in the memory devices. There were considerable differences in the I/O peripherals of the two parts - the 8061 had 8 HSI inputs, 10 HSO outputs separated from the HSI pins, a non-sampling 10-bit ADC with more channels than the 8096 had. Many differences between the EEC-IV and the 8096 resulted from an effort to share pins to reduce I/O pin count in favor of using the pins for a more conventional memory interface bus; the 8061 and its derivatives were used in all Ford automobiles built from 1983 through the end of the 20th century.

This processor controlled fuel mixture and injection timing, spark advance, exhaust gas recirculation, other engine functions. The 8061 had an interruptible-burst-mode 11-wire 8-bit memory interface bus called the M-Bus; this bus required a data address register in each memory device. Each chip reset or branch instruction would update the program counter in the memory devices, after which instruction stream data would be read sequentially; the instruction stream could be interrupted to read or write data bytes and words using the memory's data address register while retaining the memory's program counter copy—allowing resumption of reading the instruction stream without having to re-send a program address after each data access. The 8061 had a 240-byte internal register file, from address 0010H to 00FFH. I/O addresses were from 0002H to 000FH. Throughout the 8061 family, address 0000H was reserved for a constant ZERO register; this permitted use of relative addressing to access absolute addresses.

The stack pointer was at 00010H. 8061 could address 64K of memory. Reset was to 2000H. Interrupt vectors were at 2010H; the 8061 was built in a 3-micrometre N-MOS silicon-gate process. Plastic 68-pin flatpacks, ceramic packages, 40-pin DIP packages were used, depending on the I/O pin-count requirements of a particular module design. Ford created the Ford Microelectronics facility in Colorado Springs in 1982 to propagate the EEC-IV family, develop other custom circuits for use in automobiles, to explore the Gallium Arsenide integrated circuit market. Parts in that family included the 8063; the family included the 8065, produced in high volumes, which incorporated a memory controller allowing it to address a 1-megabyte memory greater than the 64K of the 8061 and 8096. The 8063, 8065 and EPIC were CMOS derivatives capable of reduced power consumption; the 8065 had an enhanced instruction set, additional register space, a much-enhanced I/O. As a result, the 8065 had a register file from address addressable in 4 banks.

I/O addresses were from 0002H to 001FH. The stack pointer was at 00020H; the 8061 had an 8-channel event-capture system for timing pulsed inputs. A 16-bit timer value was captured in a FIFO along with the new state of all 8 pins whenever a transition was detected on an enabled pin; the FIFO was implemented in a small dynamic RAM. The HSI was used, for example, for recording times of crankshaft-position-sensor events, which were used for determining engine speed; the 8061 had a 10-channel pulse-generator output system for generating timed outputs. This had a small content-addressable memory that compared event times with the same 16-bit timer used for the HSI system; each event time was written to CAM along with a command. When a match of a CAM location with the timer was found, the event was executed and the CAM location returned to an empty pool; the CAM was simulated with a comparator. The HSO was used for a variety of purposes including fuel injection pulse timing; the 8061 and its derivatives had a multichannel analog-to-digital converter on the processor chip.

This was used for such purposes as sensing engine temperature and throttle angle, for reading the exhaust-gas oxygen sensor. The 8061 had an 8-channel vectored priority interrupt system; the 8065 provided 40 channels, of which 32 were tied into the HSI/HSO event system. Various members of the 8061 family had a custom serial port on-chip; this was intended as a port expander and not as a general-purpose UART The 8061 was used with a family of other devices, including the 8361 – a companion memory having ROM and some RAM. In modules, one-time-programmable EPROM memory was substituted for the original mask-programmed memory – this simplified logistics given the wide variety of ROM codes required in each model year. Technical Notes on The EEC-IV MCU Technical Notes On The EEC-IV MCU updated